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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

Utt'un 14
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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad, 16006, Alger, Algťrie
Tabrat n Yimedyazen
 
Taghmist n Tiddukla - Utt'un 14
 
(ddur't n 29  Ghuct gher 5 Ctember' 2003)
 
Zik neqqar win yebghan tamazight, ad yissin tira-s
Ass-a neqqar win yebghan tamazight, ad tt-yaru
 
Tigejdit :
 
Azul fell-awen ay atmaten d teysetmatin
 
I yettxemmimen ghef umeghbun ala kan d ameghbun am netta, wanag a‚ebbud' yer'wan ur yettnadi ghef win yelluz'en. Seg wasmi ay d-yebda zzman, akka ay tlehh'u ddunit, ula d tamazight, werdjin yelha-d yid-s win izemren, wanag d wid ur nezmir ay ixedmen fell-as yernu mazal xeddmen akken zemren. Awal yenna-t-id yiwen n umussnaw d ameqqran di tutlayt-nnegh, Salem Chaker, ay d-yesbegnen ach'al d abrid d akken imeqqranen-nnegh ur llin d nitni ay d ssebba di tudert n tutlayt-nnegh, akken d-llan yimeqqranen n yegduden nnid'en i tutlayin-nsen, wanag seg zzman aqdim, d iz'awaliyen-nni n wedrar yeddan h'afi ay yeddjan tutlayt-agi ad tidir alammi ara d agh-d-teqqim ar ass-a, yernu d nitni ay ineqcen isem-is ghef wez'ru akken ad d-yeqqim later'-is di tmurt-a. Ula asmi ay wwd'en Yimazighen n zik s‚an ddewla meqqren, igelliden-nsen s tutlayt taberr'anit ay d'ebb‚en idrimen-nsen, yernu d tin ay sselmaden i warraw-nsen, ughaf ad asen-te‚req tmusni. Tessawed'-agh tegnit, akken t-id-yenna Chaker, alammi ay nughal d wid yettcan times ghef lehmum merr'a n ddunit, ala kan wigad-nnegh, nekkat, nettawi-d i wiyad', ceghben-agh yigheblan n wiyad' kter' n wakken ay ten-ceghben nitni, nelha-d d wuguren-nsen alammi ay nettu wid-nnegh ... nagh yeqqar-as wanzi ghur-negh : imawlan s'ebren, im‚ezzan kefr'en. Yewwi-yagh wasif d asawen. Dda Lmulud d wid ay t-yezwaren akk d wid ay t-id-id'efren, yiwen deg-sen ur yes‚i amkan di ddewla wala amkan izaden di tmetti. D iz'awaliyen ay d-tr'ebba lmeh'na, ay d-ir'ebba wegdud, kkren-d s tutlayt n wegdud yernu d tin ay wwin deg wulawen-nsen, fkan ah'ric meqqren di tudert-nsen akken ad as-rren lxir. Ma d wigi umi nessemghar ass-a ismawen, ama d igelliden negh d imassanen, llan wata's deg-sen, tidet ad tt-id-nini, ur izad wacu xedmen, ur yelli d acu s-d-wwin i tutlayt-nnegh. Ma wwin cci‚a deg wayen nnid'en, neste‚r'ef yis-sen, ur nelli d ikeddaben wala d ih'essaden, ur nettbeddil amezruy : yal yiwen ayen yuklal ad t-yawi. D acu kan, akken ad asen-ncuff aqendur, ad d-nini nef‚en tamazight yili nitni kkan tudert-nsen merr'a qqnen allen-nsen fell-as, anect-a ur nettazmar ad t-nexdem, neghmulac nekcem di tkerkas akk d ubeddel n umezruy. Ass-a ilaq ad d-naki, ad nefk abeqqa i yiman-nnegh, u ad nz'er lumur' akken llant. Ma newwet-d deg wa negh deg wadi ghef tiddjin ay yeddja tamazight ur yelli d ankar' ay t-nenker' wala d ta‚dawt ay nebgha ad tt-id-nessker wagar-anegh. Taswi‚t maci i te‚dawt, aql-agh a d-nettwat si yal tama yernu tewwi-d ad neddukel, ur d agh-td'erru ara akken yeqqar wanzi : "Lqella n watmaten yerna i‚dawen". Wanag ma newwet-d deg yimeqqranen-nnegh, ama d wid n yid'elli negh d wid n wass-a, iswi-nnegh d asseqcer i lmend n h'ellu, maci d asseqcer i lmend n bett'u. Ur yettazmar ara wab‚ad' ad is'eggem ma ur yez'ri ara d acu-ten le‚yub-is, dgha tewwi-d ass-a ad d-nebder ayen yellan deg-negh d iri-t akken ad nz'er amek ara t-nbeddel, yernu tidet ilaq ad tt-neqbel akken yebghu yili-tt. Qqaren-as wid ay ifehmen : "Ttif tidet isseqrah'en wala lekdeb yessefr'ah'en". Ma d wid ur nefhim, siwel-asen-d tidet negh qqim, ssefhem s le‚qel negh s udebbuz, ala lefhama ur fehhmen ara. Yir asghar ndjer negh qqim, yir aghyul wwet negh qqim, yir l‚ebd nder' negh qqim. Anef ihi ad d-nessukkes, ad d-nessaki meqqar wid yettwalin tidet s udem, wid ay tt-iqebblen ula ghef yiman-nsen, ala d wid-nni ay izemren ad d-ughalen s abrid u ad d-rren wiyad' s abrid. Ass-a, ma nenna-d d akken tamazight d tagujilt, attan d tagujilt s tidet, xas akken imawlan-is llan. D acu kan, nettwali d akken win yellan d agujil imawlan-is llan yif-it win ay ten-yesr'uh'en, meqqar winna ihenna, yuyes, ma d win yeggujlen imawlan-is llan, rrbeh' yezmer ad yili, ma d netta ur t-yettawed'. Nagh qqaren-as "agujil r'ebban le‚mum, rrbeh' ur t-inum". Ihi ass-a aql-agh nettwali, tamazight tes‚a imawlan yes‚an imukan akk d ttawil, maca yiwen deg-sen ur d-icli‚, yiwen ur d-itecced' ad d-yefk kra i tmazight. Xas tutlayt-nnegh tettcur' d arraw-is, ted'ra-yas akken i s-yeqqar wanzi : ay urwegh d way urwegh, taswi‚t ad mmtegh d amengur ! Akka digh, at'as ay d-turew tmazight, taggara ur ten-tufi ara. D acu kan, nettwali d akken ass-a yewwed'-d wakud i deg ara d asen-nd'egger lmezga i "yimeqqranen-nnegh", i wat tezmert d tedrimt, i wat yimukan d ttawil, i wat cci‚a d yismawen, imi at'as aya ay ten-tettr'adju tmazight, nitni ur d as-d-gin acemma. Yewwed'-d wakud i deg ara d asen-nd'egger lmezga u ad neste‚r'ef s tidet, tamazight akken d-tebda zik-nni ara tkemmel ass-a : d iz'awaliyen kan ara tt-irefden. Iz'awaliyen n zik uran tamazight ghef wez'ru di lweqt i deg imassanen-nnegh n zik, am wid n wass-a, werdjin tt-urin ghef lkaghed', d acu kan, az'ru yerna lkaghed', d win ay d-iqqimen ar ass-a.

     IMEDYAZEN
 

 
TIBRATIN-NWEN
Karim Ousad, Paris, Fr'ansa :
                  
Azul fell-awen,
D tikkelt tamazwarut [i deg ara] arugh s tamazigh ! D ayen ssarmagh ay txedmem ! Ihi z'ret belli aql-iyi, aql-agh d izumal yid-wen. Tanemmirt ghef wayen txeddmem. Ayen akken i yes lligh ttargugh kenwi txedmem-t deg wennar. D imagraden ghef uxemmem ghef temsal ime‚nen akk d yimagraden n tghamsa i ghef d-tettawim awal, i ghef ay d-tewwi ad d-nawi awal, yernu anect-a akk yura s TMAZIGHT ! Dgha aql-i ddigh yid-wen akken ilaq : ulac d acu umi yenfe‚ wawal az'idan akk d weste‚r'ef s tmazight di tsuda (institutions) ma yella ur nxeddem acemma akken ad tt-nesnerni negh, meqqar, akken ad neh'rez tigemmi (patrimoine) n lejdud-nnegh. Imeddukal-iw d wid ay d i-ittilin umi nnigh acimi ur sselmaden ara tamazight i warraw-nsen, ach'al d abrid ay d iyi-d-nnan awalen yecban wigi : "maci d tamazight ara d agh-yawin s aggur", negh "maci d tamazight ara d agh-yeccettcen aghrum" negh bitt "maci d tamazight ara d agh-yawin gher Ldjennet !" (...)



Tiririt : azul fell-ak a gma ‚zizen. Tabrat-ik tessefr'eh'-anegh maci d kra yernu nefr'eh' imi ay yebda wawal-nnegh a yett‚eddi, yewwed' atmaten-nnegh di Tmazgha am wakken ay ten-yewwed ula gher lgherba. Nessaram d akken aghmis-nnegh d win ara yessiwd'en ad d-yejme‚ akk Imazighen yettarun tamazight u ad yesdukel ighallen-nsen akken ad nbeddel yir tagnit-agi i deg tettidir tmazight ncalleh. Ass-a, ilaq ad nz'er d akken llant at'as n tekta (idťes) i yes ttamnen akk medden yili nitenti d tikta ur ns'ehh'a ara. Awal nenna-t-id ach'al d abrid a gma, u tennid'-t-id kettcini di tebrat-yinek : awal az'idan akk d yiberrih'en (slogans) akken ad tekcem tmazight di tmend'awt (constitution) ur nfi‚en, ur neff‚en sya ar sdat ma mazal-anegh nettaddja tamazight, ula deg yexxamen-nnegh ur tt-nesseqdac ara. Atan nefka-d ach'al d amedya (exemple) deg weghmis-nnegh : tirlandit yellan d tutlayt tamens'abt n Irland yernu ker'hen-tt yelmez'yen n tmurt-is, takirgizit yellan d tutlayt tamenzut di Kirgizistan yernu d tutlayt n umennekcam arusi n yid'elli ay s-yekksen cci‚a ... Ula d nekni, neqqen allen-nnegh ghef yexxamen-nnegh, a nessutur tighawsiwin wer‚ad ur tent-nefhim ula d lefhama akken ilaq lh'al : axxam-is ur d as-yezmir, ldjame‚ yett'ef-as amezzir. Ma d wigi yettwalin d akken maci d tamazight ara ten-yessalin s aggur, ilaq ad z'ren d akken ayen ara d-rebh'en ala kan d ankar' n las'el, wanag tamsalt n walluy gher waggur maci di tutlayt ay tella, attan deg wayen nnid'en. Wigi yettwalin d akken ma mmeslayen taglizit, ad ughalen d imassanen, gheld'en, acku win ixuss'en lefhama, ma yehwa-yas ad igher ayen i s-yehwan, anda ay s-yehwa, ur d-iteffegh deg-s wacemma, wanag win ih'er'cen, xas ma yekker-d s tutlayt ur nettaru ara, yezmer ad yughal d ameqqran deg yimassanen, maci d tutlayt-nni i yes d-yekker ara d as-yekksen anect-a. Imtellegh (idiot) yettili ula di tmura i deg ghran akk medden, ma d uh'r'ic yezmer ad d-yekker ula di tmurt i deg yiwen ur yeghri. At'as deg-negh nekni tiyemmatin-nnegh d yibabaten-nnegh ur ghrin, ur ssinen d acu ay d agherbaz, ssekren-agh-d s tutlayt-nnegh, r'ebban-agh-d s nnif n R'ebbi akk d tnes'lit, yernu aql-agh neffegh-d d imassanen, d aggagen, d imejjayen, d iselmaden, d ijenyur'en, d ineghmasen, d inemhalen d wayen nnid'en. Maci d taqbaylit ay d agh-ih'err'men si rrbeh' negh tekkes-agh imukan di tmetti. Ass-a, at'as n yemdanen ay izedghen di tmura-yagi "yewwd'en s aggur", a ttnadin ad slemden i yigerdan-nsen tutlayin-nsen tines'liyin. It'erkiyen di Lalman sselmaden i warraw-nsen tat'erkit deg yigherbazen almaniyen, igherbazen n ta‚r'abt llan di tmura akk n Tur'uft, Uwadayen n ddunit merr'a sselmaden i warraw-nsen ta‚ebrit xas ulamma tutlayt-a ala kan di Israel ay tt-ttmeslayen ... ghef wakken nettwali ala kan d Imazighen-nnegh ay ih'eqren tutlayt-nsen. D acu kan, nessaram d akken wigi ad d-yawed' wass i deg ara d-akin u ad akin i twaghit i gher teddun. Neghmulac d arraw-nsen ara ih'ulfun i nndama asmi ara imghuren, akken d-ttcetkin ass-a wat'as n warraw n yiminigen ara yessed'lamen imawlan-nsen imi ur d asen-slemden ara tamazight, d acu kan, at'as deg-sen ad ten-id-yaf lh'al ass-nni ifat-iten welmad n tmazight, imi ass-n yezmer lh'al ad ilin nitni s timmad-nsen s‚an arraw-nsen yernu ur ttazmaren ad asen-slemden tutlayt n lejdud ma yella nitni yiwen ur d asen-tt-isselmed. Tagnit attan a tteddu gher wegrireb, yernu yewwed'-d wakud ad neh'bes anect-a. (...).
Tanemmirt. Sghur Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen.


 
 
Tasertit* n tutlayin di Ist'unya : d leqdic iteddun gher sdat
 
*politique
 
Sghur n Mart Rannut
Tasdawit n usselmed n Talinn
 
[Aqeddem : amagrad ay d awen-d-newwi ass-a d win ay d-yettmeslayen ghef tutlayt tist'unit, d tutlayt taghelnawt n tmurt n Ist'unya. Tamurt-a ay d-yuzgan di Tur'uft n Ugafa (Europe du Nord), teqreb gher Rusya yernu tella d yiwet si tegdudyin tiqburin n Tdukli Tasuvyatit (Union soviťtique), am Litwanya akk d Kirgizistan i ghef ay d-newwi awal yagi. Is'tunya d yiwet si tmura tibaltiyin, meh'sub d tamurt ay d-yuzgan ghef yilel Abalti (mer baltique), yernu am nettat, am Litwanya akk d Litt'unya, tekcem-itent Tdukli Tasivyatit di 1940, u terra-tent tamara d ah'ric si tmurt-agi tameqqrant, alammi d 1991, asmi ay tewwi Ist'unya azarug-is (indťpendance). Di tallit-nni n lbat'el ghezzifen ay tes‚edda Ist'unya, tughal tist'unit, tutlayt n yimawlan n tmurt, d tutlayt ur nes‚i azal sdat n tutlayt tarusit ay d-th'ettem fell-asen Musku. Yugh lh'al, Irusiyen, xas ulamma "ttqadaren" igduden yellan ttidiren di Tdukli Tasuvyatit, llan ttwalin iman-nsen d nitni ay ten-yifen merr'a, d idles-nsen ay yernan win n tdersiyin nnid'en (minoritťs) yernu d tutlayt-nsen ay ilaqen ad tt-lemden akk yegduden isuvyatiyen nnid'en. S wanect-a, Irusiyen yettidiren di Ist'unya werdjin walan iman-nsen terra-ten tmara ad lemden tutlayt tist'unit, wanag ttwalin d akken d imawlan n tmurt ay d-tewwi ad lemden tutlayt-nsen. Yughal bab n yiger d akli. D acu kan, ddunit ttetti, tettemtetti, idewwer'-d zzman i deg d as-d-yughal uzarug-is i Ist'unya, yernu yughal-as-d wemkan-is i tutlayt tist'unit. Ass-a, mi akka ay d-teffegh Ist'unya seg ujeghlal-nni i deg tella zik-nni, tezzi udem-is gher Tur'uft tutrimt (tagherbit) akken ad tesnerni tadamsa-yines, dgha anect-a yeddja-tt ad tesnerni ula d tutlayt-is, tutlayt tist'unit i yes tteddu tmurt, akken ad tqabel Ist'unya tallit n wass-a. D anect-a ay ibeddlen zzman ghef Yirusiyen yettidiren di Ist'unya. Assemgher ay ssemgharen iman-nsen ghef tist'unit tura yexsi, tarusit-nni-nsen ay llan ttwalin-tt tif tist'unit tughal ur teswi ara di tegduda-yagi tamaynut, dgha tewwi-d fell-asen ass-a, ma bghan ad ttekkin ula d nitni di tmurt-a, ur ten-yettara ara zzman di rrif, tewwi-d fell-asen ad lemden tist'unit, d tin kan ara d asen-yessifessen tudert di tmurt-a n yimawlan-is. D acu kan, akken digh ad tettwaqbel Ist'unya di terba‚t-agi n tmura n Tur'uft wukud tebgha ad tettekki, tewwi-d fell-as ula d nettat ad tqader izerfan n wemdan d yizerfan n tutlayin ay ttmeslayen di tmurt-is, dgha amagrad-agi ad agh-yeddj ad nz'er amek ay tqeddec Ist'unya akken ad as-d-terr azal-is i tutlayt taghelnawt n tmurt, d wamek ara tqeddec digh akken ad te‚del ger n tutlayin nnid'en merr'a ay ttmeslayen di tmurt-a. Afud igerrzen]
Tagnit :
 
Argaz ed tmett'ut seg Ist'unya
Ger n yiseggasen n 1940 d 1991, d Tadukli Tasuvyatit ay yett'fen Ist'unya, ala kan ger n yiseggasen 1941 d 1944, asmi ay d-kecmen Yinaziyen n Lalman gher tmurt-a. D acu kan, asmi ay tebda thezzel (affaiblir) Tdukli Tasuvyatit, yebda leh'kem yettbeddil afus di tmura ay teh'kem tneggarut-agi, yernu tisertiyin tisuvyatiyin n peristroika* akk d glasnost* snernant ifadden i yegduden isuvyatiyen akken ad ssutren ugar n tlelli. Dgha yessawed' wanect-a gher ghellu n Tdukli Tasuvyatit di 1991 yernu yughal-as-d uzarug-is (indťpedance) i Ist'unya i deg ay beddlent tzemmar ih'ekmen tamurt. 
 
[*Perestroika : D tasertit ay d-yessebded uselway asuvyati, Mixail Gorbatcev, akken ad yeg tisemmeskal (rťformes) i udabu asuvyati, i tdamsa n tmurt akken ad nnernint, yernu digh i lmend n ubeddel n wamek ttxemmimen Yisuvyatiyen akken ad zemren ad snernin tamurt-nsen.  
 
*Glasnost : d tasertit n tallit n perestroika ay d-yessebded digh Gorbatcev akken ad yerr yis-s kra n wayen xeddmen yemd'ebbren isuvyatiyen d afrawan (transparent), yezmer ad t-iz'er wegdud.].
 
Yugh lh'al, abeddel ameqqran am wa [ay d-yeghlin deg yiwet kan n teswi‚t], yella yew‚er' ghef Ist'unya ad tagh yid-s tanumi. Dgha abeddel-agi yemxallaf wamek ay ih'uza imezdaghen n Ist'unya akken mxallafent tmiwa (tamaneght n tmurt Talinn akk d Ugafa agmud'an -nord-est n tmurt) d wakken mxallafen digh yinurar n leqdic di tmurt (ghef umedya : tibankiwin -banques- ma nquren-itent gher leqdic deg yemghizen -mines), yernu yemxallaf digh wamek ay ih'uza ubeddel-agi igduden yemxallafen yettidiren di Ist'unta, am Yist'uniyen akk d Yirusiyen. Di ‚ecr'a n yiseggasen-agi ineggura, tisnaddanin (statistiques) n yimezdaghen n Ist'unya beddlent at'as u yennerna citt' wanect ay yellan n Yist'uniyen di tmurt-nsen [ugar n wanect ay nnernan yegduden nnid'en yettidiren di Ist'unya]. D acu kan, addun (recensement) n useggas n 2000 yesskan-d d akken igduden merr'a n Ist'unya neqsen ghef wakken llan zik-nni. Dgha mbe‚d tella Ist'unya tes‚a 1.565.000 n yimezdaghen, tughal deg useggas n 2000 tes‚a kan 1.361.000 n yimezdaghen, yernu wid ur nelli ara d Ist'uniyen di tmurt-a neqsen-d gher 459.000 n yemdanen (32,1 % seg yimezdaghen n tmurt). Ma d Irusiyen n Ist'unya neqsen s 25 %. Tugh, ayen akk yessawd'en s anect-a, netta d addukel n ssebbat yemxallafen, gar-asent tuffgha n wat'as n yimezdaghen gher lberr'ani, anqas ay neqsen wid ay d-yettlalen akk d unnerni d wanqas n yegduden yemxallafen yettidiren di tmurt-a. 
 
D acu kan, ayen igan amgerrad-agi (lxilaf) ger yegduden yettidiren di tmurt-a d tutlayt tayemmat, maci d ayen nnid'en, imi tutlayt d nettat ay yettaken azal i wemdan di Ist'inya n wass-a. Dgha d tutlayt ay d-yellan d abrid i seg ay d-tewwi ghef wemdan ad i‚eddi akken ad yawed' gher rrbeh' u ad yes‚u azal di tmetti, yernu d tin ay yettaldin tiwwura i wemdan akken ad yili d win ara yafen iman-is ama seg yidis n uxeddim, ama seg yidis n tedrimt. Di tallit tasuvyatit, yeqdec udabu akken ad yerr tarusit d nettat kan ay d tutlayt i yes tlehh'u tmurt, dgha ass-a, mi akka ay tewwi Ist'unya azarug-is, anect-a yexleq-d uguren i wid yessnen kan tutlayt tarusit. Nnig waya, yed'fer digh udabu arusi yiwet n tsertit n usselmed ay yesseqdec kan di Ist'unya, d tin n usseqdec n trusit akk d tist'unit d tutlayin n usselmed, d acu kan, yal yiwet deg-sen qqaren-tt kan deg yigherbazen-is, dgha d anect-nni digh ay yessawd'en ad d-yexleq snat n trebba‚ yeghran, d acu kan, ur zmirent ara ad msefhament wagar-asent imi ur ttmeslayent yiwet n tutlayt, ur s‚int yiwen n yedles. Dgha d anect-nni ay yessawd'en ad tughal tmetti tist'unit akken tella ass-a am wakken ay d-llant digh wat'as n ssebbat nnid'en ay yesmeghren amgerrad ger n snat-agi n trebba‚ :
 
Timiwa i deg tettidir yal tarba‚t : Wid yettmeslayen tarusit, tudet deg-sen d arraw n wid ay d-yunagen gher Ist'unya si tmiwa nnid'en n Tdukli Tasuvyatit yernu amur meqqren deg-sen di temdinin ay ttidiren negh di tmiwa n Ugafa agmud'an (nord-est) n Ist'unya. At'as seg-sen ay yettidiren di Tallinn [tamaneght n tmurt] akk d tmiwa ay d-yezzin fell-as (Harjumaa), u llant tirebba‚ nnid'en timect'ah' seg wid yettmeslayen tarusit, ttidiren di tmiwa nnid'en, d acu kan, 90% seg-sen di temdinin ay zedghen yernu anect-a yennerna seg wasmi ay ffghen yiserdasen Isuvyatiyen (sakin Irusiyen) si Ist'unya.
 
Inurar n leqdic i deg txeddem yal tarba‚t : di tallit n perestroika, Irusiyen n Ist'unya llan qeddcen di tkebbaniyin yettaghen, znuzuyent, llan ssekcamen-d u ssuffughen ssel‚a si Ist'unya, am wakken ay llan qeddcen di tkebbaniyin tisuvyatiyin tiqburin ay yughalen ur a d-ssekcament ara at'as imir-n. Nnig waya, llan Yirusiyen-agi digh mazal-iten tteklen ghef le‚naya n unabad' (gouvernement) n Musku, xas ulamma aneggaru-ya ur d-iqqim wara wayen ay yella yezmer ad asen-t-yeg akken ad ten-i‚iwen asmi tebda tettbeddil tegnit yernu tella tteddu Tdukli Tasuvyatit akken ad teghli. Anect-a yessehzel (affaiblir) mlih' tanezzawt-nsen (commerce) akk d Rusya, yernu ayen akken d-xeddmen teghli yis-s ula di Ist'unya, ur yezmir ad yenz am zik di tmurt-a i gher d-tekcem tdamsa tamaynut, d anect-nni ay tessawd'en Irusiyen n Ist'unya ad ughalen di rrif seg yidis n tdamsa u ad ttwa‚ezlen di tmurt-a. Nnig waya, yiwet si ssebbat meqqren ay yessawd'en digh Irusiyen ad ghlin di Ist'unya nettat d lqella n tmusni n tutlayt tist'unit ghur-sen, dgha d anect-nni ay sen-ireglen abrid akken ad znuzuyen u ad ttaghen akk d Yist'uniyen, am wakken digh lqella n tmusni-nsen di tutlayin tiberr'aniyin tkemmel-asen, imi anect-a yerra-ten ur zmiren ad sseftin (investir) idrimen di lberr'ani, ur tezmir ad ten-id-ts'ah' tallalt taberr'anit. Dgha yughal win yebghan ad t-id-is'ah' leqdic, tewwi-d fell-as ad yissin mlih' tutlayin nnid'en menghir tarusit.
 
Tasertit n tutlayin :
Tasertit n tutlayin ay d-tewwi Ist'unya di ‚ecr'a n yiseggasen-agi ineggura nezmer ad tt-nebd'u ghef tlata n talliyin, ghef leh'sab n wemxallef ay mxallafen yeswiyen (buts) imeqqranen n Ist'unya di yal tallit. Tallit tamenzut tebda-d di tgara n yiseggasen n 1980 akk d tezwara n yiseggasen n 1990, asmi ay d-xelqent tsertiyin n glasnost akk d perestroika tagnit i deg ara d as-d-yughal uzarug-is i Ist'unya di 1991. Tallit tis snat tebda-d asmi ay yefren wegdud ist'uni tamend'awt (constition) tamaynut n tmurt-is di 1992, dgha ayen ay d-yeddan di tmend'awt-a (lebni n tmurt, ah'raz n yizerfan n wemdan, atg.) d ayen ay d-icerd'en ghef Ist'unya ad d-tessebded tasertit n tutlayin d tamaynut yernu telha. Yugh lh'al, simmal yettadjhad uzarug (souverainentť) n Ist'unya, simmal tqeddec deg yinurar n tugdut, n tdamsa, n tedrimt akk d laman akken ad tekcem gher terba‚t n tmura tutrimin (tigherbiyin) u ad taf iman-is gar-asent. Di tgara n yiseggasen n 1990, d anect-a dgha ay yughalen d iswi ameqqran n Ist'unya ay yeddjan timsal nnid'en n tmetti ur nes‚i ara azal meqqren, yernu abeddel-agi meqqren di tghawsiwin n tmurt d ayen ara d agh-yeddjen ad d-nini d akken yeldi-yas tawwurt i yiwet n tallit d tamaynut di tsertit n tutlayin n Ist'unya, d tin ay d tallit tis tlata.
 
Tinwit (amendement) n tmend'awt ay yerran tutlayt tist'unit d tutlayt taghelnawt di Ist'unya d tin ay d-sbedden deg wass n 6 Dujember' 1988, di tallit i deg mazal Ist'unya d tigdida di Tdukli Tasuvyatit. Ma deg wass n 18 Yennayer 1989, tlata n yiseggasen uqbel ma tewwi azarug-is, yessebded-d usuvyat ameqqran n Ist'unya yiwen n usad'uf (lqanun) amaynut ghef tutlayin, d asad'uf ay d-yellan kan si le‚d'il, akken ad tes‚eddi yis-s Ist'unya tallit n ubeddel. Xas ulamma di tallit-nni n unnefsusi wid yebghan ad tawi tmurt-nsen azarug fur'sen tagnit rran tist'unit d nettat ay d tutlayt tamens'abt tawh'idt di Ist'unya, iswi n wanect-a di tidet netta d asnerni n wazal n tutlayt tist'unit akken ad tughal am nettat am trusit di tegduda-yagi yellan tettidir ussan-is ineggura di Tdukli Tasuvyatit. Dgha yecred'-d usad'uf-nni amaynut d akken kra n yiqeddacen iqeddcen di kra n yinurar tewwi-d fell-asen ad issinen mlih' ama d tist'unit, ama d tarusit, u ma yessen yiwen 800 kan n wawalen, anect-a yezmer ad t-iqam akken ad tt-isellek. Yugh lh'al, mi iga unabad' ist'uni aya, yella yessaram ad yefru ugur-nni i deg tarba‚t yeghran s tist'unit ur tezmir ara ad temsefham d tin yeghran s trusit yernu akken ad yessiwed' leqdic-agi s iswi-yines, yefka unabad' (gouvernement) ist'uni r'eb‚a n yiseggasen i yiman-is i deg yessefra ad yesselh'u tamurt am wakka, s snat n tutlayin alamma d 1 Fur'ar 1993, d acu kan, ikemmel iqeddec unabad' s usad'uf-agi alammi d 1995, asmi ay yefren asad'uf amaynut n tutlayin. 
Imi di tallit-agi tamenzut, ayen iceghben Ist'uniyen netta d az'ayer (staut) n tist'unit di tmurt-is sdat n tutlayt tarusit ay idjehden, timsal yeqqnen s asnerni n tutlayt tist'unit akk d usselmed-ines llan twalin-tent imir-n ur s‚int azal meqqren. Asadu'f n 1989 yessedjhed-as amkan-is i tist'unit ay yettusemman d tutlayt tamens'abt n ddewla, nnig waya, rnan Yist'uniyen gan-d isud'af imect'ah' nnid'en s idis n usad'uf-a ameqqran akken ad rnun ad h'erzen amkan n tutlayt-nsen u ad tt-rren d nettat ay d tutlayt yernan akk tutlayin nnid'en n Ist'unya, ladgha tarusit. Asad'uf n 1989 yeddja digh ad d-nnulfun ttawilat n teghwalt (communications) yesseqdacen tist'unit, akken ad yeddj Ist'uniyen ad ttemselghun
(communiquer) s tutlayt-nsen.
 
D acu kan, asad'uf-agi yefka-yas izerfan-is digh i yal aterras (individu) di tmurt, ladgha i wid ur nettmeslay ara tist'unit, dgha ughalen wigi ttalasen ur sseqdacen ara tist'unit akk d ddewla yernu zemren ad d-xedmen lekwaghed'-nsen s trusit. Amagrad wis 3 n usad'uf-agi yeqqar-d d akken (t)aterras(t) ur nettmeslay ara tist'unit yettalas/tettalas ad yesselh'u/tesselh'u lumur'-is s trusit di tsuda (institutions) n ddewla akk d unabad', akk d tsuda, tikebbaniyin d tuddsiwin (organisations) n Tegduda Tanemlayt Tasuvyatit n Ist'unya. Asad'uf-agi yeddja digh ula d asselmed s tutlayt tarusit ad ikemmel, dgha nezmer ad d-nini d akken asad'uf-a yeh'rez tarusit u yefka-yas tamkant i yiman-is di tmurt n Ist'unya, d acu kan, yesselha digh s wat'as amkan n tutlayt tist'unit. 
 
Yella-d digh di tallit-nni usad'uf i lmend n weh'raz n tdersiyin (minoritťs) nnid'en, dgha d anect-nni ara tent-yeddjen ad s‚unt igherbazen s tutlayinnsent. Asadu'f-agi yeddja digh ad d-ilin wahilen (programmes) n rr'adyu d tilibizyu s tutlayin n tdersiyin timect'ah' n Ist'unya u ad d-ilint ula d tisuda akk d trebba‚ tidelsanin ara iqedcen i lmend n weh'raz n yedles n yegduden-agi. Asadu'f-agi d win ay d-yewwin abaghur (lfayda) meqqren i yegduden nnid'en imect'ah' nnid'en n Ist'unya, menghir Irusiyen, imi igduden-a werdjin s‚in izerfan idelsanen di tallit tasuvyatit. Asad'uf-agi ihi yeddja tidersiyin timect'ah' (ad ‚iwdent) ad ldint igherbazen akk d tdusa-nsent, yernu i tikkelt tamenzut deg umezruy, yeste‚r'ef unabad' ist'uni s tdersiyin timect'ah' nnid'en akken ay yeste‚r'ef s Yirusiyen, dgha ye‚del ger n yegduden merr'a yettidiren di tmurt-is yernu yefka-yasen llsas ibedden ghef usad'uf (lqanun) akken ad snernin iman-nsen (ghef umedya ughalen merr'a ttalasen ad sseghren igerdan-nsen s tutlayin-nsen).
 
Ughalen ihi Yirusiyen ttalasen kan ad sqedcen tutlayt-nsen deg wayen h'wadjen, am nitni am yegduden nnid'en di Ist'unya, yernu anect-a yekkes seg wallaghen n medden tikta-nni n tesnakta (idťologie) ay yettwalin d akken d tarusit ay ilaqen ad tili d tutlayt i yes ara ttemsefhamen yegduden wagar-asen negh digh, takti-nni ay yettwalin d akken tidersiyin nnid'en tewwi-d ad ttmeslayent ddjent akk tutlayin-nsent akken ad ttmeslayent tarusit, d tikta i yes yella iqeddec zik unabad' asuvyati. D acu kan, xas tenqes tezmert n trusit di Ist'unya, mazal s‚an Yirusiyen di tmurt-a izerfan i yes ifen tidersiyin nnid'en di tmurt-a.
Yugh lh'al, lemmer ad nughal gher tidet, asad'uf n tutlayin n 1989 ur d-igli ara s ubeddel ameqqran di tegnit i deg llant tutlayin uqbel n yimir-n, wanag yeddja tagnit akken tella u yed'men-asen kan i yegduden n tmurt ad lemmden tutlayin-nsen deg ugherbaz, am wakken ara tes‚u tist'unit az'ayer ‚layen gher Yist'uniyen u ad tes‚u trusit az'ayer ‚layen gher Yirusiyen. Asadu'f n tutlayin n 1989 yefka-yas i tist'unit az'ayer n tutlayt taghelnawt, d tutlayt n ddewla akk d tedbelt (administration) yernu d tin i yes ara yettmeslay weh'ric meqqren di tmetti, xas ulamma nettat deg wennar, yerra-tt umezruy d tutlayt tameddarsut (minoritaires) di tmurt-is, imi di tilawt (en rťalitť). Dgha xas tughal tist'unit d tutlayt taghelnawt, maci d nettat ay d tutlayt ay izer‚en mlih' di tmurt, maci d nettat ay fehhmen akk medden : di lweqt i deg amur meqqren seg yimezdaghen n Ist'unya zemren ad tt-sellken s trusit, ala kan amur amect'uh' seg yimezdaghen n Ist'unya ur nelli ara d Ist'uniyen ay yessnen tist'unit akken ilaq.
 
Dgha assebded n usad'uf-agi yeldi-d tiwwura akken ad beddlent tzemmar n tmurt ifassen, u ad d-yeglu wanect-a s tlalit n tedghert (ťlite) tamaynut di Ist'unya. Nnig waya, imi ulac at'as n tghawsiwin ay ibeddlen ghef wid yettmeslayen tarusit di tmurt-a (imi tamusni n tist'unit tettwacred'-d kan seg weh'ric amect'uh' seg-sen), tkemmel lqella n wemsefham ger n Yist'uniyen akk d Yirusiyen, yernu anect-a yegla-d s wuguren nnid'en ay yeldin tiwwura i tmura tiberr'aniyin akken ad d-grent iman-nsent di tghawsiwin n tidaxliyin n Ist'unya. Imi ahilen (programmes) n unabad' n yimir-n ssulin kan leh'sabat-nsen gher lqerb di lweqt i deg ddjan timsal i ghef ilaq ad ssalin leh'sabat gher lbe‚d, am usselmed akk d unekcum n tmurt di trebba‚ tigraghlanin, th'ulfa Ist'unya d akken tewwi-d fell-as, di tegnit-agi n wuguren ay d-ilulen, ad teg ah'urif nnid'en yifen amenzu-nni akken ad tesselhu tagnit n tutlayin di Ist'unya.
 
Akken ad tessiwed' Ist'unya s iswiyen-yines deg wayen yerzan asad'uf-nni n tutlayin, tessebded-d ach'al n tsuda di tedbelt (administration). Akken ad d-yelhu unabad' d usselmed n tist'unit i Yirusiyen imeqqranen yettidiren di Ist'unya, yessebded-d, s yiwen n usad'uf deg wass n 13 Meghres 1989, yiwen n useqqamu d uslig (spťcial) umi isemma Ammas n Tutlayt Tist'unit. Ma deg wass n 31 Meghres 1989, terna tessebded-d Ist'unya Aseqqamu n Weh'raz n Tutlayt. Asmi ay d-yelfa d akken aseqqamu-ya ur d-yewwi ara abaghur (lfayda) deg wayen yerzan asnas (application) n usad'uf-nni n tutlayin, yessebded-d unabad' deg wass n 23 Nwember' 1990, Aseqqamu n Tutlayt Taghelnawt, i lmend n waya. Yughal Useqqamu-yagi d udus (organisme) ameqqran akk di tmurt ay d-yelhan d tghawsiwin n tutlayt di Ist'unya, dgha yelha-d s umata d temsal n usseqdec n tutlayt tist'unit di Ist'unya akk d usselmed-ines s yisem-is d tutlayt tayemmat negh d tutlayt tis snat i yimezdaghen n Ist'unya, am wakken digh ay yett‚awan Useqqamu n Tutlayt Taghelnawt tutlayin timeddursa nnid'en u yelha-d d wasnas n yisud'af ay tent-yerzan. Iswiyen imeqqranen n Useqqamu-yagi nitni d assebded n tsertiyin n tutlayt akk d yighawasen (plans) i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayt, u yekcem deg waya wed'far n wesnas n Usad'uf n Tutlayin, asselhu n tarrayin (mťthodes) n usselmed, ad'far leqdicat yeqqnen gher tmawalt (lťxique) d yismawen usligen (noms propres) akk d yed'far n leqdicat yeqqnen gher tesnilsit tamettit (sociolinguiste). D acu kan, di 1997, yughal Useqqamu-yagi d udus kan yettqara‚en ma yella iteddu mlih' leqdic ghef tutlayt negh ala.
 
Di Yulyu n 1993, yessebded-d uselway n Ist'unya Lennart Meri ayen umi isemma Tadabut Timdewwer't n Uselway (Table Ronde Prťsidentielle), d agraw ameghlal (permanent) i deg ay d-ttemlilin yigensasen (reprťsentants) n tdersiyin n tmurt d wid ur nes‚i ara taghlent (nationalitť) tist'unit akk d yimaslad'en n wemni (membres du parlement) n Ist'unya i lmend n wembaddel n ler'yuy akk d ussenqes n te‚dawt ger n trebba‚ tisertiyin yemxallafen n yegduden yettidiren di tmurt-a.
 
Tighawsiwin yelhan akk d tid n d iri i yes d-yegla usad'uf n tutlayin amezwaru d tid ay yughalen ttwad'farent s lqerb. Asmi ay walan Yist'uniyen d akken tallit n u‚eddi si tegnit gher tayed' deg wayen yerzan tutlayin tfuk, yernu assebded n tmend'awt tist'unit tamaynut di 1992 yecred'-d ad tbeddel tegnit n tutlayin di Ist'unya, ‚ezmen ihi Yist'uniyen ad d-sbedden asad'uf n tutlayin amaynut ara d-yemyezgen d tallit-agi ay d-ikecmen. I lmend n waya, ‚awden ssulin Yist'uniyen leh'sabat-nsen deg wayen yerzan amek ara ssemyezwaren iswiyen-nsen deg wayen yerzan tasertit-nsen n tutlayin, dgha imi iswi n Ist'unya n yimir-n netta d lebni n tmurt i uzekka, fernen yemd'ebbren ad as-fken i tmurt yiwet kan n tutlayt ara icerken akk imezdaghen-is, d tin i yes ara tebnu tmurt, dgha rran tist'unit d tutlayt tamenzut i wid yettmeslayen tist'unit yernu d tutlauyt tis snat i wid ur tt-nettmeslay ara. Imi ay tughal tist'unit d tutlayt n ddewla akk d tin n Yist'uniyen ay d-yekkren yis-s, tewwi-d ad sqe‚den tutlayt-a, ad as-gen ilugan yernu ad tt-rren d tutlayt tizeght (standard) akken ad tezmer ad tughal d tutlayt i yes ara tlehh'u ddewla. Nnig waya, tewwi-d digh ghef ddewla ad tqabel yiwet n tegnit is'e‚ben i deg ay tebgha ad tesnerni tutlayt tist'unit akken ad tt-terr d tutlayt ara fehhmen akk yimezdaghen n tmurt, ula d wid ur tt-nettmeslay ara (ladgha Irusiyen), dgha tewwi-d ad txemmem Ist'unya ghef wamek ara d asen-tesselmed tutlayt tist'unit i yineggura-ya, ladgha imi ay izemren ad h'ulfun d akken almad n tutlayt tist'unit s yisem-is d tutlayt-nsen tis snat, d ta‚kemt kan ara d asen-d-yernu.
 
Annar wis sin yes‚an azal meqqren i ghef d-tewwi ad xemmem i usebded n usad'uf amaynut n tutlayin netta d win n yeqqnen gher tsertit n usselmed n tutlayin tiberr'aniyin, ladgha deg wayen yerzan almad-nsent akk d usseqdec-nsent di kra n yinurar n leqdic (takkast -douane-, iqeddicen yeqqnen gher tmerrayt -tourisme-, atg.). Dgha ma mazal Ist'unya ur tez'wir ara deg yinurar-agi, ur tettazmar ara ad tekcem u ad taf iman-is di trebba‚ tigraghlanin n laman (am Temsisa Tat'lasit -OTAN) negh tirebba‚ tudmisin (ťconomiques) am Tdukli Tur'ufit (Union Europťenne), dgha ilaq ghef tmurt-a ad tez'wer akken ad d-tessewjed iman-is akken ilaq deg yinurar n tmerrayt akk d tnezzawt (commerce) tagraghlant.
 
Ma d annar wis tlata, d win yeqqnen s assebded n weh'kim (contrŰle, rťgulation) deg wayen yerzan assaghen (ralations) n tezmert yellan ger n tutlayin timeddursa akk d usselmed-nsent. Dgha llan sin n leqdicat ay ilaqen ad ttwaxedmen deg wennar-agi : tukksa n unagraw (systŤme) ay d-yettwawer'ten si tallit tasuvyatit, win i deg ala kan d tarusit ay yettusexdamen i lmend n usselh'u n tmurt yernu igduden nnid'en tewwi-d fell-asen ad ddjen akk tutlayin-nsen akken ad ddmen tarusit, ladgha imi anagraw-agi yughal ass-a d ssebba i unulfu n yemgerraden (conflits) ger n trebba‚ [ghef umedya, wid yessnen ala kan tarusit, atni ass-a ttwa‚ezlen, yernu be‚den ghef wakk inurar imaynuten n leqdic di Ist'unya], am wakken ay ilaq ad d-yexleq unabad' tagnit i deg tidersiyin timect'ah' nnid'en, meh'sub wid ur nelli d Is'tuniyen wala d Irusiyen, ad zemrent ula d nitenti ad h'erzent tutlayin akk d yidelsan-nsent. Dgha deg wayen yerzan anect-a, ach'al d abrid ay t‚awen ddewla tirebba‚-agi s yedrimen akken ad gen at'as n yiqeddicen idelsanen negh ghef tutlayin-nsen. D acu kan, tamsalt-nni tamenzut ay d-nebder, tin yerzan Irusiyen akk d leqdic n unabad' akken ad asen-yessigh tanumi d tegnit-agi tamaynut d ayen yeh'wadjen tazmert tasertit tameqqrant akk d tallalt (lem‚awna) taberr'anit.
 
Ihi ghef llsas n yeswiyen-agi akk ay d-yessebded unabad' ist'uni tasertit-is tamaynut n tutlayin i deg llan wugar n 70 n yisud'af, ama d wid ay d-yeddan di tmend'awt negh d isud'af akk d warraten (actes) nnid'en imect'ah' ay d-id'efren sakin. Yugh lh'al, llsas ameqqran n yisud'af n Ist'unya netta d tamend'awt (constitution) yernu taneggarut-agi tettwafren deg wass n 28 Yunyu 1992 u tebda tqeddec tmurt yis-s deg wass n 3 Yulyu 1992. Tamend'awt-a tesdukel ama d ansay (tradition) n yisud'af ist'uniyen n wasmi ay tewwi Ist'unya azarug-is (indťpendance) amenzu [ger n 1920 d 1940], ama d isud'af ay d-tewwi ad ten-id-ternu tmurt ghef idra n ubeddel n tegnit tagraghlant. Tamend'awt-agi teqqar-d d akken Ist'unya d Awanek-aghlan (Etat-nation) yernu d Awanek (ddewla) yedduklen seg yidis n tsertit (Amagrad 2), akka i wakken ur ttazmaren ara yegduden n tmurt-agi ad d-gen timiwa tifulmanin (autonomes) i yiman-nsen.
Dgha ayen tessefra ad t-teg Ist'unya i lmend n lebni n tmurt s tsertit-agi-yines tamaynut n tutlayin, meh'sub assebded n tutlayt ara icerken akk imezdaghen n tmurt akk d wethelli di tutlayin timeddursa nnid'en d ayen digh ay d-tebder ula d tamend'awt n tmurt, yernu nezmer ad ten-id-nessegzel am wakka :
 
-Tutlayt ara yeduklen imezdaghen n Ist'unya deg wakal akk n tmurt nettat d tutlayt tist'unit.
-Tidersiyin ttalasent ad issinent snat n tutlayin, tist'unit -tutlayt taghelnawt- akk d tutlayin-nsent timeddursa.
 
Yugh lh'al, nezmer ad d-nini d akken isud'af yerzan tutlayt zgan ttbeddilen di Ist'unya yernu d tighawsiwin tisertiyin n daxel n tmurt akk d lh'er's ara d-sseh'r'asent tmura tiberr'aniyin ay yeddjan abeddel-agi ad d-yili. Dgha, xas ma yella tamend'awt di 1992 ay tt-id-sbedden, maca asad'uf amaynut n tutlayin ur t-id-sbedden ara alammi d 1995. Tugh, isud'af n tutlayt akk d tiqqermi (citoyennetť) n 1995 ldint tiwwura i werkad n tmetti akk d lebni n tmurt idjehden, yernu isud'af-agi ur smenyafen ula d yiwen n wegdud ghef wayed' di Ist'unya wanag ttusqedcen kan d allal i lmend n wesdukel n yimezdaghen merr'a n tmurt. Qrib yal amdan yettidiren s wudem n usad'uf (lťgalement) di Ist'unya yettalas ad yessuter u ad t-id-ts'ah' teghlent (nationalitť) tist'unit, akken yebghu yili las'el-is yernu anect-a akk yesskan-d d akken abeddel n tmetti tist'unit d win ara tt-yettawin deg webrid n tugdut, n tullya akk d uqader n yizefan n wemdan.
 
D acu kan, tutlayt tist'unit n wass-a yeddja-tt zzman gher deffir deg wayen yerzan taknussna (technologie). Timacinin n tsuqilt (machines de traduction) akk d wahilen n we‚qal n wawal melmi kan ay d-yebda unadi fell-asen akken ad ten-id-xedmen, iseghz'anen (logiciels) s tist'unit mazal-iten qlilit yernu ayen ay d-yeffghen yagi deg wennar-a qlil kan anda ay yettuseqdac yernu ilaq ad d-nini d akken d anabad' ur d anabad' ay yessawd'en gher tegnit-agi umi ay werdjin yefka azal i temsalt-a. D acu kan, Aseqqamu n Tutlayt Tist'unit yessebded-d asenfar (projet) i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayt tist'unit deg useggas n 2001, u yekcem leqdic-agi di leqdicat n Useggas Ur'ufi n Tutlayin, dgha atan yekkat Useqqamu ass-a akken ad d-yessaki medden akk d trebba‚ ay terza temsalt ghef td'ullit (nťcťssitť) n tifin n tifrat i lexs'as' n ttawil atrar (moderne) s tutlayt tist'unit akk d wayen ilaqen ad yettwaxdem i lmend n wesnerni n tist'unit deg wennar-agi. 
 
Tasuqilt sghur Omar MOUFFOK d Abbas IFERHATEN
 
I tmerniwt n yisallen, rzut s isebtar-agi :
www.linguapax.org
Deg-s ara tafem isallen ghef Weswir (congrŤs) agraghlan ghef tutlayin timeddursa, seg-s ay d-yettwakkes wed'ris-agi.
http://www.mondeberbere.com/taddangiwin/index-am.htm
Utt'un wis 3 n Tebrat n Yimedyazen, ad tafem deg-s isallen ghef yiwet n tmurt nnid'en yellan s ddaw n leh'kem n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, Litwanya, akk d umezruy n tutlayt-is.
http://www.mondeberbere.com/taddangiwin/index-am.htm
Utt'un wis 8 n Tebrat n Yimedyazen, isallen ghef Kirgizistan, d tigduda n Asya Talemmast yellan di Tdukli Tasuvyatit akk d tegnit i deg tella tutlayt-is ass-a.
http://www.mondeberbere.com/taddangiwin/index-am.htm
Ad tafem deg-s akk utt'unen n Tebrat n Yimedyazen ay d-yeffghen ar ass-a.
 

 
D acu-tt tist'unit ?
 
Tist'unit d nettat ay d tutlayt tamens'abt n tegduda n Ist'unya yernu llan wazal 1.500.000 n yemdanen ay tt-yettmeslayen di tmurt-a (95% seg yimezdaghen n tmurt) d wazal n 60.000 n yemdanen nnid'en ay yettidiren di lgherba, gar-asen 20.000 deg Yiwunak Yedduklen (USA) d 14.500 di Kanada. Tist'unit tes‚a digh wid ay tt-yettmeslayen di Litt'unya akk d Rusya, ladgha di temdint n Saint Petersburg, di Finland, di Sswid, di Tgeldit Yedduklen (Royaume-Uni) akk d Ustr'alya.  

Tawacult-is :
 
Tutlayt tist'unit d yiwet si tutlayin tur'aliyin. Tawacult n tutlayin tur'aliyin d tin yebd'an ghef wach'al n yifurka, yiwen deg-sent d win umi qqaren tutlayin tifinubaltiyin, yernu deg-s ay tella tist'unit. Yiwet si tutlayin ay tt-icuban at'as d tutlayt tafinlandit ay ttmeslayen di Finland, yernu tella digh yiwet n tutlayt, tamjar'it (hongrois) ay ttmeslayen di Tur'uft tagmud'ant (tacerqit), teqreb gher tist'unit imi ula d nettat tettekka di twacult n tutlayin tur'aliyin. Yugh lh'al, llan kra ay ighilen d akken imi ay tettuneh'sab Ist'unya d yiwet si tmura tibaltiyin (d tamurt ay d-yuzgan rrif n yilel -lebh'er'- Abalti), dgha ula d tutlayt-is tetbe‚ gher twacult n tutlayin tibaltiyin, am tlitwanit akk d tlitt'unit (siked utt'un wis 3 n Tebrat n Yimedyazen), d acu kan, xas Ist'unya teqreb gher Litwanya akk d Litt'unya, tutlayt-is ur tcuba tid n tmura-yagi wanag teqreb ugar gher tfinlandit. Yugh lh'al, seg wakken tettemcabi tist'unit gher tfinlandit alammi ula d wid ay tent-yettmeslayen zemren ad msefhamen wagar-asen, yernu snat-agi n tutlayin cerkent azal n 83.5 % seg umawal-nsen. Tutlayin nnid'en yettemcabin at'as gher tist'unit d tid ay iteb‚en, am nettat, s afurk n tutlayin tifinubaltiyin am tkar'ilit (ay ttmeslayen wazal n 10.000 n yemdanen deg Ugafa utrim -nord-ouest- n Rusya), akk d kra n tutlayin ayen yellan ghef yiri n nnger am tingrit, talivunit akk d tvultit, yernu seg wakken yeshel wemsefham ger n tutlayin-agi alammi ay llan ula d kra n yimassanen ay tent-yettwalin d tintalyin n yiwet kan n tutlayt.    
 
Tintalyin n tist'unit :
 
Tist'unit tebd'a ghef snat n tentalyin (dialecte) timeqqranin, tist'unit n Ugafa (nord, negh tin umi qqaren tist'unit n Talinn, tamaneght), akk d tist'unit n Wenz'ul (sud, negh digh tin umi qqaren tist'unit n Tartu), am wakken yal yiwet si tentalyin-agi tes‚a tiduntalyin-is (sous-dialectes), nezmer ad d-nebder seg-sent tiduntalyin timulgiyin ay ttmeslayen deg wenz'ul utrim (sud-ouest) akk d tduntalyin n Voru Setu ay ttmeslayen deg wenz'ul agmud'an (sud-est). Ma d tist'unit n ugafa, nezmer digh ad tt-nebd'u d tiduntalyin u ad d-nebder seg-sent : taduntala n tegzirin, d tist'unit ay ttmeslayen di tegzirin n Saaremaa akk d Hiiumaa, ay d-yuzgan deg utaram n Ist'unya, deg yilel Abalti; taduntala n yiri n lebh'er' n ugafa-agmud'an ay icuban mlih' tafinlandit; takodaveret ay ttmeslayen di tmiwa n Kodavere akk d Maarja Magdaleena, akk d tduntala tutrimt (tagherbit) ay ttmeslayen deg yiwen n weh'ric meqqren di tmurt, yekka-d ghef tmiwa n Laanemaa, ghef ugafa n Parnumaa akk d utaram n Harjumaa. Xas ma yella anect-agi akk n tentalyin ay tes‚a tist'unit, maca yezmer ad d-yili wemsefham s tentalyin-agi merr'a ger n wid ay yettmeslayen tist'unit.
 
Tutlayt tizeght (standard) akk d tsekla ay tesseqdac ass-a Ist'unya d tin ay d-yekkan si tentala n tist'unit n ugafa, d acu kan, tist'unit n wenz'ul tes‚a digh ula d nettat tasekla tatlayt (littťrature orale), d tamedyazt, ay yes‚an ma cwit', 350 n yiseggasen seg wasmi ay d-tennulfa.
 
Tira-s :
 
Tikkelt tamenzut i deg ay tekcem tist'unit s annar n tira, d imassanen almaniyen ay tt-yuran, dgha taghdirawt (orthographe) ay sqedcen wigi i lmend n tira-s d tin ay iqerben gher teghdirawt n talmanit u ghef wanect-a ay d-yeqqim wedriz (later') n tira talmaniyin di tid n tist'unit alammi d talemmast n lqern wis 19. Si 1850 d asawen ay bdan Yist'uniyen a snernayen taghdirawt-nsen akken ad tt-rren d tizeght (standard), dgha bdan tekksen s kra n wayen yellan d aberr'ani di tirawt-nsen (ťcriture) u ttaran-d deg wemkan-is isekkilen ara ten-yeddjen ad d-net'qen tutlayt-nsen akken tt-id-nett'qen di las'el, maci akken tt-id-inett'eq uberr'ani. Agemmay ay tesseqdac ass-a tist'unit yes‚a 17 n tergalin (consonnes) akk d 9 n teghra (voyelles).
 
Tasghent-is* di tmetti* :
** role dans la sociťtť
 
Ass-a, tughal tist'unit tizeght d nettat ay d tutlayt ay yettuseqdacen yernu ay yettwaqeblen deg yeswiren (niveaux) merr'a n tmetti. D acu kan, asmi ay tella Ist'unya s ddaw n udabu asuvyati, d tarusit ay yellan d tutlayt tamens'abt tawh'idt yernu ‚erd'en Yisuvyatiyen ad mh'un tist'unit akk d yedles ist'uni si tmurt-a, maca ayen ‚erd'en ad t-xedmen ur d-yewwi ara abaghur meqqren, imi ay kemmlen medden ttmeslayen tist'unit yernu lemmden-tt di tmiwa merr'a n tegduda, yernu igerdan ay d-ilulen si jjwadj n Yist'uniyen akk d Yirusiyen llan ula d nitni lemmden tist'unit. Di 1990, yessebded-d unabad' ist'uni Aseqqamu n Tutlayt Taghelnawt i lmend n weh'raz akk d ussebghes (encouragement) n usseqdec n tutlayt tist'unit. Ass-a, xas ma yella tarusit mazal tes‚a azal-is di tmurt-a yernu nezmer ad d-nini tettusemma d "tutlayt tamens'abt" tis snat, tist'unit attan a tettuselmad yernu tettuseqdac deg yigherbazen yernu win yebghan ad yughal d agharim (citoyen) ist'uni tewwi-d fell-as ad yissin tutlayt-a. Deg ugafa agmud'an (nord-est) n tmurt, anda yettidir umur ameqqran akk deg Yirusiyen n Ist'unya, mazal llan yigherbazen irusiyen, d acu kan, maci d ahucal (obligatoire) ghef medden ad sseghren igerdan-nsen deg-sen.
Tist'unit ay ttmeslayen yiminigen Ist'uniyen di lgherba --d tist'unit ay llan ttmeslayen-tt yeghriben ir'uh'en gher Marikan di tallit n Wemgaru Amad'lan (guerre mondiale) wis sin-- temxallaf citt' ghef tist'unit tizeght yettuseqdacen ass-a di tmurt, maca mazal wid yettmeslayen tist'unit di lgherba zemren ad fehmen wid ay tt-yettmeslayen di tmurt. D acu kan, ilaq kan ad d-nger tamawt d akken kra seg wayen ay d-uran yeghriben s tist'unit yemxallaf ghef wayen d-ttarun ass-a wid yellan di tmurt, imi tutlayt ay llan ttarun-tt zik di lgherba amzun i‚edda-tt zzman ass-a, mi akka ay snernan Yist'uniyen tutlayt-nsen di tmurt-nsen.
 
Amezruy-is :
 
Ar ass-a wer‚ad ur z'rin ara yimassanen melmi ay d-frurint tutlayin tifinubaltiyin (gar-asent tist'unit) seg tutlayt tajaddit ay tent-id-yefkan, d acu kan, ass-a s‚an kra n yisallen ghef temlilti ay mlalent tutlayin-a akk d tutlayin nnid'en deg umezruy. Ifinubaltiyen bdan ttemlilin d yegduden ijirmaniyen (lejdud n Walmaniyen n wass-a) si lqern amenzu n Sidna Aisa, yernu anect-a yeddja at'as n wawalen ijirmaniyen ad d-kecmen tutlayt-nsen u ad d-qqimen ar ass-a di tist'unit. Sakin, di lqern wis seb‚a n Sidna Aisa, bdan digh ttemlilin Yifinubaltiyen akk d Yeslaviyen (lejdud n Yirusiyen n wass-a) yernu seg yimir-n ay bdan keccmen-ten-id digh wawalen islaviyen. Alammi d 1520 ay d-uran Yist'uniyen id'risen-nsen imenza s tist'unit, d win umi semman "Dde‚wat n Kullamaa", yernu di tezwara n lqern wis sbe‚t'ac, bdant a d-teffghent tjerr'umin (grammaires) timezwura n tist'unit. Xas ma yella anz'ul n Ist'unya yes‚a yiwet n tsekla n yisefra d tanesbaghurt (tamer'kantit) maci d kra, tasekla-ya ur tt-urin ara alammi d talemmast n lqern wis tse‚t'ac.
 
Di tazwara n lqern wis tse‚t'ac akk d tlemmast-is ay tebda digh a d-tettlal tutlayt tist'unit tatrart (moderne) di tira, imi tallit-a tella-d d tin i deg thenna tmurt yernu tebda a d-tettlal tghelnaz'rit (nationalisme) deg wulawen n Yist'uniyen. Tiddukla Tist'unit n Wid Yeghran, ay d-sbedden di 1838, tessuffegh-d at'as n yedlisen akk d tsufighin (publications) nnid'en, gar-asen(t) Kalevipoeg, d yiwet n telkensit (collection) n yedlisen n yisefra igherfanen (populaires) ay d-yeffghen ger n 1857 d 1861. Di tallit-nni daghen ay d-ffghen yeghmisen imenza n tutlayt tist'unit, nezmer ad d-nebder gar-asen "Perno Postimees", ay d-yeffghen ger n yiseggasen n 1857 d 1863, akk d "Tartu Postimees" ay d-yeffghen si 1864 alammi d 1880.
 
Yugh lh'al di tallit-nni, d Rusya ay yellan teh'kem Ist'unya yernu ahat d leqdic-nni ay bdan xeddmen-t Yist'uniyen imir-n akken ad d-ssidren tutlayt-nsen ay yeddjan Irusiyen ad rren tarusit d tutlayt tamens'abt (officielle) n usselmed di Ist'unya. D acu kan, ur t‚ett'el ara tennulfa-d terba‚t nnid'en n yimura ist'uniyen, di tezwara n lqern wis ‚ecrin, d tin umi semman "Noor Eesti" negh tarba‚t n "Ist'unya Tilemz'it", yernu kemmlen leqdic i lmend n wesnerni akk d ussedjhed n tutlayt-nsen taseklant (littťraire). Dgha ughalen yimura ist'uniyen tekksen s kra n wayen yellan d arusi negh d almani si tutlayt-nsen u ttnadin ad d-ssidren deg-s ayen yellan d-yekkan si tist'unit tanes'lit, am wakken ay rran tasekla tafinlandit akk d tin n Tur'uft n Wetram (lgherb) d tiliwa i seg ay d-ttagment tikta-nsen (idťes). Imura-yagi yecban Johannes Aavik, snernan mlih' tamawalt (lťxique) n tutlayt tist'unit, dgha skeflen-d awalen ist'uniyen ines'liyen ay d-mazal ddren di tentalyin (dialectes) yemxallafen n tmurt, red'len-d digh awalen si tfinlandit ay icuban mlih' tist'unit, am wakken ay d-snulfan iz'uran imaynuten i seg zemren ad d-ssuddmen awalen. Di 1920, asmi ay tewwi Ist'unya azarug-is (indťpendance) amenzu, tegra-yas-d tegnit n liser i tutlayt tist'unit, d acu kan, di 1940, asmi ay d-kecmen Yisuvatiyen tamurt, qedcen yineggura-yagi ghef wamek ara mh'un tist'unit u ad d-h'ettmen deg wemkan-is tutlayt tarusit ay ttwalin imir-n d nettat kan ara yesduklen akk igduden isuvyatiyen. Teqqim tegnit-agi alammi d 1990, asmi ay tughal tist'unit i tikkelt nnid'en d tutlayt taghelnawt di tmurt-is. Ass-a, mbe‚d ‚ecr'a n yiseggasen n wussisen (efforts), tughal tist'unit d tutlayt ay tfehhem tuget deg yimezdaghen n Ist'unya, yernu yis-s ay tesselh'ay tmurt-agi tamect'uh't tighawsiwin-is.
 
Aheggi akk d tsuqilt sghur Hamid OUBAGHA
 
Ghret daghen :
 
 
Ah'ric meqqren seg wed'ris-agi yettwakkes-d seg wemd'iq-a :
http://www.lmp.ucla.edu/proflng.htm
 
Rzut digh ghef usebter-agi i deg ara tafem at'as n yisallen inef‚en ghef tist'unit.
http://www.geocities.com/gwojcikfi/estonian.htm#est2
 

 
Asefru si tsekla tist'unit :
 
Wagi d yiwen n usefru si tsekla tist'unit, tura-t-id Lydia Koidula (1843-1886), d yiwet n tmedyazt n tmurt-a, yuzen-agh-t-id yiwen seg watmaten-nnegh yettidiren di Luxembourg : 
 
At'as ay righ tamurt-iw
Fkigh-as ula d ul-iw
I kemm ay cennugh
D kemm ay d tinzert-iw
Ist'unya deg d-mghin yijeddjigen
Ideddicen-im h'ulfegh-asen deg yiman-iw
Mi tgerrzed' gerrzegh, lferh'-inem d lfer'h'-iw
Uh a tamurt-iw !
A tamurt-iw ihhuskin, righ-kem
Xsigh ad gnegh yid-m
Ad i-yawi yid'es s iri-m
Ist'unia-yinu yeh'erz Yillew
Ifrax-im cennun-iyi-d
Ijeddjigen-im meqqin-d deg-i
Uh a tamurt-iw !
 
Tasuqilt sghur "Winna", si Luxembourg.
 

 
Win yeslan ad yini i wiyad'
 
Arut-agh-d, gret-d tamawin-nwen, neqqar l‚eslama i s kra n tebrat ara d agh-d-yawd'en sghur-wen. 
Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad
16006, Alger, Algťrie
 

 
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Association culturelle Imedyazen
BP 129 Poste Didouche Mourad
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