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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

Utt'un 12
Asebter n umager | Imagraden | Isalan | Imenzayen | Taftilt | Imawalen | Idlisen-nnegh | Leqdicat-nnegh | Imazighen | Lmed tamazight | English | EspaŮol | FranÁais | Arabe | Anmager | Tabrat n Yimedyazen | Arum-agh-d | Imaslad'en | Tamesgida | Amezruy n Tiddukla

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad, 16006, Alger, Algťrie

Tabrat n Yimedyazen
 
Taghmist n Tiddukla - Utt'un 12
 
(ddur't n 16  gher 22 Ghuct 2003)
 
Zik neqqar win yebghan tamazight, ad yissin tira-s
Ass-a neqqar win yebghan tamazight, ad tt-yaru
 
Tigejdit :

Azul fell-awen ay atmaten d teysetmatin

Ass-a, mi akka ara tettidir tmazight di tegnit n zz'mik, n lh'er's akk d lh'if, fih'el ma nenna-d u n‚awed-d d akken teh'wadj wid ara tt-i‚iwnen akken ad d-tekker, ad tennerni u ad as-ned'men ad tidir di tmid'i-yagi (lqern) ay d-ikecmen. Tallalt (lem‚awna) n tmazight d ayen ay ilaqen ad d-yili seg yal yiwen deg-negh yernu, akken d-nenna ach'al d abrid, anect-a d lwadjeb ghef yal win d tin d-yeqqaren d akken d amazigh negh d tamazight ay yella/tella. D acu kan, amek i ilaq ad d-tili tallalt-agi ? Anwa ay ilaqen ad i‚iwen tamazight yernu s wacu ? Imi tutlayt-nnegh tamazight nettekka deg-s akken nella, ur telli terba‚t ay terza temsalt akken ad tt-t‚iwen ugar n trebba‚ nnid'en, wanag yal yiwen deg-negh, ama d argaz, ama d tamett'ut, ama d axeddam negh d az'awali, terza-t temsalt, wanag win ur nettekkay di leqdic-agi d win iregglen ghef tmasayt (responsabilitť), d win ur nes‚i le‚naya deg wul-ines, yernu akken ay id'urr tamazight s tukci n ufus fell-as ay yezmer ad id'urr ula d medden. Win yellan d iri-t, d iri-t, di yal amkan yernu di kulci. Dgha, ur ilaq ara ad d-neghli di tcer'ket (tifexxet) n trewla ghef lwadjeb, ad as-nini "maci d nekk ay terza temsalt", "nekk ur lligh d amusnaw akken ad d-ssidregh tamazight", negh atan "llant trebba‚ ara iqeddcen ghef tmazight di Fr'ansa negh di Merr'uk", ma d netta ad yeqqen allen, ad iwwet nneh', u ad yeddj tamazight si ldjiha-s ad tegrireb, ur d as-ixeddem acemma. Axemmem-agi ay numen wat'as deg-negh ttawin-t-id d win ur nessuffugh ara tamazight, acku ilaq ad z'ren watmaten-nnegh d akken ass-a, di tegnit i deg tewh'el tmazight, maci ala kan d amussnaw iqeddcen meb‚id negh d amer'kanit ay d-yelhan kan d yiman-is ara d-yessuffghen tutlayt-nnegh seg ubella‚, wanag mi ara tendeh' tmes di lexla, at taddart akk ttazzalen-d akken ad tt-ssexsin. Nnig waya, ilaq digh ad z'ren watmaten-nnegh d akken nekni tutlayt-nnegh ur tes‚i zzher' am tiyad', was tes‚a imussnawen, haten ffren deg yixejd'an-nsen, ula d ayen xeddmen ur nsell ara yis-s, ad as-tinid' ‚eqden-d tamazight-agi i yiman-nsen kan, rran-tt d r'aselmal i yes tetten aghrum yernu ttnadin ghef cci‚a, ma d imer'kantiyen-nnegh ... xas nekni s yimazighen nes‚a imer'kantiyen, wid ay izemren seg wass ar azekka ad as-beddlen i tmazight udem u ad tt-refden akken ad tughal d tutlayt idjehden, am tutlayin akk timuddirin n wemd'al, nettwali-ten ulac akk d acu n wassagh (relation) ay s‚an akk d tmazight, ur d asen-telli deg wul wala deg uqerru. R'wah' tura kettc ssefhem-asen-d d acu n wazal ay tes‚a tutlayt-nnegh akken ad tt-id-nessider d wamek ay ilaq ad nefk cwit' seg yiman-nnegh akken ad tidir i wass-a, i uzekka akk d slazekka. Ihi aql-iken tettwalim ay atma d akken tamazight attan d tagujilt, d tagujilt n tidet yernu d tin ay ddjan ger yiberdan, ur tes‚i lwali wala win ara s-isefd'en imett'awen u ad as-yett'ef afus s tidet. Dgha tewwi-d ghef yal yiwen deg-negh ad i‚iwen tutlayt-is anda ma yedda, s wacu umi yezmer. Win ay izemren ad tt-i‚iwen s cci-yis, awi-d lukan, imi ay ilaq ad tez'rem d akken ass-a, imi ay tella tmazight d tutlayt tameh'qurt, amur meqqren at'as di medden ur qebblen ad ssuffghen acemma si ledjyub-nsen ghef tmazight. Ad ten-tafed' d "wid yettd'eggiren idrimen si tt'aq", mi ara d asen-d-tbedred' tamazight, ad yi‚ziz fell-asen wedrim. Ma d win ay izemren ad i‚iwen tamazight s ufus-is, s yiles-is, s tit'-is, s uqerru-yis negh s ud'ar-is mr'eh'ba yis-s yernu s kra n wayen ara yexdem, xas d amect'uh', yezmer ad d-yawi abaghur (lfayda) meqqren i tutlayt-nnegh. Lemmer d lebghi, ayen ara yexdem yal yiwen deg-negh i tmazight d ayen umi ilaq ad as-nsemmi d "taghersawt" (sacrifice), yernu taghersawt negh lxir, mi ara d-yekka seg wul, xeddmen-t medden bat'el ... dgha imi ay gh-tella tmazight deg wul, meqqar d nekni s wid ay tt-ih'emmlen, aygher ur s-nxeddem ara lxir seg wul-nnegh ? Aygher ur nettak ara fell-as ayen ‚zizen fell-anegh (lweqt, tazmert, idrimen, ...) mebla ma nh'useb-itt ghef wayen ara d agh-d-terr ? Tugh, win ih'emmlen ur yetth'asab ara, yernu nez'ra akk d akken taswi‚t-a, akka ay tt-bghan wid yellan nnig-negh di yal amkan, tamazight ur d as-ldin tiwwura akken ad d-terr kra. D acu kan, ma neqbel, nekni s Yimazighen, ad as-nefk i tmazight mebla leh'sab, ad tt-nettaru wagar-anegh, ad tt-nettmeslay anda ma nedda u ad tt-nesselmad i warraw-nnegh, ad d-nagh ayen yuran yis-s (idlisen, ungalen, tisghunin) akken ad t-ngher u ad n‚iwen wid merr'a iqeddcen fell-as s tidet, ama bghan yiduba negh ur bghin, ala tuffgha ara d-teffegh tmazight gher tafat, ma yebgha R'ebbi, yernu xas ma yehwa-yas i‚ekren (obstacles) yellan ass-a anect-nsen anect n yidurar, adennit (labudd) azekka ad ten-teghd'el tayri n tmazight. Tewwi-d ihi ur tettmettat ara tayri-yagi wanag ad tedjhed akken ad agh-terr d wid yettaken i tmazight mebla leh'sab. Tewwi-d ur nettxalaf ara az'ar-nnegh, az'ar n yimesdurar n zik, mi walan times ad d-mmaren akk gher lexla akken ad tt-ssexsin, akken ur d-tettawed' ara s ixxamen-nsen ... neghmulac, atan yennulfa-d lqum yettwalin deg yexxamen-nsen a reqqen, yernu ur xeddmen acemma ... ad agh-yamen R'ebbi seg-sen.        

Imedyazen 

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TIBRATIN-NWEN

Said TALIBI, si Merr'uk : 

Azul fell-awen, G tizwiri, d awen-ssirimegh tudert igerrzen d wussan ir'wan. Nekk d yan unelmad seg [wenz'ul agmud'an] (sud-est) n Lmerr'uk. Ghur-i yan usmel (site) ghif tamazight g internet: http://www.tankra.fr.st. Yan g yimeddukal-inew ay d-iykan [izen-nwen aliktr'unan] (email) afad ad awen-aznegh ayeddegh n tabrat tamezzant (tamect'uht). Righ ad awen-inigh hat z'righ tabrat-nna tuznem i yimeddukal-inew di temmurt n Lmerruk, zr'igh kul tabrat, ar awen-ttinigh ayuz d ameqran ghif taghensa (aqeddec) ghif tmazight. D a ssirimegh ad umugh awd nekk g yimeghriyen n tebratin-innan ad yili s dat ghur tamesmunt n Yimadyazen.
(...) Said TALIBI. Tanemmert.

http://www.tankra.fr.st

Tiririt : Azul fell-ak a gma (...) Atan tettwalid' (tez'rid') belli tamazight teqqel at'as gher deffir sdat n tutlayin tiberr'aniyin am tefr'ensist akk d teglizit. Dgha d anect-a ay d agh-iceghben (inquiťter), yernu yeddja-yagh ad neg lh'emla-yagi. Nez'ra belli atmaten-nnegh n Merr'uk z'ewren mlih' di tmazight. Nitni ttarun tamazight ugar n Yimazighen nnid'en di internet, yernu fkan azal meqqren i wesnerni n tutlayt-nnegh, dgha nettara-yasen tajmilt meqqren, am wakken ara d ak-nini tanemmirt meqqren ghef wemd'iq-yinek n internet, u ad k-is'ehh'i R'ebbi ghef leqdic-ik. Tiddukla-nnegh tqeddec deg yiwen webrid i deg tefka azal ala kan i lmufid, i wayen yuklalen (yestuhlen) le‚tab. Nesselmad tamazight s tebratin, yernu nessefray ad d-nessuffugh tasghunt-nnegh (revue) Taftilt, ara yarun s tmazight si tt'erf alamma d tt'erf. Nebgha ad nerr tamazight d tutlayt ara yes‚un ddur' di tmetti (sociťtť), yernu d tin ara ineff‚en medden di tudert-nsen, imi anect-a d yiwen seg yih'urifen ara d as-d-yerren ccan i tutlayt-nnegh. Yugh lh'al, ma ur tes‚i ccan tutlayt-nnegh, ulac ayen ara tt-id-yessukksen, yernu ma temmut tmazight, ur gh-d-mazal ad nili d Imazighen. Tanemmirt-ik ghef tebrat-inek u tanemmirt i watmaten-nnegh Imerr'ukiyen i d agh-yeqqaren. Nessaram ad tilid' dima seg yimeghriyen-nnegh yernu ad tilid' seg wid ara ifehmen izen-nnegh (message) deg wayen yerzan asseqdec n tmazight. Ssaramegh-ak afud igerrzen a gma. Sghur tiddukla tadelsant Imedyazen.

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A tabaskit, flali-d !

Heuskera, ialgi adi kanpora

Bernardo Atxaga - Amaru abaski

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[Aqeddem : ass-a newwi-d i watmaten-nnegh snat n tdiwenniyin (interview) ay s-tettwaxemen i yiwen n umaru (ťcrivain) si Tmurt n Yibaskiyen ay yessawd'en ad yessali tutlayt-is gher weswir n tutlayt tagraghlant (internationale) seg wakken fazen yedlisen ay d-yettaru s tbaskit. Bernardo Atxaga d amaru ay ifernen ad yaru s tbaskit imi ur yelli seg wid ay ih'eqren tutlayt i yes d-yekker, negh seg wid yerran di rrif tutlayt i yes tt'd'en tamusni n ddunit, dgha, xas mazal tutlayt tabaskit d tutlayt mect'uh'en di Spenyul akk d Fr'ansa, Atxaga yessawed' ad as-yerfed azal-is u ad d-yaru yis-s ungalen yettwassnen deg wemd'al merr'a. Abrid ay d-yewwi Atxaga di tmurt-is d abrid n tezdeg d ss'fa. Yedder lqerh' n th'eqranit n tutlayt tabaskit di tallit n lbat'el ay i‚eddan ghef Spenyul, am wakken ay yeqdec ghef wesnerni n tutlayt-is, imi ay d-yella seg yemdanen-nni qlilen ay yettarun s tutlayt-nsen deg Yibaskiyen. Atxaga yettaru s tutlayt-is di yal lweqt yernu anda ma yedda imi ay yettidir yis-s, ur yenkir' ara lxir-is. Tezdegh-as deg wul tbaskit alammi, ula d timucuha-s akk d tirga-s s tutlayt-a ay tent-ibennu, maci s tiyad', xas ulamma yessen mlih' taspenyulit, alammi ula d idlisen-is d netta s timmad-is ay ten-id-yessuqulen. Tikta (idťes) ttenghalent deg uqerru-yis s tutlayt n lejdud-is yernu ur yelli seg wid ay yeh'wadjen tutlayt taberr'anit "akken ad ten-fehmen wiyad', akken ad fehmen watmaten-is d acu yellan di lbal-is". D acu kan, Atxaga ay yellan d yiwen seg yimura imeqranen n tallit-a, ur yelli digh d win ay d-yewwin abrid n leh'meq akk d kar'uh n wiyad' akken ad yesnerni tutlayt-is u ad yessuter ad as-yettunefk wemkan yelhan di tmurt n Yibaskiyen. Xas akken Atxaga yettwali d akken ula d taspenyulit d tutlayt-is tayemmat tis snat, mi ara nwali gher leqdic-is, yiwen ur yettazmar ad yenker' lxir yexdem i tbaskit akk d tayri ay yes‚a i tutlayt-is. Tugh, ugur-agi nettidir-it ula d nekni s Yimazighen. At'as deg-negh d awal kan ay ten-i‚emr'en, st'uqquten zz‚ed' yernu ttcan times ghef tmazight, wanag mi ara d-tawed' tizi n tidet, ad ten-naf ur d-fkin acemma ime‚nen i tutlayt-nnegh, am wakken ay nes‚a at'as n yimura ay yessnen ad arun tamazight, kkren-d s tutlayt-a yernu ulac win i ten-yifen awwi tt-ssnen, di tgara, ttagaden lemmer ad d-yeghli yigenni ma uran awal s tmazight, ttarun s tutlayt taberr'anit ughaf "ur ttwafhamen ara", dgha ulac wi ih'eqren tutlayt am nitni. Atxaga yessebgan-anegh-d d akken yezmer wab‚ad' ad asen-yaru i watmaten-is s tutlayt-nsen tanes'lit yernu ad t-fehmen u ad akin s ccbah'a n wayen i sen-yura, dgha maci ala kan s tespenyulit negh s tefr'ensist ay cebh'ent lumur', wanag ula s tbaskit akk d tmazight cebh'ent, yernu cebh'ent ugar mi ara tili temsalt d izen-nnegh ay terza. Atxaga yessebgan-anegh-d digh d akken maci dima d wid ay ikeccmen umri negh wid yesghersen tt'bul ay izemren ad d-ssidren tutlayt, wanag yella wamek ara d-tidir tbaskit negh tmazight s webrid n tezdeg d akk d leqdic amussnaw, d abrid ay izemren ad tent-yessiwed' s aswir ‚layen, s aswir ifazen. Afud igerrzen].

Tadiwennit tamenzut : 

"Tutlayt d tazmert (...), yernu nezmer ad tt-nesseqdec d allal i ubeddel"
Adrienne Rich, d tamarut tamarikanit (1929-). 

"A tutlayt tabaskit, flali-d", akka ay d-teqqar yiwet n tezlit n tmid'i (lqern) wis 16 n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen yernu d wagi ay d awal i yes yettamen Bernardo Atxaga, xas ma yella yettwali d akken ula d taspenyulit d tutlayt-is tayemmat.  

Xas ma yella ar ass-a wer‚ad nessin d acu-t las'el n tbaskit, tutlayt-a tes‚a ugar n 4000 n yiseggasen ayakka seg wasmi ara tt-ttmeslayen yernu ass-a, sseqdacen-tt wazal n 600.000 n yemdanen di Tmurt n Yibaskiyen akk d Navarra (di Spenyul), akk d wazal n 80.000 n yemdanen nnid'en deg ugezdu (dťpartement) n Pyrťnťes-Atlantiques, di Fr'ansa. Tutlayt-a tughal at'as gher deffir deg r'eb‚in-nni n yiseggasen n tesnaraft (dictature) n Franco di tmurt n Spenyul. D acu kan, attan tettidir di tegnit yifen tin n yid'elli u llant tlata n ssebbat i tt-yeddjan ad tili akka : asdukel n tentalyin (dialectes) tibaskiyin deg yiwet kan n tutlayt ay zemren ad fehmen akk Yibaskiyen, tughalin n tbaskit di 1979 d tutlayt tamens'abt (officielle) n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen di Spenyul gher tama n tespenyulit akk d wesnerni n usselmed n tbaskit deg ugherbaz. Si tama nnid'en, tella digh yiwet n terba‚t d tamect'uh't n yimura (ťcrivains) ibaskiyen ay i‚ezmen ad snernin asseqdec n tbaskit s tira akk d ussider n tsekla n tutlayt-nsen. Yiwen deg-sen, Bernardo Atxaga, yerbeh'-d arraz aghelnaw n wungal (prix national du roman) di 1989, ghef wungal-yines Obabakoak, yugh lh'al, arraz-agi d yiwen seg warrazen imeqqranen akk n tsekla di tmurt n Spenyul. Ass-a, gher 48 n yiseggasen di le‚mer'-is, yughal Atxaga d amaru amenzu yettarun s tutlayt tabaskit ay yessawd'en ad yughal mechur' di ddunit merr'a. (Izen n Unesco).

D tadiwennit ay d-iga Christophe David, d aneghmas deg tsufight n "Le Matricule des Anges", i yiwen n umaru meqqren di tutlayt tabaskit, Bernardo Atxaga.

C.D. Ghur-k kettcini, win yellan d Abaski d win yettmeslayen tabaskit ...

Bernardo Atxaga. Ih, acku d tabaskit kan ay gh-yerran nemgerrad (nemxallaf) ghef wiyad'. Isem n tmurt-nnegh, Euskal Herria, anamek-is "tamurt i deg ttmeslayen tabaskit". Dgha ttwaligh d akken d tudert ay nettidir akk d tutlayt-nnegh ay yeddjan agdud-nnegh ad yes‚u tt'baye‚-is u ad yeg abrid n tudert i yiman-is akken s‚an akk yegduden tt'baye‚-nsen negh iberdan-nsen n tudert. Dgha d awezghi ad nesr'uh' tutlayt-nnegh mebla ma nesr'uh' ula d tinetti-nnegh (identitť).

D acu-tent i yir timughliwin i yes ttmuqulen medden tabaskit ?

Ttwalin-tt d tutlayt kan n yiz'awaliyen. Dgha d anect-nni ay ten-yettaddjan ad xemmen d akken tutlayt-a d tah'erfit kan (simple), ur nezmir ad d-nemmeslay yis-s ghef tghawsiwin n tnefsit negh n yedles. Yir tamughli-yagi ur tettwaqbal imi tutlayin akk n wemd'al (ddunit) ‚edlent wagar-asent, kifkif-itent. Imesnilsiyen (linguistes) am Jacobson akk d Bloomfield at'as aya seg wasmi ay fran tamsalt-a. Nezmer ad d-nini s tbaskit akk ayen nezmer ad t-id-nini s tespenyulit negh s tefr'ensist. Nekk ttwaligh anect-a d ss'wab, d acu kan, maci at'as n medden i t-yez'ran.

Ibaskiyen s umata, d taspenyulit ay ttmeslayen. Dgha ma tughal tbaskit d tutlayt tameghradit (universelle) [akken llant tutlayin idjehden am tefr'ensist, tat'alyanit negh tahulandit], tettwalid' d akken ilaq ghef medden ad tt-sseqdacen s tin n nnif, u ad ddjen taspenyulit ?

Llan wat'as n Yibaskiyen ay yessnen mlih' tabaskit, maca maci akk. Wanag si tama nnid'en, akk Ibaskiyen yettmeslayen tabaskit ssnen mlih' taspenyulit, negh meqqar, ttselliken-tt deg-s. Sakin, tamsalt tgerri-d gher wacu n tutlayt ara yefren wemdan ad tt-yemmeslay. Ghef umedya, nezmer ad naru s tbaskit ghef tesnagayt (philosophie), d acu kan, anect-a yettghimi-d d aqemmer. Win yebghan ad d-yeffegh wedlis-is, yewwi-yi-d R'ebbi d akken ttafxir kan ad yaru ghef tesnagayt s tespenyulit. Medden akk llan qqaren-iyi-d : "Ur ttaru ara s tbaskit, tutlayt-a tew‚er' akken ad tt-id-nessuqel (traduire), yiwen ur yeqqar ayen ara d-tarud'". D acu kan, ula d nekk ur bghigh ara ad beddlegh tutlayt, yernu asmi ay bdigh ttarugh, ur bghigh ara ad xemmegh d akken zemregh ad zzenzegh 5000 n wudmawen (exeplaires) seg yedlisen-iw. Lligh ker'hegh ssuq, ur d as-fkigh ara ccan. Dgha imir-n fernegh ad arugh s tbaskit xas akken z'righ d akken ahat, wid ara d i-ighren ur tt‚eddin ara i 1000. Ass-a, idlisen-iw atni ssuqlen-ten-id gher 16 n tutlayin [di 2002, wwd'ent gher 20], am win yuran s tutlayt taspenyulit. Ihi, d ayen i tezmer ad t-id-tawi tutlayt nnid'en ay d-tewwi tbaskit, anect-a ur ibeddel acemma.    

D acu kan, ur a ttwaligh ara d akken ilaq ad nexdem kulci s tutlayt tabaskit. Ghef umedya, ttwaligh d akken assuffegh n yisura (films) s tbaskit ur yezmir ad d-yawi lfayda. Ilaq "ad as-ncuh'" i tutlayt. Nezmer ad d-naru ungalen s tbaskit -imi ay llan wid yeqqaren ungal abaski- maca ma nessuqel-d tiz'riwin (thťories) tineggura n rebbu negh n tsenmeghrad't (cosmologie) gher tbaskit, akken kan ad d-nessken d akken nezmer ad neg anect-a s tutlayt-nnegh, nekk ttwaligh anect-a taghelnaz'rit (nationalisme) yernu d ayen ur nes‚i lfayda. Ilaq ad d-neg tighawsiwin ay neh'wadj akken ad nefr'eh' maci akken ad d-neg tighawsiwin s tin n tghennant, akken ad d-nessken d akken ula d nekni nezmer ad d-neg aya.

Tettwalid' iman-ik d aneggal (romancier) abaski ay tellid' ?

Ala, imi tira ay ttarugh s tbaskit sufella kan ay d-terna. Nekk s yisem-iw d amaru, ttwaligh iman-iw ttekkagh deg wensay (tradition) adelsan, di tsekla (littťrature), d ansay yellan d ameghradi (universel). Di Finland, h'edr'egh i yiwen n usarag (confťrence) ay iga yiwen n umaru las'el-is si Sri Lanka, netta yettidir di London, dgha mi akken ay d-yebder uguren n tira, fehmegh mlih' ayen akken yebgha ad d-yini. Asmi ay bdigh tira, ur tzad ara tmusni-w di tsekla. Asmi ay s‚igh ‚ecrin n yiseggasen ay ghrigh Gabriel Aresti*. Tlata n yiseggasen sakin, fukegh akk idlisen n tsekla yellan imir-n s tbaskit. Anect-a ur yebghi ara ad d-yini d akken ur nes‚i ara ansay di tsekla-nnegh. Ass-a, yernu anect-a d ah'ric si tetrara (modernitť), izri (passť) akk n tsekla n wemd'al, ama d win n Tmurt n Wa‚r'aben negh d win n Ccinwa negh n Tur'uft nezmer ad t-naf akken ad t-ngher. Dgha s waya, yal amaru yezmer ad d-yesnulfu ansay-is i yiman-is. Dgha win yettarun s tutlayt tameddarsut (minoritaire) ilaq ad yelh'u tikli n ubaregh di taddart i deg zedghent ala kan tiyuzad'.

Mi ara tarud' s tbaskit, ur d-tettmagared' ara uguren ?

Tameslayt (langage) n tsekla ur tes‚i tamtilt deg wemd'al, d yiwen-is anda ma teddid', tameslayt n tsekla d tameghradit (universel) yernu tzemred' ad tt-tesqedced' s tutlayt ay k-yehwan. Id'risen (textes) imenza ay uran s tutlayt taglizit llan kan s‚an snat n tesghunin (conjonctions), nitenti d "and" akk d "but", dgha s kra ay yuran di tsekla taqburt n tutlayt-a yebna s ussemlili n wawal s snat-agi kan n tesghunit. D acu kan, citt'ah' kan mbe‚d ma yettusuqel-d Wedlis Imqeddes (Bible) si tlatinit gher teglizit, tennerna tmeslayt taseklant n teglizit, dgha bdan yimura igliziyen a sseqdacen yiwet n tseddast d tasemlalt (syntaxe complexe) akk d kra n talghiwin (formes) n ccbah'a n tutlayt ay d-red'len si tlatinit. D anect-a ay d-yed'ran ula akk d tutlayt tabaskit. Imura yecban Dechepare akk d Axular llan ssnen talatinit akk d tbaskit, dgha mi skecmen ayen tes‚a tmenzut-agi di tis snat-nni, rran tabaskit, tutlayt-nsen tayemmat, d tutlayt iwejden akken ad nettaru yis-s. Akka ay tughal tbaskit d tutlayt i yes nezmer ad naru mebla uguren.

D kettc s timmad-ik ay d-yessuqlen ungal-ik, Obabakoak, gher tespenyulit. D acu n wemgerrad yellan ger n mi ara d-yessuqel wab‚ad' adlis-is i yiman-is negh mi ara t-yefk i wemsuqel ?

Nezmer ad d-nini d akken ad'ris aseklan (texte littťraraire) d taghawsa, akken kan ara tt-tennaled', ad tbeddel. Dgha d awezghi ad neg tasuqilt tasekkalt (littťrale). Mi ara d-tessuqled', amzun tettarud'-d ayen tettwalid', ayen tfehmed' seg wab‚ad' n yed'risen. Amgerrad yellan ger n tsuqilt n menwala akk d tsuqilt ara yeg yiwen i yiman-is d tin yeqqnen gher tlelli. Mi ara nettaru s kra n tutlayt, amzun nbubb amesnay (conducteur) ghef ye‚rar-nnegh, d netta ay d agh-yemmalen abrid ara aghent tira-nnegh, d acu kan, xas llant tghawsiwin yettbeddilen, ss'eh' ur yettbeddil ara. Dgha llant snat n tghawsiwin ur nettbeddil ara si tutlayt gher tayed' : d tadyant (histoire) akk d xemsa negh setta n wawalen di yal asebter (page) seg wedlis ... wigi d awalen yes‚an azal di ccbah'a n tutlayt ay nesseqdac deg wed'ris. Xas ma yella tikwal ur ttazmaregh ara ad sqedcegh awalen-a deg wemkan-nsen mi ara d-ssuqulegh, swexxiregh-ten s kra n yizirigen (lignes) d akessar, d acu kan, ala asseqdec ay ten-sseqdacegh. Anect-a d ayen iwe‚r'en ad t-id-sfehmegh, ala d win ay yettmeslayen mlih' ama d tabaskit, ama d taspenyulit, ay izemren ad ijerr'eb aya.

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Ghef wakken nettwali, kettc d uguren n tira ayen i k-iceghben ugar n wuguren n tsertit, amek ?

Ttafxir akken ferr'h'egh mi ara iligh sdaxel n uh'anu-yinu (atelier) wala mi ara iligh di berr'a. Nnig waya, tagnit tasertit di Tmurt n Yibaskiyen d tagnit yerwin s wat'as yernu tesqelliq. Ulac akk d acu ay d-trennu di tmusni n wab‚ad'. Dgha mmugregh-d kra n wuguren asmi ay d-nnigh d akken nekk aql-i mgal n rr'ay-agi ame‚waju. Lemmer ad d-nawi yiwen n Walmani d yiwen n Wefr'ensis d yiwen n Ubaski u ad asen-nini ad agh-d-arun adlis ghef tayri, Almani yezmer ad agh-d-yaru yiwen n wedlis n xemsa yeh'ricen umi ara isemmi "Deg wayen yerzan uguren tayri", ma d Afr'ensis-nni ad d-yaru kra n wedlis d afessas u ad as-isemmi "Mazal tayri ?", ma d Abaski-nni, ad agh-d-yaru tasmed'rant (essai) umi ara isemmi "Tayri akk d wugur n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen". Medden di tmurt-nnegh a qeddcen at'as, d acu kan, ur zaden ara di tmusni, tiz'ri-nsen (thťorie) d tigellilt. Dgha d tikkelt tamenzut di Tmurt n Yibaskiyen i deg ara d-tennulfu tghelnaz'rit qessh'en akka am tin yellan ass-a.

* Gabriel Aresti : d yiwen seg yimura imeqqranen akk n tutlayt tabaskit, ili-d di 1933. Aresti yettwassen ladgha s usefru-nni-yines ameqqran, "Maldan behera" (As'ubbu) ay d-yura di 1960, u deg-s yeh'ka-d akk amezruy n wegdud abaski, seg uzarmezruy (prťhistoire) alammi d ussan-a.

Yettwaddem-d wed'ris-agi seg :

"Le Matricule des Anges" - Utt'un 13 - Ctember'-Tuber' 1995

www.lelibraire.com

Tasuqilt sghur Mohand Bouloufa.

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Tadiwennit tis snat :

Sghur Lucia Iglesias Kuntz

L.I.K. Lbat'el i‚eddan ghef tutlayt tabaskit di tallit n lbat'el n Franco d tikerkas negh d tidet ?

Bernardo Atxaga. Anect-a d tidet, xas ma yella d tidet digh ma nenna-d d akken tabaskit tella tcewwel ula di tallit-nni n wubqel n wemgaru agharim (guerre civile) n Spenyul*, asmi ay tella Tmurt n Yibaskiyen a tettidir deg wuguren imeqqranen n tdamsa (ťconomie). Assider n tutlayt di tallit-nni d ayen yellan yes'‚eb at'as imi ala kan d aggagen (intellectuels) akk d wat ddin ay yellan zemren ad qedcen ghef wanect-a. Dgha ma mmeslayegh-awen-d ghef twacult-iw, ad tzemrem ad tfehmem aya. Jeddi akk d baba-s n jeddi llan xeddmen d ibennayen dgha maci d ah'raz n tutlayt-nnegh ay yellan d aghilif-nsen. Ma d nekk, deg ugherbaz nnid'en ay ghrigh, meh'sub kkigh-d ghef yiwet n tallit i deg ay h'ulfagh i tmattant n tutlayt-nnegh yernu bdigh steqsayagh iman-iw ghef ssebbat ay izemren ad iyi-ddjent ad sr'uh'egh tutlayt-iw ay d-wer'tegh sghur n lejdud-iw. Dgha lbat'el i‚eddan fell-anegh deg ugherbaz asmi nella d imect'ah' ur yes‚i tamtilt. Lligh nekk d watmaten-iw kkaten-agh yal tikkelt i deg ara d agh-slen nettmeslay s tbaskit wagar-anegh, xas akken d tin ay d tutlayt ay nettmeslay deg yexxamen-nnegh. Yernu nella nez'ra merr'a d akken yegdel (interdit) ad nemmeslay tabaskit deg yimukan izuyaz (lieux publics) yernu s kra n win ara igen aya ad yettuxett'i.

Seg wasmi akka ay d-tughal tugdut gher Spenyul, tewwi Tmurt n Yibaskiyen tafulmant-ines (autonomie) yernu ssuffghen-d isud'af (leqwanin) imaynuten ghef tutlayin, dindin kan teffegh-d tbaskit si lbat'el aberkan gher tegnit i deg ay yettuh'ettem ghef medden ad tt-lemden deg ugherbaz. D acu tettwalid' deg wanect-a ?

Ula d taglizit tughal d tutlayt yettuh'ettment ghef yal yiwen deg ugherbaz [di Tmurt n Yibaskiyen], dgha tettghimi-d temsalt-a d tin is'e‚ben at'as. Ass-a, aql-i nesteqsay iman-iw u bghigh ad z'regh alamma d anda ay yettalas Uwanek (ddewla) d netta kan ara yettd'ebbiren deg uselmed n medden ? Taswi‚t-a, di tmura merr'a n wemd'al (ddunit), d Awanek kan ay yettd'ebbiren ad'ebber ameqqran deg uselmed; aghlif (ministŤre) n usselmed yes‚a azal meqqren di tmura merr'a, ghef waya, ur d-teqqim ara tlelli tameqqrant i wid yebghan ad yili welmad akken nnid'en. Dgha wid yettidiren di Tmurt n Yibaskiyen yernu ur bghin ad z'ren acemma ghef yedles akk d tutlayt-nnegh ur uklalen ara akk ad ten-nqader.  

Di Tmurt n Yibaskiyen, ulac wid ay i‚eddan i tlisa deg useqdec n tutlayt tabaskit ?

Akken ad awen-inigh tidet, ur cikkegh ara d akken yella waya. Ur walagh ara amek ay yezmer wezgen n umelyun n yemdanen [yettmeslayen s tbaskit] ad d'urren 35 n yimelyunen n yemdanen yettmeslayen taspenyulit, wanag ttwaligh d akken d wid ay d agh-yernan s tutlayt-nsen ayen ara yett‚eddin i tlisa. Ghef umedya (ghef lemtel), ighmisen ispenyuliyen n yal ass werdjin ttawin-d kra n telghut (lexber) yelhan ghef tutlayt tabaskit, ula d acemma, dgha nekk d anect-a umi qqaregh a‚eddi i tlisa. 

Asdukel n tjerr'umt akk d tmawalt (lexique) n tentalyin tibaskiyin deg yiwet kan n tutlayt ara fehhmen akk Yibaskiyen d tamsalt i ghef ara d-id'erru wat'as n umennugh. Dgha tettwalid' d akken terra tmara ad ‚eddin Yibaskiyen ghef wanect-a akken ad d-ssidren tutlayt-nsen ?

Ulac tutlayt deg wemd'al ay izemren ad taz' gher sdat s yemgerraden-is (diffťrences). Tutlayin merr'a s‚an tintalyin (dialectes) yemgerraden, d acu kan, yettili-d leqdic i lmend n wesdukel-nsent akken ad tent-fehhmen wid merr'a ay tent-yettmeslayen, dgha ma ur teddukel ara tutlayt, ulamek tewwed' s aswir ‚layen i deg ara tezmer ad tughal d tutlayt yeddren, d tutlayt n usselmed, n tussna negh d tin n usselh'u n tghawsiwin n tmurt. Ur nettazmar ara ad naru kra ghef tsegda (architecture) s tpidgint [d axalud' n tutlayin yebnan ghef teglizit akk d wawalen n tutlayin nnid'en], wanag ilaq ad tesqedced' taglizit tizeght (standard) i wanect-a, dgha taglizit tizeght d tin ay d-ih'ettmen iman-is deg wat'as n tmura akken ad tili d tutlayt ara yeddjen tamusni ad tezre‚ akken igerrez, akken ara tt-fehmen wat'as n medden. Llan wid umi ara ye‚djeb wanect-a am wakken ay llan wid umi ur ye‚djib ara, d acu kan, akken ay yella yeqqar yiwen n umeddakel-iw, d aselmad n tesnilsit, i yinelmaden-is ay d-yekkan si Temrikt talatinit : "tzemrem ad tesseqdacem taspangict (d axalud' n tespenyulit akk d teglizit) wagar-awen, d acu kan, ma tebgham ad trebh'em di tezrawin-nwen (ťtudes), ilaq ad tettarum s teglizit". Tutlayin merr'a ay iteddun gher sdat ttughalent cwit', cwit' d tifessasin. Dgha ameddakel-agi-yinu yenna-yi-d d akken ulac tutlayt ay iwe‚r'en am tin ay ttmeslayen deg wab‚ad' n tudrin ibe‚den yernu i‚ezlen, d imi ara naf d akken di temdinin am Chicago akk d New York, taglizit ay ttmeslayen deg-sent fessuset s wat'as ghef tin ay ttmeslayen deg wab‚ad' n tudrin ibe‚den di tmurt n Legliz.  


Kettc d amdan yessnen mlih' ama d tabaskit, ama d taspenyulit, maca aygher d tabaskit ay d tutlayt tamenzut i yes tettarud' ?

Nekk ughegh tanumi ttxemmimegh s tbaskit, dgha yis-s ay bennugh timucuha-w akk d yisefra-w. D nettat ay d tutlayt n tbad'nit-iw (initmitť) yernu yis-s ay ttarugh tinqid'in ama di Stockholm ay lligh negh di Madrid. Dgha ughegh tanumi d wanect-a yernu maci d tasnakta (idťologie) ay d i-iddjan ad gegh aya. Llan kra n medden ‚ezzlen iman-nsen deg yixejd'an i deg ttghimin d agguren ur d-teffghen ara. Ma d nekk, tanumi-yinu di tira teddja-yi ad rregh tabaskit d tutlayt tamenzut i yes ara ttarugh, d acu kan ssawd'egh digh gher tmughli i deg ur a ttwaligh ara d akken anect-a d ayen yes‚an azal, wanag zemregh ad arugh ula s tutlayin nnid'en.

D acu kan, tebghid' d kettc s timmad-ik ara d-yelhun d tsuqilt (traduction) n yiqeddicen-ik ...

Deg wemd'al, llant tutlayin yettemcabin wagar-asent, dgha kra deg-sent d takniwin ay llant akk d tiyad', am tutlayt takatalant akk d tespenyulit. Tasuqilt nekk cubagh-tt s aneggez, dgha win ara d-yessuqlen kra si tkatalant gher tespenyulit amzun ineggzen si tnergact (trottoir) s abrid. D acu kan, di tbaskit, ilaq ad neg aneggez-nnegh meqqren akken ad d-neg tasuqilt, yernu ma fkigh ayen d-urigh i wab‚ad' n yemsuqlen (traducteurs) amzun d aqemmer ay qemmregh s leqdic-iw, ur z'righ ara d acu ara d-yefk wanect-a. S umata, di r'eb‚a-yid-negh ay d as-nettenkar i tsuqilt n yiqeddicen-iw, dgha mi ara bghugh ad d-ssuqlegh leqdic-iw, imeddukal-iw ay d i-iqerben mlih' tt‚awanen-iyi, xeddmen-iyi-d tasuqilt tamenzut, d tin i seg ay d-tekksegh tasuqilt taneggarut ara d-ssuffghegh gher ssuq. Dgha yew‚er' ad d-nessefhem d acu-t umaru yettarun s snat n tutlayin yernu a tth'ulfugh d akken simmal ara yettew‚ar' fell-i ad d-ssuqlegh id'risen-iw. Simmal ssuqulegh-d deg yiqeddicen-iw, simmal tth'ulfugh d akken tisuqilin-yinu be‚‚den ghef wed'ris-nni anes'li ay urigh s tutlayt tabaskit.   

I mi ara d-tessuqled' idlisen-ik gher tutlayin nnid'en, d tasuqilt-nni n tespenyulit i tesseqdaced' d llsas, maci d ad'ris-nni anes'li yuran s tutlayt tabaskit. Ur teskaddbed' ara iman-ik deg wanect-a ?

Ala imi nekk s‚igh takti-yinu ghef tutlayt, d takti i yes ttidiregh yal ass, d tin i deg ttwaligh d akken ula d taspenyulit tes‚a ghur-i amkan n tutlayt tayemmat. Deg webrid ay d-wwigh di tudert-iw, llant snat n tutlayin tiyemmatin ttidirent ta tama n ta yernu ttwaligh d akken s‚igh zzher' nekkini ay yessnen ad mmeslayegh yis-sen mlih' di snat yid-sent. 

Tettwalid' iman-ik d aghelnaz'ri (nationaliste) ?

Spenyul ur tt-ugigh ara. Si tama n tsertit, ur ddigh akk d wid yettnadin azarug (indťpendance) yernu Spenyul ur tt-ttwaligh d tuddsa (organisation) n d iri, wala d tamurt n d iri, wanag nezmer ad nidir deg-s u ad d-nini d acu ixuss'en deg-s. 

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* Amgaru agharim n Spenyul : d amgaru i deg nnughen wid yebghan ad rren Spenyul d tigduda d wid yebghan ad teqqim tgeldit si 1936 gher 1939. Sakin, seg useggas-nni d asawen, d Franco ay yernan wid yebghan tigduda u d netta ay yughalen d aqerru n leh'kem di Spenyul. Di 1947, Franco yerra-d tageldit (monarchie) gher Spenyul, d acu kan, ula d yiwen ur yettalas ad yili d agellid ala kan ma yughal Franco ur yezmir ara ad yeh'kem negh ye‚zem ad yeddj lehkem i ugellid. Di tallit-nni akk n leh'kem-is, Spenyul tughal d tamurt i deg ttwagedlen (interdit) yikabaren isertiyen akk d tdukliwin, yernu ala kan d taspenyulit ay d tutlayt yes‚an az'ayer (statut) di tmurt-a. Imawlan n tutlayin nnid'en akk n Spenyul (tabaskit, takatalant, tagalisit, atg.) llan ttnaghen akken zemren akken ad s‚un izerfan-nsen idelsanen. Dgha yiwet si tmiwa ay yent'erren at'as akk si lbat'el n Franco d tama n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen i deg ay d-tennulfa terba‚t timselleh't n ETA, ay yebdan imenghi i lmend n uzarug (indťpendance) n Yibaskiyen. Franco yemmut di 1975, u temmut yid-s tallit-nni n lbat'el ameqqran. Seg wass-n d asawen, tennefsusi ccedda i deg llant ttidirent tutlayin timeddursa (minoritaires) di Spenyul, u ttunefken-asent akk yiz'uyar (statuts) di tmiwa i deg ay tent-ttmeslayen.   

Sghur Lucia Iglesias Kuntz

Tasuqilt n Omar MOUFFOK

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I tmerniwt n yisallen, rzut ghef wassaghen-agi :

http://www.unesco.org
Amd'iq amens'ab n Tuddsa n Yeghlanen Yedduklen i uselmed d tussna, din tzemrem ad d-tafem at'as n yisallen ghef tutlayin timeddursa am tbaskit negh tamazight.

http://www.mondeberbere.com/tabrat/trabat2.htm
Deg usebter-agi tzemrem ad tafem utt'un 2 n Tebrat n Yimedyazen, i deg d-nemmeslay yagi ghef wegdud abaski akk d wuguren ay d-yettmagar ussider n yedles ghur-sen.

http://www.mondeberbere.com/tabrat/index.htm
Deg usebter-agi tzemrem ad d-tafem utt'unen merr'a n Tebrat n Yimedyazen, seg umenzu alamma d wis 11. 

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Anwa ay d Bernardo Atxaga ?

Isem-is n tidet Joseba Irazu, yernu ilul-d di 1951 di temdint n Asteasu, di temnad't n Guipuzcoa, di Tmurt n Yibaskiyen n wenz'ul (sud), di Spenyul. Atxaga ay yeghran tussniwin tudmisin (sciences ťconomiques) di tesdawit, yeqdec azal n h'dac wagguren di tbanka (banque) di temdint n San Sebastian. Sakin, yughal gher tesdawit akken ad igher tasnagayt (philosophie) u seg yimir-n ay yekcem s amd'al n tira akken ad yughal d yiwen seg yimura imeqqranen n tutlayt tabaskit akk d tespenyulit. 

Adlis amezwaru ay d-yessuffegh d ammud (recueil) n yisefra umi isemma Ziutateak (timdinin), yura-t di 1976, yernu sin n yiseggasen sakin, yerna yessuffegh-d ammud nnid'en n yisefra, Etiopia, d win i yes ay ibeddel si lqa‚a tamedyazt (poťsie) tabaskit u yerbeh'-d fell-as arraz n wezghan (prix de la critique) aspenyuli. Ikemmel dgha seg yimir-n yettaru, u di ‚ecrin n yiseggasen-nni ay d-id'efren, yessuffegh-d ugar n ‚ecrin n yedlisen n tsekla i yigerdan akk d yelmez'yen, am wakken ay yura imsuyas (scťnarios) i wat'as n tesgilin (ťmissions) n rr'adyu akk d tceqfatin n umezgun (thť‚tre). Atxaga yes‚a digh assagh idjehden akk d uz'awan (musique) abaski imi ay yura ach'al n tezlatin s tutlayt-is.

D acu kan, tamelt-yines (cťlťbritť) tameqqrant deg wemd'al n tsekla yekseb-itt-id s wungalen-is i yes ay yughal yettwassen akk deg wemd'al ladgha imi ay ten-id-ssuqlen gher wat'as n tutlayin. Ungal amenzu ay yura, "Bi anai" (Sin watmaten) yerbeh'-d yis-s Atxaga arraz n wezghan i tikkelt tis snat di 1985. R'eb‚a n yiseggasen sakin, di 1988, yessuffegh-d Atxaga ungal-is ay ifazen akk, Obabakoak (at Obaba), d win i ghef d-yerbeh' Arraz Aghelnaw n Tsekla (Primio Nacional de Literatura) n Spenyul u yella-d d amaru abaski amenzu ara d-irebh'en arraz-agi, am wakken ay d-yerbeh' digh fell-as arraz n wedlis abaski, Euskadi, akk d warraz n wezghan aspenyuli i tikkelt tis tlata. Obabakoak nzan seg-s 30.000 n wudmawen (exemplaires). Si ger yedlisen nnid'en ay yettwassnen ay d-yessuffegh Atxaga, nezmer ad d-nebder "Tamurt n Yibaskiyen akk d Yedles negh mi ara d-yaki yinisi", "Anz'ad ay d-yemghin deg yiles" akk d yiwen n wedlis i yigerdan isem-is "Shola akk d yilfan". Si melmi kan, yerna yessuffegh-d daghen sin yedlisen s wazal-nsen, "Argaz awh'id" akk d "Igenwan-nni". Tirawt n Bernardo Atxaga d tin i deg texled' tsekla tamaynut n wass-a akk d tsekla tamsilawt (rťaliste) ay d-yettmeslayen ghef tghawsiwin akken llant di tudert, ama lhant, ama d iri-tent. Deg wungalen-is, Atxaga yettban-d seg wid yekkaten ghef ugama (nature) yernu udmawen (personnages) d wid ay d-yeddem seg wegdud abaski ara yettqabalen lehmum n tmetti (sociťtť) n tallit-agi-nnegh. Yugh lh'al, werdjin yenwi Atxaga d akken ad d-yawed' wass i deg ara yughal yisem-is mechur' am wass-a, yernu kra ttxemmimen, qqaren-as d akken Bernardo Atxaga yessawed' ad as-d-yerr ttar' i tutlayt tabaskit, ay yettwah'eqren ach'al, imi ass-a tewwed' Madrid alammi ay teste‚r'ef s yiwen n umara d Abaski. 

Sghur Omar MOUFFOK

Win yeslan ad yini i wiyad'

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Arut-agh-d, gret-d tamawin-nwen, neqqar l‚eslama i s kra n tebrat ara d agh-d-yawd'en sghur-wen. 

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad
16006, Alger, Algťrie

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