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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

Utt'un 2
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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad, 16006, Alger, Algérie
imedyazen89@yahoo.fr

Tabrat n Yimedyazen

Taghmist n Tiddukla - Utt'un 2

Tigejdit :

Azul fell-awen ay atmaten d teysetmatin

Tanemmirt i wid merr'a ay d agh-d-yuznen tibratin imi ay d-nett'ef tiririyin ay d agh-yesfer'h'en at'as yernu rrant-agh-d asirem u sseknent-d d akken llan at'as n medden ay yesâan tamazight deg wul. Nesnemmir s wat'as wid ay d agh-d-yerran s tmazight, imi ay fehmen mlih' iswi n leqdic-nnegh, am wakken nesnemmir Imazighen ay d agh-d-yuran s tefr'ensist negh s tutlayin nnid'en, u nessutur seg wid yessnen seg-sen tamazight i tikkelt nnid'en, ad agh-d-ttarun kan s tmazight u ad fken azal meqqren i takti n usseqdec n tmazight ger n Yimazighen. Nesnemmir digh s kra n wid ay gh-d-yuran s tutlayin tiberr'aniyin, ama d Imazighen negh d iberr'aniyen, ama d wid ay gh-d-igan ifadden negh d wid ay d-yesteqsan.

Yugh lh'al, nessefray ad tili tebrat-nni ay d awen-nuzen d ah'urif amenzu i lmend n ussider n tutlayt-nnegh, akken ad as-d-nerr ccan-is ghur-negh, nekni s wid tt-yettmeslayen, nekni s yimawlan-is, yernu ur nettak ara fell-as afus.

Ma nenna-d ass-a d akken tamazight attan a tettidir deg yir taswiât, d akken ghef yiri n wecr'uf ay tella, at'as n wid ur d agh-nettamen ara. Ur d agh-ttamnen ara acku ass-a, mazal tzehher teswiât, mazal nezmer ad nsel i Leqbayel ttmeslayen taqbaylit di Tmurt n Leqbayel, negh Irifiyen d Yicelh'iyen ttmeslayen tamazight deg yidurar n Merr'uk. Ur ttamnen ara, acku mazal sellen i temgharin cennunt-d isefra s tmazight-nni n zik, yernu sellen s trebbuyaâ ara ixeddmen akk ayen umi zemrent akken ad slemdent tamazight i wid yellan di Tmurt negh wid yellan di lgherba. D acu kan, tamazight ass-a ur tesâi ara tt'mana, deg wanect-a ay temxallaf d tutlayin nnid'en.

Ilmez'yen d telmez'yin lemmden tafr'ensist d taâr'abt, snat tutlayin-agi ay idjehden di Tmazgha akk d lgherba, dgha ass-agi nettaf at'as deg-negh ur yezmir ad iserreh' yiles-nsen di tmazight akken ay iserreh' di tutlayin tiberr'aniyin. Imgharen d temgharin yest'ent'unen tamazight n lejdud, atni la ttmettaten wa sdeffir wa, ta sdeffir ta, mebla ma necfa i wayen umi cfan(t), u ttaddjan(t)-agh-d taqaâet d tilemt : tamazight nettmeslay ass-a, simmal tettughal d tigellilt, simmal keccment-tt-id tutlayin tiberr'aniyin, ttakent aâer'bun fell-as, akken ad tt-awint sani grarbent tutlayin yemmuten. Ma d inelmaden n tmazight, ama di Tmurt negh di lgherba, akken yebghu yili-ten, ur tt'uqqten ara, yernu ur nezmir ad nessugen (ad nxayel) tamazight tettusider-d di lgherba, yili di tmurt-is attan a tettmettat, imi ay s-qqaren wat zik "win yebgha les'lah', ad yezwir seg wat wexxam".

D wagi ay d ugur umi ilaq ad as-nfaq uqbel ma ifat lawan imi tutlayt-nnegh ur nezmir ad nefk fell-as afus. Tamawt ay d-nger nekni ass-a, at'as n wid ur s-d-nerri s lexbar, at'as n wid ur a tt-numin ara acku ur a tt-ttwalin ara s wallen-nsen. D acu kan, nessaram d akken ad ilin at'as n wid ara d-yeldin allen-nsen u ad walin talafsa yeffren, tata idergen i tmughli, ad walin d akken yella umihi (danger) ghef tutlayt, xas yiwen ur a d-yettmeslay fell-as, xas zzhir-nni n twaghit ass-a yeffer-it utceqlel n tutlayin tiberr'aniyin, nessaram d akken ad ilin at'as n wid ur nettaddja ara tawaghit ad d-ted'ru u ad d-akin uqbel ma ifat lawan : ad as-fken amkan-is i tmazight deg wulawen-nsen.

Qqaren-as : "H'ebber' uqbel ad ted'ru" 

Tanemmirt

IMEDYAZEN

TABURJWAZIT TABASKIT TEDDJA IDLES ABASKI

Aqeddem n wed'ris-agi :

[Adr'is-agi ay d-nefren i watmaten-nnegh s tmazight, nessefray d yili d amenzu seg wat'as n yed'risen nnid'en ara ghren deg weghmis-nnegh. Ad'ris-nnegh n wass-a d win d-yettmeslayen ghef wugur yettidir yedles abaski, ara ttaddjan yinesbughar (imer'kantiyen) d yemdanen yesâan tamkant âlayen di tmetti tabaskit, u d igellilen akk d lâamma n medden ay d as-igan leqrar. Ugur-agi yettidir-it ula d idles-nnegh, d acu kan ass-a nefren ad d-nemmeslay ghef yedles abeppani acku nesâa digh at'as ara d-nelmed seg yidelsan nnid'en d yegduden nnid'en. Deg umagrad-agi ad nz'er d akken wid umi meqqer ccan deg umezruy abaski, xas tettunefk-asen tegnit ad d-ssukksen idles-nsen ajaddiw u ad as-fken tamkant yuklal di tmurt-nsen, maca ur s-xdimen acemma, ay wwin ala kan d cciâa bat'el. Akka digh ay ted'ra d wat'as n yidelsan nnid'en di ddunit imi yiwen n uâekkaz ay d agh-yewwten. Nessaram-awen afud igerrzen.] 

DI TMURT N YIBASKIYEN N UGAFA (nord)

Tamurt n Yibaskiyen Anadi di tserkam (classes sociales) n tmetti n leqrun wis 16, wis 17 d wis 18 yesskanay-d d akken tiserkam ih'ekmen Tamurt n Yibaskiyen di tallit-nni llant tekksent-d rrbeh'-nsent seg yiqeddicen ay llant xeddment i lmend n Ugellid n Fr'ansa akk d Navarre n Wadda, dgha ghef wanect-a, kra n Yibirjwaziyen ibaskiyen llan tts'ah'en-asen-d yimukan âlayen di leh'kem, yettxellis'-iten ugellid, seââun tifesniwin (grades) deg yigen (armée) yernu tekksen-asen i wiyad' ixfawen-nsen ihaggapen (titres de noblesse) akk d yimukan-nsen n leh'kem. Sponde, Bela, Belsance, Gramont, Etchauz akk d Meharin llan seg wid yett'fen leh'kem u tuli yis-sen ddunit imi ay sennden gher tgeldit tafr'ensist akk d yimasiwen (seigneurs) ay iqerben s agellid. Wwd'en alammi ay ten-tecrek nnesba yid-sen yernu sduklen ssâaya-nsen akk d tin n wigi. D acu kan, anect-agi digh yessawed'-iten ad ssersen imal n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen ger n yifassen n Fr'ansa, ur reglen- as abrid i uzureg (indépendance) n tmurt-nsen.  Tawaddfa-yagi (intégration) yessbanay-agh-tt-id mlih' umezruy di tallit n Wemgaru n Tesred't (guerre de Religion) [asmi ay nnughen Yikat'uliyen d Yepr'utistanen di Fr'ansa si 1562 gher 1598]. Imir-n, at'as n yimasiwen ibaskiyen (am Luxe, Espelette, Garou, Etchauz akk d Domezain) ay d-ibedden i lmend n Ugellid n Fr'ansa, akken ad t-h'udden, dgha rran timura-nsen s ddaw n leh'kem n tgeldit, ladgha di tallit n Charles IX. Yernu nnernan wassaghen (relations) n lemâawna ugar di tallit n Henri IV (Henri III n Navarre), ay d-yeskecmen at'as n yimasiwen Ibaskiyen gher leqs'er-ines u gar-asen nezmer ad d-nader Armendaritz, Laxague akk d Haramboure.

Tawaddfa-yagi n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen gher Fr'ansa yesseâjel-itt-id rrbeh' n tgeldit mgal n Usemmeskel (Réformation) [abeddel n tesred't takat'ulit] akk d wesbeddi n tsertit n usselmes (centralisation) tafr'ensist.

"I tghimit n tlella, n yesladen akk d yeglamen" ("pour la maintenance des libertés, des exemptions et des privilèges") d awal ay llan ttâawaden-t-id si Palais alamma d Ustaritz, Yibaskiyen inesbughar (imer'kantiyen) yett'fen leh'kem di leqrun wis 17 d wis 18. Kra n yenmezrayen (historiens) walan anect-a  d asuter n Yibaskiyen akken ad awin tilelli u ad h'ekmen i yiman-nsen tisuda (institutions) tibaskiyin, d acu kan, anect-a ur is'ehh'a ara imi d wid-n akken ay yellan qqaren-d awal-agi ay yellan tekksen-d lfayda meqqren si tedbelt (administration) n Tgeldit tafr'ensist. Ihi, "tilelli" ay llan ssuturen-tt-id wigi yezmer kan ahat ad ilin qes'den-d yis-s lebghi-nsen akken ad ten-id-tughal tlelli-nni n zik ay d asen-tespuh' tsertit n usselmes n Fr'ansa, am wakken ara yili usuter-agi-nsen yesskanay-d digh tugdi-nsen akken ad asen-tpuh' tlelli d leh'kem sya ar sdat imi di tallit-nni tella a d-tettenka r tserkemt tamaynut n yemzenza (commerçants) d yimawlan n wakal akk d yimesbankiyen (banquiers) ilibir'aliyen, ay yellan ttughalen d inesbughar (imer'kantiyen) s lâejlan yernu zgan-d mgal n uqader n yisud'af, akken ma llan. Nezmer dgha ad d-nefk sin n yimedyaten i deg ara d-nesban aya :

Di 1784, ssutren yimawlan n wakal inesbughar n Navarre seg unemzagh (avocat) n Béarnais, Polverel, ad as-yaru asektay (mémorandum) i Ugellid n Fr'ansa i deg ara d as-yessefhem aygher ay ilaq ad qqiment "tlella d yesladen" n tgeldit n Navarre, dgha asmi yexdem aya, fkan-as yimawlan n wakal Ibaskiyen amkan gar-asen, yughal ula d netta yesâa akal u yerbeh'-d ixef n tihhugr'a. D acu kan, lemmer ad nwali mlih' s agbur (contenu) n wayen d-issumer, ad nz'er d akken Polverel yessider-d takti n ussuter n tfulmant (autonomie) di lweqt i deg wiyad' akk ttun-tt [u a ttxemmimen amek ara kemmlen ad ttidiren deg yeglamen -privilèges- s ddaw n leânaya n Fr'ansa], yernu yewwet-d Polverel deg usektay-is mgal n "unedbal n wakalen" (administrateur des domaines) ay yellan yekkat mgal n twaculin tinesbughar timaynutin n yemzenza akk d yimesbankiyen. Yugh lh'al, Polverel iger-d tivri, xas maci s ledjher', akken ad asen-d-ughalen i Yibaskiyen yizerfan-nsen ay sen-yefka umezruy, ad asen-d-tuval tmurt n lejdud-nsen i deg ttalasen, yernu ayen ara d-yesbegnen aya netta d akken Polverel yuv abrid-is i yiman-is asmi ay d-tekker Tegrawla tafr'ensist.

Atmaten n twacult n Garat n Ustaritz, ay ttwalin yenmazrayen seg wid yellan tth'uddun "tisuda tibaskiyin", leâben ddur' d ameqqran di lebni n Tegrawla tafr'ensist akk d wesbeddi n unagraw azerfan (système juridique) d tedbelt tamaynut n Fr'ansa. D acu kan, asmi ay ttwakksen akk yeglamen imsugal (privilèges féodaux) deg yid' n 4 Ghect 1789, ttwakksent ula d tisuda tibaskiyin, xas akken ifuk lh'if ghef wegdud abaski, ay yeddren ach'al d leqrun s ddaw n lbat'el n yimasiwen, ma d atmaten n twacult n Garat, rewlen s tuffra si tmurt.

Tagrawla tafr'ensist tefka azal, di tgara, i tutlayt tafr'ensist ay yughalen d tutlayt tawh'idt i yes tteddu tegduda, i yes ttdeddu tedbelt akk d yigherbazen.

Ibaskiyen n Ugafa (n Fr'ansa) ay d-yuran ghef tnettit tabaskit seg yimir-n d asawen, am Antoine d'Abbadie di "Eskualtzaleen Biltzara", ur d asen-iban ara webrid ara aghen, wanag llan ttmalen tikwal gher tesnakta (idéologie) takar'lit (carlisme), tikwal gher tesnakta tafr'ensist yerran tutlayin timedrusa (langues minoritaires) n Fr'ansa d aôric kan seg ufulklur' n tmiwa n tmurt. D acu kan, llan-d kra n yemyura ay nezmer ad d-nini d akken d tisuraf (exceptions), am Chaho akk d Broussain.

DI TMURT N YIBASKIYEN N WENZ'UL (sud), DI SPENYUL

Di lqern wis 18, talibir'alit taspenyulit tella d nettat ay d tasnakta ay d'efrent s umata tserkam âlayen (hautes classes) n Yibaskiyen n Spenyul, wid yellan sâan at'as n wakal, akk d yiburjwaziyen n temdinin yebdan seââun akal negh llan bghan ad t-sâun. Taghdart (élite) n Yibaskiyen akk d tin n Yikatalanen llant d tirebbaâ yesâan aswir adelsan (niveau culturel) âlayen akk di tmetti taspenyulit, yernu llan dima d nitni ay d imezwura di tmurt ay d-ilemmden ayen d-yettnulfun d amaynut di tussna di tmura nniêen n Tuppuft (Europe). At'as deg-sen ay yellan ttaznen arraw-nsen akken ad ghren di tesdawiyin n Fr'ansa d Legliz negh di tesdawit n Bergara. D tarbaât-agi digh ay d-yesbedden Takebbanit n Caracas, d takebbanit n tnezzawt (commerce) meqqren ay tt'fen Yibaskiyen yernu tettekka mlih' di tenneflit (développement) n Venezuela.

Tura-d tmesnalest (anthropologue) Marianne Heiberg :

"Deg wayen yerzan tinettit, at tegrawt-agi llan ttwalin iman-nsen d akken ulac wi yellan d "Ispenyuliyen" ugar-nsen di Spenyul. Llan h'esben iman-nsen s'ubben-d seg wid-n akken umi ur xlid'en ara yidammen akk d Yimur'iyen negh Uwdayen, wid-n akken yessuffghen ikefr'iyen* yernu rran-d tagherma akk d Temsih'it (chrétienneté) gher tmurt. Xas ulamma at'as deg-sen llan ttmeslayen tabaskit, d taspenyulit ay llan smenyafayen ad tt-sqedcen ama deg wexxam negh di berr'a".

U terna-d :

"Dgha amkan ay d as-fkan wigi i tbaskit d win kan n tutlayt n yimeksawen, d tutlayt n yimezdaghen n tmurt ur d-neswi si tala n tt'beâ akk d tgherma, di lweqt i deg taspenyulit tella d tutlayt n tt'beâ, n yedles, n leqraya akk d rrbeh' n temdinin, yernu simmal yella yettali ccan n temdinin, simmal tella tettughal tbaskit di rrif, tettzad fell-as th'eqranit".

[*yugh lh'al, Ispenyuliyen yennughen mgal n Yinselmen di Spenyul, llan ttwalin Inselmen d Wuwdayen d ikefr'iyen.]

Si 1876 d asawen, beddlen wid yellan di tserkam yett'fen leh'kem : anekcum  n tmurt n Yibaskiyen s ulzuz (ssuq) akk d usad'uf (lqanun) aspenyuli yewwi-d yid-s yiwet n tegrawt (tarbaât) tamaynut n yinesbughar iqeddcen di temguri (industrie) akk d tbankiwin (banques), yernu wigi wwd'en alammi ay tt'fen imukan âlayen deg udabu aspenyuli. Iburjwaziyen-agi yennerna leh'kem d timmepkantit-nsen asmi ay d-sbedden anagraw (système) n "Conciertos Economicos" (Iburaz Udmisen - concerts économiques), d ayen ay ten-yeddjan ad rren tiseqquma n temnad'in (conseils provinciaux) s ddaw n leh'kem-nsen u ad sneqsen tiwsi (impôts) ghef wayen llan xeddmen-t-id u znuzuyen-t, dgha anect-a yegla-d s uxess'ar ameqqran ghef tserkemt n yiqeddacen akk d wegdud s umata. Tamsedrast-agi (oligarchie) tabaskit tughal d ah'ric si tburjwazit taghelnawt taspenyulit yernu agherya ad teqdec i lmend n lebni n tmurt timsihrit tatrart (capitali ste moderne) di Tmurt n Yibaskiyen, nettat teqdec i lebni n tmurt n Spenyul.

TASDAWIT N BERGARA

Tasudut Tageldant tabaskit n Yimeddukal n Tmurt (Real Sociedad Basconcada de los Amigos del Pais), ay d-tesbedd trist'uqrat'it n Azkoitia, tella d tagrawt tameqqrant akk ay yesselh'an tikta n "Teftilin" (idées du Siècle des Lumières) di Tmurt n Yibaskiyen. D tasudut-agi ay s-d-yefkan amedya i ugellid asemmeskal (réformiste) Carlos III akken ad d-yesbedd tisuda am nettat di tmiwa merr'a n Spenyul. Taburjwazit tupuffit (européenne) tamaynut tella tettnadi ad d-tesbedd yiwet n tesnakta "tanelsawt" (idéologie humaniste) d tamaynut i ghef ara tebnu assaghen-is akk d th'er'sin (colonies), dgha seg yimir-n ay yughal usseh'r'es (colonisation) yettwaxdam s yisem n "ussiwed' n tgherma" s igduden ur tt-nessin ara.

Amagrad (article) amezwaru n uz'ayer (statut) n tsudut-agi yeqqar-d : "Iswi n tsudut-agi netta d asnerni n usselmed akk d ussebghes (encouragement) n Yibaskiyen akken ad lemmden tussna, tiz'uryin akk d tz'uryin icebh'en (beaux arts), d tukksa n wayen n d iri akk d usselhu n wansayen-nsen, d tukksa n lqella n ccghel d lqella n tmusni akk d unad'eh' mgal n yixess'aren i yes d-igellu wanect-agi, akk d ussedjhed n tdukli ger n tlata n temnad'in n Yibaskiyen [tispenyuliyin] n Alava, Vizcaya akk d Guipozcoa". Leqdic ifazen akk ay xedmen yirist'uqrat'iyen n Azkoitia di lqern wis 18 netta d asbeddi n "Tesdawit n Bergara" di 1767, akk d unagmay-nni-yines (laboratoire) ussnan ay imechur'en. Tasdawit n Bergara tughal d tasdawit talaykit (laïque) tamezwarut akk di Spenyul, d acu kan, xas akken tettekka deg wesnerni n tussna akk d yedles, maca tarist'uqrat'it tabaskit ur teddji ara tutlayt tabaskit ad tughal d nettat ay d tutlayt n usselmed akk d unadi di tesdawit.

Tangiwin ay llan sselmaden-tent di tesdawit n Bergara d tigi : tasengama tarmawit (physique expérimentale), takrura (chimie), tasnekfilt (minéralogie), tussniwin talsiyin (sciences humaines), tusnakt, tasnagayt (philosophie), tasniklit (éthique), llsisan n tesred't (n ddin), tamedyazt, tamesghanibt (stylique), tasnadent (statistiques), amezruy aghelnaw akk d id "fueros" (isud'af negh leqwanin n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen), tutlayt tabaskit, talatinit, taspenyulit, tafr'ensist, taneglizit, tat'alyanit, az'awan (musique) akk d ccna, aharag (gymnastique), imenghi s tkuba (escrime) akk d tedrest (ccd'eh').

Tasdawit-a tga-d inermisen (contacts) akk d wammasen (centres) n unadi imeqqranen akk n Turr'uft. Atmaten Elhuyar, ay d-ilulen di Tmurt n Yibaskiyen n Ugafa (di Fr'ansa) yernu mechur'it deg wennar n unadi, kecmen-d gher tesdawit-a di 1778, u di 1783 ssawd'en ad d-âezlen aferdis n "wolfram", win umi neqqar ass-a tungsten, seg umaghus (acide) n Wolfram, yernu lexbar n tegrut-nsen (découverte) tessuffegh-it-id Tsudut Tageldant Tabaskit di tesghunt-is (revues) umi qqaren "Extractos".

Tasdawit n Bergara tettekka maci d kra deg wesnerni n yedles akk d tussna, maca terra tutlayt tabaskit di rrif deg wayen yerzan asseqdec-yines deg unadi akk d usselmed. Daxel n tesdawit, tabaskit tella tesâa kan amkan n tutlayt n unagmay (langue de laboratoire) negh tecba taghawsa ay yettrusun deg usalay (musée), yernu axess'ar n wanect-a mazal nettidir-it ar ass-a, imi mazal akka ay twalin yiburjwaziyen ibaskiyen tutlayt-nsen.

Sdat n th'eqranit n tburjwazit, ala kan d ansayen n wegdud ay yeddjan tutlayt d yedles ibaskiyen ad idiren u ad menâen si nnger akk d tutut.

Amagrad-agi newwi-t-id seg weghmis n "Euskal Herria", d aghmis adelsan abaski.


D acu-ten Yibaskiyen ?

Ibaskiyen d imezdaghen n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen, d yiwet n tama ay d-yuzgan ghef yiri n yilel (lebh'er'), ger n Fr'ansa akk d Spenyul akk d yidurar n Pyrénées utrimen (igherbiyen). D nitni ay d imezdaghen iqdimen akk n tmiwa-yagi yernu ttmeslayen yiwet n tutlayt, tabaskit, seg wakken d taqdimt, ar ass-a werâad d-ufin yimassanen d acu n tutlayt nnid'en ay tt-icuban negh d acu n twacult n tutlayin i gher ara tt-qqnen. Tamurt n Yibaskiyen ass-a tebd'a ghef sin yeh'ricen. Yiwen weh'ric, win n ugafa (nord), d Fr'ansa ay t-ih'ekmen u yuzga-d ugezdu (département) n Pyrénées-Atlantiques, ma d ah'ric nnid'en, win n wenz'ul (sud), d Spenyul ay t-ih'ekmen yernu yebd'a ghef snat n tmiwa (timettiyin tifulmanin - communautés autonomes) : tin n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen, tamaneght-is d Vitoria, akk d tin n Navarra u tamaneght-is qqaren-as Pamplona. D acu kan, Ibaskiyen ara yessuturen acôal d iseggasen aya ad awin azarug-nsen (indépendance), ttwalin tamu rt-nsen d yiwet-is, agdud-nsen yeddukel, yernu smenyafayen ad semmin i yiman-nsen "Euskaldunak" u ad semmin i tmurt-nsen "Euskadi", ma d tutlayt-nsen, qqaren-as "Euskara".

Di Spenyul llan azal n 2.600.000 n Yibaskiyen di lweqt i deg di Fpansa llan kan 250.000. Azal n 700.000 n Yibaskiyen ay yettmeslayen tabaskit di Spenyul, di lweqt i deg di Fpansa, 400.00 kan ay tt-yettmeslayen.

Ibaskiyen sâan yiwet n tgherma d taqdimt at'as yernu mazal-itt tedder ar ass-a, u sâan yiwet n tsekla tatlayt (littérature orale) d tamer'kantit maci d kra, cennun-tt-id kra akken n yimedyazen umi qqaren id "bertsolari". Ibaskiyen mazal digh tt'fen deg wat'as n wansayen, gar-asen takessawt n wakraren deg wedrar, addal n takurt tabaskit akk d wadag (broderie) n yicett'id'en.

Amezruy-nsen :

Idrizen (traces) iqdimen akk ay d-ufan ghef Yibaskiyen ttughalen gher 8000 n yiseggasen uqbel n Sidna Aisa, u akken yebghu yili, d igiman (milliers) n yiseggasen ayaka seg wasmi ara ttidiren Yibaskiyen di tmiwa-yagi i deg llan ass-a. Seg wasmi ay bdan a d-keccmen yiberr'aniyen gher tmurt-nsen, Ibaskiyen, ladva wid n Navarra, zgan-d mgal-nsen u nud'h'en akken ad ilin d ilelliyen. Dgha nnughen mgal n Rr'uman yernu di tallit i deg llan Yinselmen sbedden tixlifin-nsen (califats) di Spenyul, yernu Fr'ansa llan h'ekmen-tt Yefr'anken (Francs), ssawd'en Yibaskiyen ad d-gen tageldit timziregt (indépendante) di Navarra di 850, s ddaw n leh'kem n Inigo Arista. Tageldit-agi tewwed' gher tallit-is n wuregh s ddaw n leh'kem n Sancho III Ameqqran, ay ih'ekmen tamurt si 1000 alammi d 1035. Ma di tama n ugafa, llan sâan digh Yibaskiyen yiwet n tgeldit nnid'en ay yellan qrib d timziregt, d tin umi qqaren Soule. D acu kan, deg yiseggasen ay d-id'efren, tufa-d Navarra iman-is zzint-as-d tgeldiwin timsih'iyin (chrétiennes) si yal tama yernu tigi gant fell-as lh'er's akken ad teddj tilelli-yines u llant tettent-as-d seg wakal-is, dgha seg yimir-n ay tughal Navarra tettâeddi sya gher da s ddaw n leânaya n tgeldiwin-agi (Castilla, Aragon akk d Fpansa), akken ur tseââu ara uguren yid-sent. Maca, xas tella Navarra tettâeddi s yisem s ddaw n leh'kem aberr'ani, isud'af-yines (leqwanin-is) d yeglamen (privilèges) n wid ay tt-ih'ekmen llan mazal ttuqadaren. Ma d tageldit tabaskit n Soule tebda ula d nettat tettâeddi s ddaw n leânaya n lh'ekkam ifr'ensisen u seg yimir-n ay tebda a tespuh'uy cwit', cwit' tilelli-yines. Di 1234, yuli Champagne Thibaud Amenzu gher leh'kem di Navarra u yewwi amkan n twacult-nni yellan teh'kem tamurt uqbel, d anect-a ay yeddjan Navarra ad teqqen gher Fr'ansa si 1284 alammi d 1328. D acu kan, di tallit-nni n leh'kem afr'ensis, tessedjhed Navarra tinettit-is tasertit (identité polit ique), yernu werdjin qbilen Yibaskiyen ad ten-teh'kem Fr'ansa. Xas akken ifuk leh'kem usrid (direct) n Fr'ansa di Navarra, d yiwet n twacult tafr'ensist, Evreux, ay ikemmlen teh'kem tamurt. Ma d tama n Soule yewwi-tt ugellid n Fr'ansa, Philippe le Bel di 1306, u seg yimir-n ay tughal d ah'ric si tgeldit tafr'ensist. Uguren ay tella tesâa twacult n Evreux di Navarra ldin-as tawwurt i Ferdinand II n Aragon akken ad yesdukel tama-yagi gher tgeldit n Castilla. Ma Navarra n Wadda (negh Navarre yellan gher tama n Fr'ansa) tewwi-tt twacult tafr'ensist n Bourbon di lqern wis XVI. Di 1607, agellid n Fr'ansa, Henri IV (Henri III n Navarra), ay yellan si twacult-agi, ikemmel asdukel Navarra n Wadda gher Fr'ansa u seg wass-n ay tughal d ah'ric si tmurt-a, tlehh'u s usad'uf n Fr'ansa. Ma d Navarra taspenyulit, xas akken tella d ah'ric si Spenyul s yisem, kemmlent tsuda-yines (institutions) a xeddment alammi d 1841, asmi ay d asen-ttwakksen i lh'ekkam ibaskiyen n tama-nni iglamen-nsen (pr ivilèges). Yugh lh'al, teghli Tmurt n Yibaskiyen di bedd'u akk d leh'kem aberr'ani imi, si tama, Ibaskiyen ur nudan ara ad d-gen tamurt meqqren yedduklen, si tama nnid'en, timura d-yezzin fell-as llant ugarent Tamurt n Yibaskiyen di ldjehd. Di 1959, snulfan-d yighelnaz'riyen (nationalistes) ibaskiyen yiwet n tuddsa (organisation) timselleh't, isem-is E.T.A, d tin ara yekkaten i lmend n uzarug (indépendance) n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen di Spenyul, xas akken tettunefk-as tfulmant (autonomie) i tama-yagi akk d Navarra di 1980.


Arut-agh-d, gret-d tamawin-nwen, neqqar lâeslama i s kra n tebrat ara d agh-d-yawd'en sghur-wen. 

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
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