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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

Utt'un 16

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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad, 16006, Alger, Algťrie
Tabrat n Yimedyazen
 
Taghmist n Tiddukla - Utt'un 16
 
(ddur't n 17  Dujember' gher 23 Dujember' 2005)
 
Zik neqqar win yebghan tamazight, ad yissin tira-s
Ass-a neqqar win yebghan tamazight, ad tt-yaru

Tigejdit :

Mbe‚d ma tghab ugar n sin yiseggasen, taghmist-nnegh tughal-d. At'as aya seg wasmi ara nettxemmim ad tt-id-nerr, d acu kan, d ayen akk-n ay d agh-yeddjan ad tt-neddj ay d agh-yekksen ad tt-id-nerr. Yugh lh'al, ass-a mazal xuss'en yighallen iqeddcen ghef tmazight, yernu ayen akk-n umi nekker, qlilit medden ay d i‚erd'en ad xedmen am wayenni negh stufan-as. Asmi ay d-nesnulfa taghmist-agi, nella nes‚a tikta igerrzen, isirmen d imeqranen. Nella nebgha ad d-neg ttawil n usiwed'  i yes ara d-nessawad' isallen i Yimazighen s tmazight, d isallen ime‚nen yernu werdjin slin yis-sen. Nella nebgha ad tili teghmist-nnegh d tin ara yawd'en gher wat'as n Yimazighen, di ddunit merr'a, s ttawil n internet, yernu d tin ara ten-id-yessefqaden yal ddur't. Nella nebgha ad tt-nerr d aghmis amazigh amezwaru s ttawil n internet ara izer‚en tamazight, ad asen-yettak i wid ih'emmlen ad ghren tutlayt-nsen ayen ara ghren, yernu ad asen-yeg ifadden i wakken ad qqaren tamazight u ad ttemyarun s tutlayt-nsen deg uz'edd'a agraghlan. Deg wussan-nni i deg nella nqeddec ghef teghmist-agi, nger tamawt dakken tighri-nnegh terra-d ss'da, yernu llan at'as n wigad ay d-yukin d wid yebdan ttxemmimen ghef temsalt n useqdec n tmazight wagar-anegh deg uz'edd'a. D acu kan, tewwed'-d tallit i deg takemmict-nni n medden ay yellan la qeddcen ghef Tebrat n Yimedyazen ur tessawed' ara ad tkemmel, acku yal yiwen deg-negh yelha-d d lecghal-is, dgha d ayen ay d agh-yessawd'en ad tt-neddj, xas akken, Tabrat-nnegh tessawed' ad d-tejme‚ tarba‚t n wid ay tt-ih'emmlen yernu ttr'ajun-tt ad ten-id-tawed' yal ddur't. Tikkelt-agi, mi akka ay d agh-d-ts'ah' tegnit ad nes‚u adeg n internet, nenna-yas dakken d ayen igerrzen ma yella tughal-d teghmist-nnegh, ad tughal ad d-tteffegh yal ddur't deg udeg-nnegh, u ad tili d nettat ara s-yettaken rr'uh', imi yal ddur't ad d-nettawi deg-s awal ghef tghawsa tamaynut. Yessefk kan ad d-n‚eyyen dakken Tabrat n Yimedyazen d taghmist yemmuzzgen (spťcialisťe), meh'sub terza kan yiwen wennar, d win n tutlayin d yidelsan yettwaggzen (menacťs) d yimenghi n yegduden di ddunit merr'a i wakken ad d-ssukksen (ad d-smen‚en) tigemmi-nsen (patrimoine) d tmagiyin-nsen (identitťs) tidelsanin. D iswan-nni (buts) ay nes‚a zik-nni ay d-mazal nebgha ad ten-nawed' ass-a s Tebrat n Yimedyazen. Nebgha ad nefk i Yimazighen ayen ara ghren u ad yili yem‚en, ad asen-d-yesselmed tighawsiwin inef‚en, yernu ad ten-yeddj ad d-ldin allen-nsen ghef ddunit u ad muqlen akk ayen yellan deg-s, s ccbah'a-s, s tand'a-yines (diversitť) d wayen yellan diri-t deg-s, u nebgha digh ad d-nessuffegh tutlayt-nnegh seg ujeghlal-nni i deg tt-h'ebsen kra, imi tamazight ur tettwaxdem ara kan i wakken ad d-nemmeslay yis-s ghef wayen yellan d aqbur, wanag nezmer ass-a, ad tt-nesseqdec i wakken ad d-nemmeslay yis-s ghef wat'as tghawsiwin nnid'en di ddunit. Nebgha ad nes‚eddi izen (message) i medden, u ad asen-nini dakken llan yegduden nnid'en ay yennughen, ara yettnaghen i lmend n weh'raz d wesnerni n tutlayin d tmagiyin-nsen, yernu nezmer ad neddem amedya (exemple) fell-asen, ad d-nelmed fell-asen at'as n lumur', maca ayen ay nebgha daghen ad t-z'ren waytmaten-nnegh ay gh-yeqqaren netta dakken maci di lbat'el ay nefren tamazight, tutlayt-nnegh, i wakken ad asen-nemmeslay ghef yisental (thŤmes) ur nugh ara tanumi nettaru fell-asen s tmazight, wanag nebgha ad asen-nekkes akukru u ad asen-neg ifadden i wakken ad ttmeslayen s tutlayt-nsen anda ma ddan akk d Yimazighen yessawalen tamazight, u ad ttemyarun yis-s, acku wid iqedcen i wakken ad sqe‚den tira n tmazight, ur gin ara aya di lbat'el, yernu lemmer ad neddj ayen akken gan ad yerku deg yedlisen u ad yer'ju ledjyal ara d-yettenkaren, aya maci d ayen yessefr'ah'en. Tamazight terza-yagh akk yernu maci ala i ledjyal ara d-yettnulfun ay tella. Yessefk ghef yal yiwen deg-negh ay yeghran, ay ifehmen, ay yettmeslayen tamazight, ad igher u ad yaru s tutlayt-is mi ara yemselghu (communiquer) akk d yimazighwalen (amazighophones) nnid'en. Tamazight ur telli d aberrih' n tikliwin wala d taceqquft n usalay (piŤce de musťe), wanag ma yella numen s tidet dakken tamazight d tilawt (une rťalitť), yessefk fell-anegh ad nezwir d nekni ad tt-nettaru, ad tt-nerr d tuns'ibt deg yexxamen-nnegh u gar-anegh d yimeddukal-nnegh, i wakken yiwwas, ma yella tughal d tuns'ibt di tmura-nnegh, ad as-nini dakken amkan-agi tuklal-it s tidet, yernu maci bat'el ay tt-id-newwi. Ma yella d tidet tella tmazight deg wul, yessefk ad tili deg yiles u ad tili deg ufus (di tira).

Mass Omar MOUFFOK


Tamsalt n tutlayt di Cameroun

Sghur George Echu

[Aqeddem : Cameroun d yiwet si tmura n Tefriqt tagherbit, yernu am nettat am tmura nnid'en n tama-ya, tes‚a at'as n yegduden d wat'as n tutlayin. Cameroun d yiwet si tmura n Tefriqt i deg ttwahdar'ent at'as n tutlayin (uga n 200), maca d ayen yessewhamen ma nenna-d dakken ar ass-a, ula d yiwet si tutlayin tifriqiyin n Cameroun ur tughal d tutlayt taghelnawt. Anabad' (lh'ukuma) n Cameroun yeste‚r'if kan s tefr'ensist d teglizit (imi tamurt-agi tettuste‚mer' sghur Legliz d Fr'ansa), d nitenti umi tefka azal, xas ma yella yettili-d digh umennigh ger n snat-agi n tutlayin di tmurt-a. Maca, xas ma yella tutlayin tighelnawin n Cameroun tt'uqqtent, qqiment merr'a di rrif, yernu aya maci d ayen yelhan i wegdud. Imi imd'ebbren n tmurt ttmeslayen u qeddcen kan s tutlayt taberr'anit, amur ameqran deg Yikamruniyen d'han-d amzun ttwa‚ezlen di tmurt-nsen, ur fehhmen d acu ara ttmeslayen wid yellan nnig-nsen, yernu unjug-agi (obstacle) n tutlayt yergel-asen abrid i wat'as n yimezdaghen n tmurt-a i wakken ad ttekkin di tsertit (politique) n tmurt-nsen. Maci ala d Cameroun ay yellan di tegnit-agi, wanag llant at'as n tmura nnid'en di Tefriqt ara yettidiren akka : tadghert (ťlite) tes‚a tutlayt-is, d tin i yes tezmer ad teh'kem tamurt s yiles ay tfehhem nettat, iles n umesbat'li aqdim, di lweqt i deg agdud yellan s ddaw-atsen ttmeslayen-as kan s yiles-is asmi ara t-h'widjen ad yedgher (ad yebbut'i). Xas ma yella Cameroun d tamurt yewwin azarug-is (indťpendance), asmi ay tt-ffghent Fr'ansa d Legliz, ur d-ddjint ara amkan-nsent d ilem, wanag imd'ebbren n tmurt, xas d arraw n tmurt, qqnen allen-nsen ghef yilsawen n tmurt-nsen.]

Tazzwart

Agellid Njoya ay yeldin igherbazen i uselmed n tutlayt tabamunt

Tigduda n Cameroun d tamurt tagtutlayt (i deg ggtent tutlayin), i deg llant azal n 247 n tutlayin tines'liyin n tmurt, yiwet n tutlayt n teywalt (communication - d tapidgint n teglizit) akk d snat n tutlayin tuns'ibit (officielles), taglizit d tefr'ensist. Snat-agi n tutlayin tuns'ibit tewr'et-itent-id Cameroun si tallit-nni n tehrest (listi‚mar'), asmi Brit'anya d Fr'ansa bd'ant akal n tmurt-agi wagar-asen ger n tgara n Tt'rad n Umad'al amezwaru d wasmi ay tewwi tmurt azarug-is (indťpendance).  

Att'uqqet n tutlayin di Cameroun maci d ayen yessishilen taywalt (communication) ger yimezdaghen n tmurt-a; dgha skud Cameroun ur tes‚i ara tutlayt n teywalt ara yettwafhamen deg tmiwa n tmurt merr'a, amsefham mazal ad yeqqim yew‚er' ger Yikamruniyen. Nnig waya, xas ma yella tafr'ensist d teglizit d tutlayin tuns'ibin di snat di Cameroun, snat-agi n tutlayin ur ‚dilent ara deg wamek ay ttuseqdacent negh ttuselmadent, yernu aya id'urr tasertit (politique) n tesnutlayt (bilinguisme) ay yebgha ad yelh'u yis-s udabu n Cameroun. Yugh lh'al, tasertit n tutlayt di tmurt-a mazal-itt terwi yernu mazal ur d-banen ara yeswan-is (buts) : tasertit-agi ur tefki ara akk azal i tutlayin tines'liyin n tmurt i wakken ad ten-tesnerni, yernu ur tessawed' ara ad terr tamurt n Cameroun d tin ay ilehh'un s snat n tutlayin tuns'ibin akken yessefk lh'al. Dgha, tasertit-nni tuns'ibt i yes tebgha naqal Cameroun ad tesdukel tamurt, ass-a tughal d ssebba n yemgerraden (conflits) d wemsefraq aserti. Taluft n tutlayin di Cameroun d taqdimt yernu nezmer ad naf iz'uran-is di tallit n tehrest (listi‚mar'), tallit i deg ay d-yella wemgerrad ger tedbelt (administration) n tehrest d yemseghdaden (missionnaires). Ass-a, taluft n Cameroun deg wayen yerzan tutlayin netta d amek ara tefru ugur-agi n utt'uqqet n tutlayin u ad tefru ugur n tutlayt taghelnawt di lweqt i deg ara tkemmel ad tesselh'ay tamurt s wudem amellil (efficacement) s snat tutlayt tuns'ibin u ad teg akk ayen yessefken i wakken ad tesserbeh' aya.  

Cameroun s ttfas'il u s tewzel

Ghef leh'sab n CIA Fact Book, di Yulyu 2001, Cameroun tella tes‚a 15.803.220 n yimezdaghen. Tajumma n Cameroun tewwed' gher 475.442 km≤, yernu tes‚a tilisa akk d Nigeria deg utaram (lgherb), akk d Tcad deg ugafa-acerqi (nord-est), akk d Tegduda n Tefriqt Talemmast di ccerq, akk d Ginya Tasebgast, Gabon d Congo deg wenz'ul (sud). Cameroun tes‚a 10 tmiwa tideblanin (administratives), gar-asent snat ttmeslayent s teglizit, ma di tmanya-nni nnid'en, d tafr'ensist ay yettwahdar'en.  

Di 1472, asmi ay yewwed' yemsilel (navigateur) apur'tugali Fernando Po gher temda (bassin) n Biafra, yekcem s ugherrabu-yines gher wasif n Wouri ay d-yuzgan ghef yiri n lebh'er'. Po yewhem mi ay iwala dakken llan yiqayemrunen (crevettes) deg wasif-nni, dgha d aya ay t-yeddjan ad as-isemmi i wasif-agi "Rio dos Camarűes" (asif n yiqayemrunen). Dgha d wa ay d isem ay fkan i tmurt-nni merr'a. Asmi ay d-usan Walmaniyen akken ad tt'fen tamurt-a, semman-as "Kamerun". Igliziyen, asmi ay d-wwd'en, semman-as "Cameroon", ma d Ifr'ensisen llan qqaren-as "Cameroun". Di 1884, tekcem Lalman gher Cameroun, u yebda-d leh'kem almani ghef tmurt-a asmi ay stenyan Walmaniyen amtawa (le‚qed) ger tmurt-nsen d Yedoualaten (yiwen seg yegduden n Cameroun) di Yulyu n 1884, dgha seg yimir-nni ay tughal Cameroun d tanemzught (protectorat) talmanit. Maca asmi ay texs'er Lalman Ttr'ad n Umad'al amezwaru (di 1916), Fr'ansa d Brit'anya bd'ant Cameroun wagar-asent. Naqal llant h'ekment tamurt-a s ddaw n lewkala n Temghunt n Yeghlanen (Sociťtť des Nations), sakkin, d Tuddsa n Yeghlanen Yedduklen (ONU) ay ikemmlen twekkel Fr'ansa d Brit'anya i wakken ad kemmlent ad tt'fent Cameroun. Brit'anya s'ah'ent-tt-id snat n tesfifin n wakal, llan deg-sent azal n 90.000 km≤ yernu uzgant-d ghef tlisa n Nigeria. Tasfift-nni n wakal ay d-yuzgan deg ugafa (nord) llan qqaren-as "Cameroun Tabrit'anit n Ugafa" (British Northert Cameroons), ma d tin n wenz'ul qqaren-as "Cameroun Tabrit'anit n Wenz'ul" (Southern British Cameroons"). D Fr'ansa umi d-is'ah' umur ameqran si Cameroun yernu tefka-yas i umur-agi leh'kem-is i yiman-is, wanag Brit'anya, si Lagos, di Nigeria, ay tella la tesselh'ay lumur' n wakalen-is di Cameroun.   

Cameroun tafr'ensist tewwi azarug-is (indťpendance) deg umenzu n Yennayer, 1960. Sakkin, di Fur'ar' n 1960, imezdaghen n Cameroun Tabrit'anit n Wenz'ul deghren (bbut'in) i wakken ad sduklen tamurt-nsen akk d Cameroun ay teffegh Fr'ansa. Tadukli-yagi terna tedjhed ugar deg umenzu n Tuber' 1961, asmi ay yettusdukel akk wakal n Cameroun, u tga-d tmurt-agi tafidir'alit i deg llant snat n tmura, Cameroun Tagherbit d Cameroun Tacerqit. Tafidir'alit-agi teqqim alamma ay d 20 Magu 1972, asmi ay yerra adabu ddewla-yagi d tin yedduklen ugar, s wesnulfu n 7 temnad'in (provinces). Sakkin, di 1984, aselway yessuffegh-d tanad't (dťcret) i deg d-rnant tlata temnad'int timaynutin gher seb‚a-nni yellan naqal, u tughal Cameroun tes‚a ‚ecr'a temnad'in.   

Deg wennar n uselmed, Cameroun tettd'afar sin yinagrawen (systŤmes) : anagraw n uselmed s tutlayt taglizit ay yettwabnan ghef leh'sab n unagraw aneglusaksi (anglo-saxon), akk d unagraw n uselmed s tutlayt tafr'ensist ay yettwabnan ghef leh'sab n unagraw afr'ensis. Dgha llan yigherbazen yesselmaden s wahil (programme) aglizi am wakken ay llan wid yesselmaden s wahil afr'ensis, d acu kan, di tesdawit (universitť), inelmaden qqaren s snat tutlayin, s teglizit akk d tefr'ensist. Ghef leh'sab n tesnaddanin (statistiques) n 1995, 63.4 % n Yikamruniyen ay yessnen ad ghren, 75 % n yergazen d 52,01 % n tilawin.   

Tagtutlayt* d tsertit n tutlayt

*plurilinguisme

Tagtutlayt di Cameroun

Akken ay d-nenna sufella-yagi, Cameroun d tamurt tagtutlayt i deg llant 247 n tutlayin tines'liyin, snat tutlayin tuns'ibin akk d yiwet n tpidgint n teglizit ay ttmeslayen di Cameroun.  

[Tapidgint d tutlayt ur nelli ara d tanes'lit di tmurt, tikwal tettili d axalud' n snat negh n wat'as n tutlayin, sseqdacen-tt medden yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden i wakken ad msefhamen yis-s. Tapidgint n Cameroun d taglizit ixeld'en d tutlayin nnid'en].

Xas ma yella adeg n internet n Ethnologue yeqqar-d dakken llant 279 n tutlayin di Cameroun, kra yimesnilsiyen (linguistes) am Wolf nnan-d dakken aya ur is'ehh'a ara, imi ay llant kra n tentalyin (dialectes) ay yettwah'esben d tutlayin, yili nitenti d tintalyin kan n kra n tutlayt. Ger tutlayin tines'liyin n Cameroun, llant r'eb‚a tutlayin qrib ad negrent, tigi d tutlayt tadulit (duli), tageyt (gey), tanagumit (nagumi) akk d tyenit (yeni). Tutlayin-agi akk ttmeslayen-tent deg ugafa (nord) n tmurt. Adeg n Ethnologue yenna-d di 1996, dakken 14 n tutlayin nnid'en n Cameroun ay inegren yagi. Di Tefriqt, llant r'eb‚a n twaculin timeqranin n tutlayin, tlata deg-sent nezmer ad tent-naf di Cameroun, imi di tmurt-a nezmer ad naf tutlayin n twacult tafrusyawit (afro-asiatique), tutlayin n twacult tanilus'eh'r'awit (nilo-saharienne) akk d tutlayin n twacult tanijirukur'dufanit (nilo-kordofanienne).    

Tutlayin n twacult tanijirukur'dufanit d nitenti ay yett'uqqten di Cameroun, di lweqt i deg ulac akk kra n tutlayt n twacult taxuysant (khoisan) di tmurt-a. Tutlayin tines'liyin ay fehhmen wat'as n medden nitenti d tafulfuldet (fulfulde), tewondot (ewondo), tabasaat (basaa), tadwualat (duala), tahausat (hausa), tawandalat (wandala), takanurit (kanuri), ta‚r'abt tacuwat (choa), tapidgint n teglizit akk d tefr'ensist. D acu kan, tlata kan tutlayin si ger tigi ay yettwahdar'en yernu ttwafhament ugar tiyad' di tmiwa timeqranin di Cameroun, d tid ay sseqdacen medden di tmiwa-ya i wakken ad msefhamen wagar-asen : deg ugafa (nord) amur ameqran di medden yettmeslay negh ifehhem tafulfuldet, di lweqt i deg tapidgint n teglizit tettuseqdac di lgherb, ma d tafr'ensist tettuseqdac deg timiwa ay d-yeqqimen di tmurt. D acu kan, ulac leh'yud' yebd'an ger yal tutlayt d tayed', yernu merr'a tutlayin-agi nezmer ad naf imdanen ay tent-yessnen di merr'a timiwa n tmurt. Tafulfuldet ttmeslayen-tt yernu tettwafham di tama n ugafa (nord) anda ay tella tama n Adamawa akk d temnad'in (provinces) n ugafa ub‚id, dgha, akal i deg tettuseqdac tfulfuldet yewwed' gher 162.107 km≤ negh 34,8 % seg wakal n Cameroun.  

Azal n 3 yimelyunen n medden ay yettmeslayen tafulfuldet, xas ma yella amur ameqran di medden-agi d almad ay tt-lemden, maci d nettat ay d tutlayt-nsen tayemmat. Wid yes‚an tafulfuldet d tutlayt-nsen tayemmat (Ifulfuldeyen) ur tt‚eddin ara i 350.000, maca tutlayt-nsen si zik ay tes‚a azal. Di lqern wis 17, tafulfuldet tettuseqdec d tutlayt i wezra‚ n Lislam deg ugafa (nord) n Cameroun. Tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun sseqdacen-tt at'as n medden maci ala di tmiwa ay teh'kem zik Brit'anya (timnad'in n Ugafa Utrim d Wenz'ul Utrim), wanag ula di tmiwa n yiri n lebh'er' akk d lgherb n Cameroun. Ass-a, nezmer ad nh'ulfu i tezrirt (influence) n tpidgint-agi ula di temnad'in i deg sseqdacen tafr'ensist. Dgha ass-a, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun ur teqqim ara d tutlayt n teywalt (communication) ala kan ger Yikamruniyen yessawalen taglizit, wanag attan la tettimghur, la tteffegh ghef tlisa-s n zik-nni u tezmer, yiwwas, ad tughal d tutlayt n teywalt taghelnawt (nationale). Ama di temdinin negh di tmurt, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun tughal la tettuseqdac di teklizin (ťglises) am wakken tettuseqdac di leswaq, deg yinegsaren (parking) n tker'was, di teghsarin (gares) n tmacinin, deg wezniq negh di tegnatin nnid'en. Yugh lh'al, tutlayt-agi "ur nelli n yiwen" nughal nezmer ad tt-naf anda ma nedda di tudert timettit-tudmist (socio-ťconomique) n yimezdaghen n Cameroun, yernu si tallit n Lalman ay tebda tpidgint-agi la tetturar ddur'-agi. 

Ma yella d tafr'ensist, alamma ay d asmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is (indťpendance) ay tughal tes‚a ddur' meqqren di teywalt (communication), imi seg yimir-n d asawen, bdan Yikamruniyen la lemmden s wat'as tutlayt-a. Dgha, menghir tlata-nni n temnad'in (provinces) n ugafa anda d tafulfuldet ay d tutlayt n teywalt akk d snat-nni n temnad'in i deg ssawalen (tapidgint n) taglizit, d tafr'ensist ay yetturaren ddur' meqqren di teywalt di xemsa-nni n temnad'in nnid'en ay d-yegran di Cameroun. S waya, tennulfa-d yiwet n tefr'ensist d tagherfant (populaire), sseqdacen-tt Yikamruniyen yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden wagar-asen, ladgha di temdinin d tmiwa iqerben gher temdint. Nnig waya, Ikamruniyen merr'a, ama d wid yesseqdacen taglizit, tafr'ensist negh tafulfuldet, ttemsefhamen merr'a wagar-asen s tefr'ensist, u tettghimi-d tutlayt-a d nettat ay d tutlayt n wemsefham tameqrant akk di tmurt. Snat-nni n tutlayin tuns'ibin n Cameroun, taglizit d tefr'ensist, kecemnt-d s amezruy n tmurt-a di 1916, asmi ay tettwarna Lalman u tettwabd'a Cameroun ger Fr'ansa d Brit'anya. Inehrasen (colonisateurs) imaynuten nudan ad h'ettmen tutlayt-nsen ghef yimezdaghen n tmurt-agi, ladgha deg yinurar n uselmed akk d tedbelt (administration). D aya ay yessawd'en snat-agi n tutlayin ad fkent az'ar di Cameroun di tallit n tsehrest (listi‚mar'), yernu asmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is (indťpendance), ughalent djehdent ugar. Asmi ay teddukel Cameroun, di 1961, taglizit d tefr'ensist ughalent d snat n tutlayin tuns'ibin n tmurt-a imi Cameroun tefren ad tesselh'u tamurt s tesnutlayt (bilinguisme).  

Tasertit n tutlayt di tallit n tsehrest*

*listi‚mar'

Yessefk ad d-nini dakken uqbel ma kecmen-d yinehrasen (colonisateurs) gher Cameroun, kra n tutlayin tines'liyin n tmurt-a ssawd'ent ad s‚unt azal d ameqran. Tutlayt tabamunt (bamun) tella d yiwet si tutlayin-agi, yernu d sselt'an Njoya (yiwen ugellid ineslem n Cameroun) ay tt-yesqe‚den i wakken ad tughal d tutlayt n uselmed, uqbel ma wwd'en-d yemseghdaden (missionnaires) almaniyen. Tutlayt tafulfuldet daghen tella tes‚a azal meqqren imi di lqern wis 17, d ta ay d tutlayt ay yettusqedcen i wezra‚ n Lislam di tlata-nni n temnad'in n ugafa (nord). 

Di tallit n tsehrest (listi‚mar'), timura tinehrasin (colonisateur) gant ifadden i wakken d tutlayin-nsent ara yettuseqdacen. Xas ma yella tadbelt (administration) talmanit di Cameroun tga ifadden i wakken d talmanit ara yettusqedcen di tmurt-a, imseghdaden (missionnaires) almaniyen d yimarikaniyen iprisbitiriyen smenyafen ad sqedcen tutlayin tines'liyin n yimezdaghen n Cameroun, am tbasaat (basaa), tabulut (bulu), tadualat (duala), tewondot (ewondo) akk d tmungakat (mungaka) i wakken ad slemden medden u ad ten-id-sxedmen gher ddin amasih'i. Xas ma yella almaniyen ur ldin ara at'as n yigherbazen di Cameroun, maca ‚erd'en ad h'ettmen ghef yigherbazen ad sseqdacen talmanit, u h'er'sen imseghdaden i wakken ad gen aya. D acu kan, imseghdaden llan tt'fen at'as n yigherbazen yernu d nitni ay yellan h'ekmen deg uselmed di tallit talmanit, di Cameroun.  

Xas llan Walmaniyen bghan ad h'ettmen tutlayt-nsen ghef Yikamruniyen, ineggura-yagi kemmlen la sseqdacen tutlayin-nsen tines'liyin wagar-asen mebla uguren. Asmi ay texs'er Lalman tamurt n Cameroun, inehrasen (colonisateurs) imaynuten wwin-d yid-sen tasertit (politique) n tutlayin nnid'en. Ibrit'aniyen h'ekmen Cameroun s webrid arusrid (indirectement), u d lh'ekkam ines'liyen n tmurt i yes tella Brit'anya la tesselh'ay tamurt, dgha, nezmer ad d-nini dakken di tegnit am ta, qrib yettuh'ettem ghef Yikamruniyen ad issinen u ad sqedcen tutlayin-nsen tines'liyin. Maca deg weh'ric-nni ay teh'kem Fr'ansa, Ifr'ensisen llan bghan ad ssertin (assimiler) Ikamruniyen, meh'sub ad asen-mh'un las'el-nsen, tamagit-nsen (identitť) u ad ten-rren d Ifr'ensisen. D aya ay yeddjan Fr'ansa ur tqebbel ara aseqdec n tutlayin tines'liyin. Di tmiwa yellan s ddaw n le‚naya tabrit'anit, kra n tutlayin tines'liyin am tbafutt (bafut), tadualat (duala) akk d tmungakat (mungaka) llant la ttuseqdacent lwah'id akk d teglizit deg uselmed. Yugh lh'al, Ibrit'aniyen ddjan timsal n uselmed ger yifassen n trebba‚ n ddin akk d wusligen (privťs), di lweqt i deg adabu afr'ensis d netta ay d-yelhan s timmad-is s wakk timsal n uselmed n Yefriqiyen yellan s ddaw leh'kem-is. Di tmiwa ay teh'kem Fr'ansa, dima llan yemgerraden (conflits) ger yemseghdaden (missionnaires) d udabu afr'ensis, imi imseghdaden kemmlen la sseqdacen tutlayin tines'liyin i lmend n uselmed d usexdem n medden gher tmasih'it. D aya ay yeddjan adabu afr'ensis ad yeg ussisen (efforts) i wakken ad yesnerni tafr'ensist di Cameroun di lweqt i deg yerra tutlayin tines'liyin di rrif. Di 1917, tadbelt (administration) tafr'ensist tughal la tettak tallalt (lem‚awna) n yedrimen i yigherbazen yesseqdacen tafr'ensist d tutlayt n uselmed. Sakkin, deg umenzu n Tuber' akk d 28 Dujember' 1920, yeffegh-d usad'uf i wakken ad ttwaghelqen yigherbazen yellan sselmaden s tutlayin tines'liyin di Cameroun, ad yeghleq 47 yigherbazen ay yeldi ugellid Njoya di tama n Yibamunen, anda tutlayt n uselmed tella d tabamunt. Ma di 1922, Fr'ansa teghleq 1800 yigherbazen n yemseghdaden iprisbitiriyen imarikaniyen i deg tutlayt n uselmed tella d tabulut (bulu). Tkemmel Fr'ansa la tghelleq deg yigherbazen, alamma ay d asmi ay d-teqqim tefr'ensist d tutlayt tawh'idt n uselmed di Cameroun. D acu kan, xas texdem Fr'ansa akk aya, tutlayin tines'liyin kemmlent la ttuseqdacent deg usexdem n medden gher ddin amasih'i d teywalt (communication) ger medden. Dgha, di lweqt i deg tutlayt tuns'ibt (officielle) tella d tutlayt n teywalt tuns'ibt, tutlayin tines'liyin d nitenti ay yellan d tutlayin n teywalt gher wegdud ama di teklizt (ťglise), deg leswaq, negh di tmeghriwin tidelsanin, deg wexxam d wanda nnid'en. Maca tisertiyin (politiques) n tutlayt ay sqedcent Lalman, Brit'anya akk d Fr'ansa ur ddjint ara ad tili kra n tutlayt tanes'lit ara yes‚un azal meqqren ugar n tiyad', u ad tughal d nettat ay d tutlayt taghelnawt asmi ara tawi Cameroun azarug-is (indťpendance).

Tasertit n tutlayt di tallit n uzarug*

*indťpendance

Asmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is, d tafr'ensist ay yughalen d tutlayt-is tuns'ibt (officielle) di tama yessawalen tafr'ensist, di lweqt i deg taglizit tughal d tutlayt tuns'ibt n tama yessawalen taglizit. Asmi ay teddukel tmurt deg umenzu n Tuber', 1961, tagduda tafidir'alit ay d-ilulen imir-n tughal tes‚a snat tutlayin tuns'ibin. Cameroun, am wat'as n tmura tifriqiyin nnid'en, tesmenyaf d tutlayin "tirawsanin" (neutres) ay tesmenyaf ad tent-terr d tutlayin tuns'ibin, imi taglizit akk d tefr'ensist ur llint ara d tutlayin tines'liyin n kra n wegdud yettidiren di Cameroun, yernu adabu akamruni iga aya i wakken ur d-ttilin ara wuguren ger yegduden, yernu ur yetts'errif ara digh udabu idrimen i wakken ad yesnerni tutlayin tines'liyin n tmurt. S waya ay nezmer ad nefhem aygher ay yerra udabu tutlayin tines'liyin di rrif u yesmenyaf tutlayin n yinehrasen (colonisateurs) iqburen. Kra waggagen (intellectuels) ikamruniyen am Fonlon (di 1963), ur kukran ara ad d-ssumren (proposer) dakken yessefk ad rren aselmed n yigerdan d asnutlay (bilingue) seg yiseggasen imezwura n ugherbaz, imi di tallit-nni ay ttilin yigerdan mazal-iten leqqaqit i wakken ad lemden tutlayin timaynutin.

Ma d tutlayin tines'liyin, nezmer ad d-nini dakken ur s‚in ara akk amkan deg yiseggasen imezwura n uzarug (indťpendance) n Cameroun. Maca, xas ma yella anabad' yessusem, llant at'as n trebba‚ ay iqedcen mebla ah'bas i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayin tines'liyin, u gar-asent nezmer ad d-nebder PROPELCA (Programme de Recherche Opťrationnelle pour l'Enseignement des Langues au Cameroun), ara iqeddcen si 1977 ghef temsal yerzan aselmed s tutlayin tiyemmatin di Cameroun. Maca llant daghen trebba‚ n SIL-Cameroun, Tiddukla Takamrunit n Tsuqilt n Wedlis d Uselmed n Tghuri (CABTAL) akk d Tiddukla Taghelnawt n Tseqquma n Tutlayt Tikamruniyin (National Association of Cameroonian Language Committees (NACALCO). Di 1979, yettwaxdem leqdic igerrzen i lmend n usizegh (standardisation) n tirawt n tutlayin tikamruniyin yernu aya yettekka mlih' deg wesnerni n tutlayin-agi. Tamend'awt n 18 Yennayer 1996 ted'men akemmel n tsertit tuns'ibt n tesnutlayt (bilinguisme) d wesnerni n tutlayin tighelnawin (tines'liyin) n Cameroun, yernu aya yusa-d kan d akemmel i leqdic-nni ay d-bdant trebba‚-agi iqedcen ghef tutlayin tines'liyin, yernu tamend'awt-agi d ayen ara yeddjen Cameroun ad teg leqrar ama i tutlayin-is tuns'ibin, ama i tutlayin-is tines'liyin ay yellan merr'a d ah'ric si tgemmi (patrimoine) tadelsant n tmurt-agi. Di 1998, yella-d digh ubeddel d ameqran ghef tutlayin n Cameroun imi amni (parlement) akamruni yes‚edda yiwen usenfar n usad'uf (projet de loi) ay yefkan azal i uselmed n tutlayin tighelnawin, dgha d asenfar-agi ay yughalen d asad'uf 98/004 n 14 Yebrir 1998 ay d-iga uselway i lmend n uselmed n tutlayin tines'liyin n tmurt. Xas ma yella Aghlif (ministŤre) n Uselmed aghelnaw wer‚ad ur d-igi ara aghawas (plan) i wakken ad yexdem s usad'uf-agi deg wennar, ulac ccek dakken asmi ay d-tga Cameroun asad'uf-agi, tebda-d tikli tamaynut i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayin-is tighelnawin. D acu kan, mi ara nwali mlih' gher wayen d-yeqqar usad'uf-agi d tegnit i deg tella Cameroun, nezmer ad nesteqsi iman-nnegh ma yella dgha d tidet Cameroun tezmer ad d-tessed'ru ayen te‚zem ad t-texdem negh asad'uf-agi ad yeqqim kan di lkaghed' (am tmend'awt n 1996), ad yettr'aju melmi ara t-id-ssed'run deg wennar. Yugh lh'al llan yagi kra ara yettwalin dakken anabad' (lh'ukuma) ur ixeddem ara ayen d-yenna. Xas ma yella asad'uf-agi d ussis (lmedjhud) i wakken ad teg ddewla ayen yessefken i tutlayin tighelnawin, maca a‚ett'el n ddewla i wakken ad texdem s usad'uf-a yesbanay-d dakken imd'ebbren xedmen-d asad'uf-agi uqbel lawan-is negh ur xemmen ara akken yessefk i wakken ad t-id-gen. Akka ay s-ted'ra digh i tmend'awt-nni n 1996. Dgha, deg wayen yerzan aselmed n tutlayin-agi, mazal wer‚ad ur tefri ara yiwet n temsalt : lemmer ad kecment tutayin tighelnawin s agherbaz, inelmaden ad tent-lemden d tinegwa (matiŤres) negh ad lemmden yis-sent kullec ? Asad'uf akamruni yenna-d dakken inelmaden ad lemmden tutlayin-agi d tinegwa, d acu kan, lemmer ad ttusqedcent tutlayin tighelnawin d ttawil i uselmed, at'as n Yikamruniyen ara ilemden tutlayin-nsen tiyemmatin, yernu aya ad yessishel aselmed n tghuri i wat'as n yimezdaghen n tmurt. Lemmer ad ttuslemdent tutlayin-agi d tinegwa kan, mazal llan wuguren nnid'en ay yessefk ad ten-yefru unabad' akamruni. Yugh lh'al, ma ih'elles-d unabad' ad yessed'ru ayen d-yenna usad'uf n 1998, yessefk ad ixemmem ghef yeswiren (niveaux) n yinelmaden umi ara yesselmed tutlayin tines'liyin, d wach'al n tsa‚tin ara lemmden yinelmaden tutlayin-agi di ddur't, am wakken ay yessefk ad ssersen tiwtilin (ccurut') ay yessefken ad ilin deg yiselmaden ara yeslemden tutlayin-agi, imi aselmed n tutlayin tines'liyin s wudem is'ehh'an ur yessefk ara ad yettunefk kan i menwala, yernu yessefk digh ghef unabad' ad yessgher iselmaden imaynuten u ad asen-yeg ifadden, am wakken ara d-yessebded tims'ukyin (structures) ara d-yelhun d used'ru n tsertit-agi (politique) u yessefk digh ghef unabad' ad d-yefk idrimen ara yettusqedcen i wakken ad ttwaxedmen akk lecghal-agi s wudem is'ehh'an.    

S umata, tagnit n tutlayin di Cameroun ur txulef ara tin n umur ameqran di tmura n wenz'ul (sud) n Ss'eh'ra : d timura i deg llant at'as n tutlayin; tutlayt n unehras (colonisateur) aqbur d nettat ay d tutlayt tuns'ibt; anabad' (lh'ukuma) terra tutlayin tines'liyin di rrif; mazal timura-yagi s‚an assaghen (liens) idjehden akk d tmura ay tent-yeshersen (ay tent-yeste‚mr'en) zik-nni; yernu llan wuguren ger yegduden yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden (yemxallafen) di tmura-ya.

Tasnutlayt tuns'ibt d uselmed asnutlay

Akken d-nenna sufella-yagi, tasnutlayt (bilinguisme) d nettat ay d tasertit (politique) tuns'ibt (officielle) ay i ghef tebna Cameroun tasertit-is n tutlayin. Amagrad 1, tas'eddart 3 n tmend'awt (constitution) n 18 Yennayer 1996 yesban-d mlih' aya : "Tutlayin tuns'ibin n Tegduda n Cameroun d taglizit d tefr'ensist, tutlayin-agi di snat s‚ant yiwen uz'ayer (statut). Awanak (ddewla) yessefk ad yed'men asnerni n tesnutlayt di merr'a timiwa akk d yinurar merr'a n tmurt, am wakken yessefk digh ad yeh'rez u ad yesnerni tutlayin tighelnawin." Xas ma yella timend'awin i‚eddan n Cameroun, seg wasmi ay tewwi tmurt-agi azarug, mmeslayent-d ghef tsertit tuns'ibt n tesnutlayt, ar ass-a, wer‚ad ur tban ara tsertit-agi deg wennar. Xas ma yella tamend'awt teqqar-d dakken tafr'ensist akk d teglizit s‚ant yiwen uz'ayer, meh'sub ‚edlent di Cameroun, d tafr'ensist ay yernan taglizit deg yinurar n tedbelt (administration), aselmed d ttawilat n teywalt (communication). Yugh lh'al, nezmer ad d-nini mebla akukru dakken tafr'ensist s yisem-is d tutlayt, d idles negh d tasertit, tedjhed deg wakk inurar n tmurt. Tafr'ensist terna taglizit imi tamezwarut-agi ttmeslayen-tt u fehhmen-tt wat'as n medden, wid yessawalen tafr'ensist si zik ay tt'fen imukan i‚layanen n unabad' (lh'ukuma) akk d tedbelt (administration) yernu Cameroun ur tes‚i ara tasetit n tutlayin ara id'emnen s tidet izerfan (lh'uquq) n tutlayin tidersanin (minoritaires). Nnig waya, tasertit tuns'ibt n tesnutlayt tesnulfa-d bedd'u ger wid yettmeslayen taglizit d wid yettmeslayen tafr'ensist di Cameroun, yernu deg yiseggasen-agi ineggura, nger tamawt dakken aya yezmer ad yessiwed' gher wuguren imeqranen ay izemren ad bd'un tamurt. Dgha, xas ma yella tasertit n tesnutlayt tettwaxdem-d i wakken ad tesdukel tamurt, tasertit-agi tezmer daghen ad tili d ssebba n wuguren negh n bedd'u n tmurt. Imi d tafr'ensist ay idjehden deg yinurar merr'a, ughalen wid yessawalen taglizit la tth'ulfun i yiman-nsen ttwah'eqren, u la ttwalin dakken taglizit-nni-nsen d ssiman ay ten-yesduklen, msegman wagar-asen u tth'ulfun dakken s‚an tamagit (identitť) ay ten-icerken. Wid yessawalen taglizit dima ttasmen ghef tmiwa i deg ttidiren di Cameroun. Dgha, asmi ay d-ffghent ddi‚ayat deg yiseggasen n 90 dakken anabad' ad d-yesnulfu timnad'in (provinces) timaynutin i yes ara yesdukel timnad'in yessawalen taglizit akk d temnad'in yessawalen tafr'ensist ay ten-id-iqerben i wakken ad d-gent timnad'in tifulmanin (autonomes), imezdaghen n temnad'in yessawalen taglizit ugin aya yernu nnughen i wakken ur d-yettili ara rr'ay-agi. Wid yessawalen taglizit walan dakken aya d aghawas (plan) ay d-ihegga udabu i wakken ad yarez timiwa yessawalen taglizit gher tmiwa yessawalen tafr'ensist, dgha s waya, zemren ad sr'uh'en tutlayt taglizit d yedles-nsen. Imi ay d-tewh'el Cameroun di tallit-nni di tegnit iwe‚r'en am tin, bdan yemd'ebbren ikamruniyen la ttemcawar'en i wakken ad d-xedmen tamend'awt tamaynut, deg wayen umi semman "askasi ameqran" (grand dťbat). Wid yessawalen taglizit, s umata, smenyafen ad teqqim tmurt n Cameroun dima s ‚ecr'a temnad'in-yines, mebla ma beddlent tlisa-nsent, u ma yella anabad' la yettxemmim ad yefk tafulmant (autonomie) i kra n temnad'in, wid yessawalen taglizit smenyafen ad yefk kan tafulmant i wakk timnad'in n tmurt u ad yerr Cameroun d tamurt tafidir'alit.   

I wakken ad tesnerni Cameroun tasertit n tesnutlayt (bilinguisme), tebda la tesselmad s snat tutlayin si 1961. Yella yessefk ihi ghef tmurt ad tesseqdec snat tutlayin deg uselmed, ladgha deg weswir (niveau) n tesdawit. Cameroun tes‚a setta n tesdawiyin n uwanak (ddewla), r'eb‚a deg-sent sseqdacent tafr'ensist d teglizit d tutlayin n uselmed. Di tesdawit takamrunit, wid yessawalen tafr'ensist d wid yessawalen taglizit ttghimin idis s idis deg yimukan anda ay qqaren, lemmden akken. Ma d aselmad yesseqdac tutlayt tuns'ibt ay yessen xir i wakken ad yesselmed timsirin-is (ddur'us) di lweqt i deg inelmaden ttaddamen tinqid'in s tutlayt ay sen-yehwan, yernu asmi ara d-awd'en yikayaden (examens), zemren ad ten-s‚eddin s tutlayt ay sen-yehwan digh, ama s teglizit negh s tefr'ensist. D acu kan, aseqdec n snat tutlayin di tesdawit takamrunit d ayen ay d-yeglan s wat'as n wuguren.

Tamenzut, amur ameqran di temsirin s tefr'ensist ay yettwaxdam, imi amur ameqran deg yiselmaden seg wid yessawalen tafr'ensist, yernu inelmaden yessawalen taglizit ur ten-ye‚djib ara waya u tth'ulfun dakken la yett‚eddi meh'yaf fell-asen. Ghef leh'sab n tezrawin (ťtudes) ay iga Tambi (1973) d Njeck (1992), di tasdawit n Yaoundť, 80% si temsirin yettwaxdam s tefr'ensist di lweqt i deg ala kan 20% n temsirin ara yettwaxdamen s teglizit. D aya ay yeddjan inelmaden yessawalen taglizit ur ferr'h'en ara s tsertit tuns'ibt n tesnutlayt di tmurt-nsen. Ugur nnid'en ay d-yesnulfa uselmed asnutlay netta d tukci n tenqid'in deg yikayaden (examens), imi inelmaden yessawalen taglizit qqaren-d dakken iselmaden ur d asen-ttaken ara tinqid'in yelhan. Di Cameroun, anelmad yezmer ad yes‚eddi akayad-is ama s tefr'ensist negh s teglizit, maca at'as seg wid yessawalen taglizit, mi ur rebbh'en ara di tezrawin-nsen, d iselmaden-nsen ay ssed'lamen, u qqaren-d dakken iselmaden yessawalen tafr'ensist, imi ur z'wiren ara di teglizit, ur fehhmen ara akken yessefk ayen d-uran yinelmaden-nsen yessawalen taglizit. Dgha aya d yiwet si ssebbat ay yeddjan ikamruniyen yessawalen taglizit d wid yessawalen tafr'ensist ur ttemsefhamen ara yernu yal tarba‚t tettcikki di tayed'. Ma d taluft tis tlata ay d-tesnulfa tsertit-agi n tesnutlayt  teqqen s aselmed n tutlayt tuns'ibt tis snat i yinelmaden. Yugh lh'al, i wakken inelmaden ikamruniyen ad afen iman-nsen di tmurt-nsen u ad ilin wejden i wakken ad ghren akken yessefk, adabu yesselmad tafr'ensist i yinelmaden yessawalen taglizit, am wakken yesselmad taglizit i yinelmaden yessawalen tafr'ensist. D acu kan, aselmed-agi n uheggi ur yettwaxdem akken yessefk, adabu ur yefki ara ttawilat yessefken i waya, yernu inelmaden ur s‚in ara lebghi idjehden i wakken ad lemden tutlayt-nsen tuns'ibt tis snat. Anect-a maci d ayen ittgen ifadden i yinelmaden i wakken ad nadin ghren mlih'. Yessefk ghef Cameroun ad tesselhu aselmed n uheggi ay tteg i yinelmaden, am wakken ara teqdec i wakken ad tesselhu aswir (niveau) n tmusni n yiselmaden di tutlayin tuns'ibin. Aya ad yeddj inelmaden ad s‚un laman xir n zik deg yiselmaden-nsen, yernu wid yessawalen taglizit ur tth'ulfun ara i yiman-nsen ttwah'eqren.

Yessefk digh ad d-nger tamawt dakken imi Cameroun tes‚a snat tutlayin tuns'ibin, aya yeddja tamurt-agi ad tes‚u sin yinagrawen (systŤmes) n uselmed yemgerraden, yernu ula d aya yesnulfa-d uguren yeh'wadjen tifratin. Deg unagraw n uselmed afr'ensis, taglizit d tanga (matiŤre) yettuh'ettmen ghef wakk inelmaden seg wasmi ara d-bdun almad alamma d asmi ara faken almad-nsen alemmas. D acu kan, deg unagraw n uselmed aglizi, yessefk ghef akk inelmaden ad lemden tafr'ensist seg useggas-nsen amenzu n welmad alamma d asmi ara awd'en s aswir n GCE. Dgha, anelmad yessawalen tafr'ensist yernu yeghra s unagraw afr'ensist yewjed ad yelmed di tesdawit s tefr'ensist xir n unelmad yessawalen taglizit u yeghra s unagraw aglizi. Nnig waya, tukci n tenqid'in temxallaf ger unagraw aglizi d unagraw afr'ensis, yernu anect-a d ugur meqqren deg uselmed. Anelmad yeqqaren s unagraw aglizi yettextiri tamezzugt (spťcialitť) asmi ara yextir tinegwa (matiŤres) i deg yez'wer, yernu d tinegwa-nni kan ara yes‚eddi asmi ara yes‚eddi akayad n GCE (lbak), di lweqt i deg anelmad yeqqaren s unagraw afr'ensis yettuh'ettem fell-as ad igher akk tinegwa yernu ur irebbeh' ara alamma yewwi-d talemmast (moyenne) deg wakk tinegwa ay yeqqar. Nnig waya, deg wayen yerzan aselmed n tutlayin tiberr'aniyin, d anagraw n welmad afr'ensis ay yifen anagraw n welmad aglizi. Deg unagraw afr'ensis, inelmaden yeqqaren deg ugherbaz alemmas lemmden taspenyulit d talmanit, di lweqt i deg anagraw aglizi ur yesselmad ara i yinelmaden-is tutlayin-agi, dgha wid yessawalen tafr'ensist ifen wid yessawalen taglizit di tmusni n tutlayin tiberr'aniyin, yernu aya yezmer ad yeddj inelmaden yeghran s teglizit ad h'ulfun dakken ttwah'eqren. Yugh lh'al, xas ma yella Cameroun la tesselh'ay tamurt s tsertit n tesnutlayt, tamurt-a wer‚ad ur tes‚i ara tasertit n useq‚ed n tutlayt ara tt-yeddjen ad tesseqdec snat tutlayin akken yessefk. Adabu ur a ixeddem acemma i wakken ad iz'er ma yella ayen ixeddem ghef tutlayt yewwi-d kra n lfayda negh ala. Xas ma yella taglizit akk d tefr'ensist simmal la irennu uzal-nsent di Cameroun u la ttughalent d tutlayin n wemsefham ger Yikamruniyen yettmeslayen at'as n tutlayin yemgerraden, adabu ur a itteg acemma i wakken ad yesnerni snat-agi n tutlayin. Lemmer d lebghi, adabu yessefk ad yeqdec ghef useq‚ed d usizegh n teglizit akk d tefr'ensist n Cameroun, d acu kan, ar ass-a mazal adabu yesxass' ttawil i wanect-a. Tamurt ur tezmir ara ad tesnerni tutlayin-is tuns'ibin mebla ma tga aya.  

Amkan n tutlayin tines'liyin

Di tmurt n Cameroun, adabu yesseqdac kan tutlayin tuns'ibin di lweqt i deg tutlayin tines'liyin ala d agdud ay tent-yesseqdacen, citt'ah' kan deg-sent ay yettwarun, yernu ddrent kan deg yilsawen n medden ay tent-yesseqdacen wagar-asen ama di tmurt negh deg yexxamen. Di temsalt-agi, Bitja'a Kody yenna-d : "tutlayin tighelnawin (tines'liyin) ddrent kan deg yimawen n medden, la tent-sseqdacen kan sdaxel n twacult. Adabu ur yettnadi ara akk ad tent-yesseqdec ala kan di lh'emlat n tefranin (lbut') anda kra ttmeslayen s tutlayin tighelnawin i wakken ad qenn‚en medden. Ula d yiwet si tutlayin tighelnawin ur tettuseqdac di tedbelt (administration) negh di tghemsa (presse), wala deg udellel negh di tilibizyu taghelnawt, wala deg yigherbazen n ddewla negh di lh'emlat n uselmed n tghuri ay ixeddem udabu."

Ass-a, tutlayin-agi atenti la teddunt i wakken ad negrent, ladgha di temdinin anda ay ughalen yelmez'yen la sseqdacen ugar tutlayin tuns'ibin (officielles). Bitja'a Kody (2001) yenna-d dakken ghef leh'sab n yiwet n tezrawt (ťtude) yettwaxedmen di temdint n Yaoundť, 32% seg yelmez'yen yes‚an ger 10 d 17 yiseggasen di le‚mer'-nsen ur ssinen ara ad ssiwlen ula d yiwet si tutlayin tines'liyin n Cameroun. D tafr'ensist ay d tutlayt-nsen tawh'idt i yes ttemsefhamen akk d wiyad'. Bitja'a Kody yenna-d dakken ilmez'yen yellan di lih'ala-yagi mazal ad rnun di ldjil ara d-iteddun, imi Ikamruniyen ur nessin ara tutlayin tines'liyin n tmurt ur zemmren ara ad slemden tutlayin-agi i yigerdan-nsen. Yugh lh'al, d Ikamruniyen s timmad-nsen ara ineqqen tutlayin-nsen tines'liyin.

Di lweqt i deg timend'awin (constitutions) tiqdimin n Cameroun (1961, 1972, 1984) ur d-nnint acemma ghef tutlayin tines'liyin n Cameroun, tin n 1996 tefka azal i wesnerni-nsent, yernu aya d abeddel ameqran deg wennar n tsertit n tutlayin di Cameroun. Nnig waya, awanak (ddewla) itteg ifadden i medden (usligen - privťs) i wakken ad qedcen i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayin tines'liyin. Ghef waya, tirebba‚ tusligin (privťes) gant isenfaren (projets) n une‚rud' n uselmed akk d unadi ghef tutlayin tines'liyin yernu adabu, xas ma yella ur a d-yettak ara afus n lem‚awna, yeqbel iqeddicen-agi s tsusmi. Iqeddicen ay xeddment trebba‚ am SIL-Cameroon, CABTAL akk d NACALCO d ayen igerrzen iteddun deg webrid yelhan : tirebba‚-agi la qeddcent i wakken ad ssizghent (standardiser) tutlayin tines'liyin u ad tent-slemden, am wakken ara ttgent leqdicat n unadi fell-asent u qeddcent i wakken ad tent-ttmeslayen medden yernu ur neggrent ara. D acu kan, nesh'issif imi tutlayin tines'liyin mazal-itent ghabent deg ugherbaz n uwanak (ddewla), xas ma yella, ghef leh'sab n wakken ay d-yeqqar Chumbow (1996), "aseqdec n tutlayin tiyemmatin seg yiseggasen imezwura n uselmed yetturar ddur' meqqren deg wesnerni n th'er'ci n wegrud".   

Xas ma yella kra n tmura n Tefriqt n ddaw n Ss'eh'ra sseqdacent tutlayin tines'liyin deg uselmed di tlata yiseggasen imezwura n uselmed, Cameroun tesseqdac tutlayin-is tuns'ibin (tafr'ensist d teglizit) deg wakk iswiren (niveaux) n welmad, seg wasmi ara d-bdun warrac almad-nsen alamma d asmi ara awd'en gher tesdawit. D aya ay yeddjan medden ad h'emmlen tutlayin tuns'ibin u ad s‚unt azal ghur-sen di lweqt i deg h'eqren tutlayin tines'liyin n tmurt-nsen. Maca tah'eqranit-agi n tutlayin tines'liyin maci ala di Cameroun ay yella, yernu Adegbija (2000) yeqqar-d : "Yugh lh'al, deg wat'as n tmura ay yellan zik d tihersin (colonies) n Fr'ansa d Portugal, tutlayin tines'liyin ur ttwaqbalent, ur ttuselmadent deg ugherbaz ula deg yiseggasen imezwura n welmad. Imi timura-yagi d tigellilin taswi‚t-a, ur bghint ara ad gent ussisen (lmedjhudat) i wakken ad beddent i tutlayin-nsent tines'liyin, nnig waya, imawlan ttnadin i wakken igerdan-nsen ad lemden tutlayin tur'ufiyin (europťennes) ghef zik lh'al. Ttejr'iba tesban-d dakken amur ameqran deg yimawlan di Cameroun ur qbilen ara ad lemden yigerdan-nasen tutlayin tines'liyin deg ugherbaz. At'as n yimawlan ay yettaznen igerdan-nsen gher walmaten n yigerdan (jardins d'enfants) akken kan ara awd'en tlata yiseggasen i wakken ad lemden taglizit negh tafr'ensist. D ayen ibanen dakken imawlan ara yefken arraw-nsen i wakken ad lemden tutlayt tuns'ibt ur begghun ara ad lemden warraw-nsen tutlayin tines'liyin asmi ara kecmen s agherbaz. Dgha, tagnit-agi maci d nettat ara i‚iwnen tutlayin tines'liyin ad kecment s agherbaz akamruni. Almaten n yigerdan sseqdacen tarrayin (mťthodes) n uselmed tibrit'aniyin, timarikaniyin negh tifr'ensisin. D tikli-yagi ay yeddjan timura n Tefriqt tagherbit ay teste‚mer' Fr'ansa zik-nni, ad qqiment dima qqnent idles-nsen gher Fr'ansa, yernu d aya ay d-yezgan d unjug (obstacle) i wakken ur ttnernint ara tutlayin tines'liyin di tmura-nsent.      

D acu kan, xas ma yella tebgha Cameroun ad tessekcem tutlayin tines'liyin s agherbaz, taswi‚t-a, ur tezmir ara ad teg aya, acku ames'ruf (budget) ay yefka udabu n tmurt-a i uselmed mect'uh mlih', yernu ur yettaddja ara agrud akamruni ad yes‚u ula cwit' seg wayen yeh'wadj d ttawil i wakken ad yelmed, nnig waya, lexs'as' n yedrimen yesxass' ula d tasnarrayt (mťthodologie) n uselmed akk d usekcem n yiselmaden imaynuten. Seg wakken xuss'en yedrimen di Cameroun alamma ay yeqqim unabad' (lh'ukuma) ‚ecr'a yiseggasen ur yezmir ara ad d-yessekcem iselmaden imaynuten s agherbaz amenzu (primaire), yernu alamma ay d melmi kan ay tekfa taluft-agi. Dgha, di tallit-nni, at'as n tneghra (classes) ay yeqqimen mebla aselmad yernu amur ameqran deg yigerdan ur ghrin ara at'as negh ur ufin ara win ara ten-yesseghren. Ma yella tadamsa (ťconomie) n tmurt ur tezmir ara i ugherbaz, amek ay ara tezmer i usekcem n tutlayin tines'liyin s agherbaz amenzu ? Yugh lh'al, asekcem n tutlayin s tines'liyin s agherbaz maci d awezghi negh d ayen iwe‚r'en at'as ghef udabu akamruni, maca ugur atan deg wanect ara d-yesqam waya, ladgha ma nez'ra dakken at'as seg yiselmaden n yigherbazen ikamruniyen la ttuxellas'en s yedrimen n lem‚awna n Tbanka Tamad'lant (Banque Mondiale). Imi adabu la yesseqac kan taglizit akk d tefr'ensist deg uselmed, yernu yettmeslay d wegdud ala s tutlayin-agi, at'as n medden yettmeslayen tutlayin tines'liyin qqimen di rrif, ur zmiren ara ad ttekkin negh ad d-inin rr'ay-nsen di temsal yes‚an azal di tmurt-nsen, yernu s waya, ur ttazmaren ara ad ttekkin deg wesnerni n tmurt-nsen. At'as deg-sen ur z'rin d acu yellan di tmend'awt (constitution) wala deg usad'uf (lqanun) n u‚aqeb n tmurt-nsen d yisud'af ay yesselh'ayen tudert-nsen. Dgha, aselh'u n lumur' n uwanak (ddewla) d ayen yellan ger yifassen kan n tedghert (ťlite), yernu xas ma yella adabu yessefra ad yesselmed taghuri i yimeqranen, ar ass-a wer‚ad ur yebdi ara aya. Yugh lh'al, Tadadjeu (1975) yenna-d dakken lemmer adabu ad yesselh'u tamurt s tlata tutlayin, taglizit, tafr'ensist d tutlayin tines'liyin, ad yeg ifadden i wakken ad ttwalemdent deg ugherbaz u ad ttusqedcent deg yinurar merr'a, aya yezmer ad d-yawi abaghur (lfayda) meqqren i Yikamruniyen. Ma d nekni si tama-nnegh, nettwali dakken yelha lemmer tutlayin-agi tines'liyin ad tent-skecmen deg s agherbaz amenzu : tabasaat (basaa), tabulut (bulu), tewondot (ewondo), tadualat (duala), tafe'fe't (fe'fe'), tafulfuldet (fulfulde), tamungakat (mungaka) akk d tpidgint n teglizit. Tabasaat ad tt-sqedcen wid ay tt-yessawalen di tama n yiri n lebh'er' n Cameroun akk d temnad'in (provinces) n tlemmast n tmurt; tabulut akk d tewondot ad tent-sqedcen di tlemmast, deg wenz'ul (sud) akk d temnad'in ticerqiyin; tadualat ad tt-sqedcen wid Yedualaten akk d kra n yegduden n terba‚t tasawat (sawa) am Yibakweriyen (Bakweri) akk d Yibakossiyen (Bakossi) di temnad'in n wenz'ul agherbi, d Yemboten (Mbo) yettidiren di temnad't n Yiri n Lebh'er'; tafe'fe't ad tt-sqedcen di temnad't tagherbit; tafulfuldet ad tt-sqedcen di tlata-nni n temnad'in n ugafa; tamungakat ad tt-sqedcen deg Temnad't n Ugafa Agherbi u di tgara, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun ad tt-sqedcen di temnad'in anda ay ttmeslayen taglizit.

Askasi ghef tutlayt taghelnawt 

Seg wasmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is (indťpendance), afran n tutlayt taghelnawt (tutlayt negh tutlayin tines'liyin i yes ara sselh'un tamurt) yella-yas d ugur. Xas ma yella adabu yefren ad yewwet nneh' ghef temsalt-agi imi ay yugad lemmer ad yefren kra n tutlayt/tutlayin, u ad yeddj tiyad', aya ad d-yexleq uguren ger yegduden yemgerraden n Cameroun yernu ad ihudd tadukli n tmurt, kra n waggagen (intellectuels) imeqranen, imuzzag (spťcialistes) n uselmed d yimesnilsiyen (linguistes) lhan-d mlih' akk d temsalt-agi yernu nudan ad as-d-afen tifrat. Ngijol (1964) yessumer-d (proposer) ad tes‚u tmurt n Cameroun yiwet kan n tutlayt taghelnawt i lmend n teywalt, n uselmed n tghuri akk d uselmed deg ugherbaz d wesnerni n tmagit (idenditť) tadelsant n tmurt. Ma d Ba Njock (1966), si tama-s, yessumer-d dakken adabu ad yebd'u tamurt d timiwa ghef leh'sab n tutlayin, yal yiwet ad tes‚u tutlayt-is i yiman-is. Xas ma yella takti-yagi (lfekra) telha, tifrat am ta tezmer ad d-tesnulfu uguren di kra n tmiwa anda ur tban ara d acu-tt tutlayt ay yettuseqdacen deg-sen s wat'as. Ahat, Ba Njock akk d wid yeddan d tmughli-s mmeslayen-d ghef takti-yagi imi ay walan dakken deg yiseggasen n settin, yebda udabu la yesselmad setta si tutlayin tines'liyin n tmurt di tesdawit tafidir'alit, d acu kan, adabu akamruni yeh'bes aselmed-agi imi ay yugad lemmer ad d-net'qen Yikamruniyen yettmeslayen tutlayin nnid'en u ad d-ssutren ad tent-sselmaden ula d nitenti. Nnig waya, i wakken ad yefru udabu tamsalt n wanta ay d tutlayt yifen tayed', imd'ebbren nnan-d tutlayin tines'liyin merr'a n Cameroun d "tutlayin tighelnawin", ‚edlent akk yernu ulac amgerrad (lxilaf) gar-asent. Di temlilit n Useqqamu Aghelnaw n Temsal Tidelsanin ay d-yellan di Yaoundť seg 18 gher 22 Dujember' 1974, ye‚zem udabu ad asent-yessawal i tutlayin tines'liyin "tutlayin tighelnawin". D acu kan, di lweqt i deg anabad' (lh'ukuma) yella yeh'wadj ad yes‚u tabghest (lkur'aj) i wakken ad yefren anti ay d tutlayin tighelnawin i yes ara yesselh'u tamurt, netta yessanef i temsalt-a, u yefren ad ye‚del ger wakk tutlayin mebla ma yefra ugur. Maca xas ma yella adabu ur yessawed' ara ad yefru aya, llant di Cameroun ‚ecr'a n rr'adyuwat taz'iyanin (rťgionales), yal tamnad't tes‚a tin-is, yernu ttwaxedment-d i wakken ad ttmeslayen s tutlayin ay ttmeslayen at'as di temnad'in-nsent. Lweqt ay tettak yal rr'adyu i tutlayt-is tanes'lit yemxallaf si temnad't gher tayed'. Di temnad't n Ugafa Ub‚id (ExtrÍme-Nord), rr'adyu n temnad't tettak 27.36% si lweqt-is i tutlayin tines'liyin, ma d tamnad't n Ugafa Agherbi, rr'adyu-yines yellan di Bamenda tettak kan 4,17% si lweqt-is i tutlayin tines'liyin. Yugh lh'al, yella wemgerrad d ameqran di lweqt ay tettak yal rr'adyu i tutlayin tines'liyin, yernu aya yesskan-d dakken yal rr'adyu d nettat ay yettd'ebbiren deg wanect ara tefk d lweqt i tutlayin-agi. Amur ameqran di teywalt (communication) yettwaxdam s teglizit d tefr'ensist, ama di rr'adyu negh di tilibizyu n Cameroun, yernu aya yesskan-d dakken amur ameqran seg yimezdaghen n Cameroun rran-ten di rrif imi ur sen-ttmeslayen ara s tutlayin-nsen, di lweqt i deg Ikamruniyen-agi, lemmer ad asen-mmeslayen s tutlayin ay fehhmen, zemren ad nef‚en tamurt-nsen ugar.              

Ula d Todd (1983) tettwali dakken yelha lemmer ad tefren Cameroun yiwet kan n tutlayt taghelnawt. Ghef leh'sab-is nettat, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun tezmer ad turar ddur' n tutlayt taghelnawt mebla uguren imi tutlayt-a tes‚a tams'uka (structure) iqerben gher tin n tutlayin tines'liyin, yernu d nettat kan ay d tutlayt tawh'idt di Cameroun ur nes‚i ara agdud negh taqbilt ay tt-yettmeslayen d tutlayt-is tanes'lit, ur tes‚i tama ibanen anda ay tt-ttmeslayen wala ddyana yeqqnen ghur-s, am wakken ur telli ara d tutlayt ay d-ih'ettem kra n unabad' (lh'ukuma)  n yinehrasen (colonisateurs). S waya, wid yett'fen talemmast ttwalin dakken tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun d tutlayt ay izemren ad tesdukel mlih' Ikamruniyen imi "ur telli d tutlayt n yiwen".

Llan wid ur neddi ara rr'ay-agi, qqaren-d dakken tapidgint teqreb gher teglizit yernu amur ameqran di tmawalt-is (lťxique) d awalen ay d-yekkan si teglizit.D acu kan, imi tutlayt-agi ttmeslayen-tt u ttemsefhamen yis-s wat'as n medden yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden, yelha ma yella tettuseqdec d tutlayt n uselmed, u teqqar-d Todd (1983) dakken "lemmer ad tughal tpidgintd tutlayt n uselmed, aya ur d-yesqamay ara at'as i unabad' (lh'ukuma) akamruni. Tutlayt-agi fehhmen-tt wat'as n medden deg wat'as n tmiwa n tmurt, yernu ttemsefhamen yis-s Yikamruniyen ula akk d yinaragen-nsen (ldjiran) ifriqiyen, yernu xas ma yella qlil kan anda ay tettili tutlayt-agi d tutlayt tayemmat n wegrud, tikwal, llan at'as n yigerdan n Cameroun ay s-isellen i tutlayt-a tettuseqdac seg wasmi ara ilin d imect'ah'.  At'as aya seg wasmi ara tetturar tpidgint n teglizit n Cameroun ddur' n usiwed' n yedles akamruni, yernu tezmer ad tettuseqdec mebla uguren deg wemni (parlement) negh di lemcawr'at n tedrimt".

Imi ay tettwah'seb tpidgint n teglizit n Cameroun d yiwet si tutlayin n tmurt-a, tezmer ad turar ddur' n tutlayt taghelnawt mebla uguren. Nnig waya, aseq‚ed d usizegh-yines (standardisation) ur s-d-yesqamay ara akk at'as i udabu imi ay yella yagi wayen yuran s tutlayt-a. Maca xas ma yella tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun tezmer ad d-awi ibughar (lfaydat) imeqranen i tmurt, adadu, taswi‚t-a, mazal yegguma ad yeg ifadden i wakken ad tettuseqdec.

Tagrayt : 

Xas ma yella tasertit (politique) n Cameroun terked u tezmer tmurt ad d-telhu d wuguren n tutlayt, yettban-agh-d dakken aya maci si temsal timeqranin ay iceghben adabu. Yugh lh'al, Cameroun, am wat'as n tmura n Tefriqt n ddaw n Ss'eh'ra, ur tettwali ara dakken timsal n tutlayt zwarent. Dgha, skud ulac uguren akk d tsertit n tutlayt i yes la tlehh'u tmurt ass-a, fih'el ma yexdem udabu acemma nnid'en i wakken ad yefru uguren ay d-mazal ‚ellqen. Xas ma yella imesnilsiyen (linguistes) d yimassanen ay d-yerran lwelha-nsen gher temsalt n tutlayin tines'liyin la d-ttmeslayen u la d-ssumuren (proposer) iberdan ara yefrun ugur-agi, adabu akamruni yettban-agh-d dakken yefr'eh' s tegnit i deg tella tmurt ass-a deg wennar n tutlayin. Yugh lh'al, ayen ara ixeddem udabu, la t-ixeddem kan i teswi‚t mebla ma iwala gher lbe‚d. 

I wakken ad teg Cameroun tasetit n tutlayt yelhan, yessefk fell-as ad tesselmed igerdan s tutlayt-nsen tayemmat deg yiseggasen-nsen imezwura n welmad, sakkin, ad asen-tesselmed tutlayin tuns'ibin (officielles - taglizit akk d tefr'ensist). Maca, i wakken ad terbeh' tsertit-agi, yessefk ad tettwaxdem ghef leh'sab n ttawil yellan, u cwit', cwit' kan, ladgha di tmiwa n tmurt, berr'a i temdinin, anda igerdan ssnen kan tutlayin-nsen tines'liyin. Dgha, tutlayin tines'liyin n yal tama ad ttusqedcent i uselmed u tent-snernin deg yeswiren (niveaux) yemgerraden. Yernu, mi ara tennerni kra n tutlayt, tezmer ad tughal d nettat ay d tutlayt n uselmed n temnad't merr'a. Anabad' (lh'ukuma), iseqquma az'iyanen (rťgionaux), yiseqquma n tutlayt d yemdanen iqeddcen ghef tutlayt yessefk ad gen ifadden i yinelmaden i wakken maci ala d taglizit d tefr'ensist wanag ula d tutlayin tines'liyin, yernu yessefk ad yettwaxdem waya deg wakk timiwa n tmurt.

Maca taswi‚t-a, tamsalt n tutlayt mazal wer‚ad tefri di tmurt n Cameroun anda amur ameqran seg yimezdaghen "ur neghri ara" ttwa‚ezlen imi ur ssinen tafr'ensist wala taglizit. Nnig waya, imi igerdan ur a lemmden ara s tutlayt-nsen tayemmat, at'as n yigerdan ur a nrebbeh' ara di tezrawin-nsen (leqraya), acku se‚‚un uguren akk d teglizit d tefr'ensist, u di tgara, xas ma yella adabu yebgha ad yesselh'u tamurt s snat tutlayin tuns'ibin u yebgha ad ye‚del gar-asent, ur yessawed' ara, yernu yessefk ad yefru uguren yerzan aya imi ay yella wemgerrad (conflit) ger wid yessawalen tafr'ensist d wid yessawalen taglizit, yernu aya yezmer ad yessiwed' gher bedd'u n tmurt. Ghef waya, yessefk ghef Cameroun ad t‚awed tamughli deg tikli ay d-tewwi di tsertit-is n tutlayin u ad teg ayen yessefken s tidet i wakken ad ten-tefru.    

Idlisen :

Chumbow, Sammy Beban (1996): "The Role of National Languages within a Comprehensive Language Policy for Cameroon". Academic Discourse presented at the University of Buea.

Ngijol, Pierre (1964): "Nťcessitť d'une langue nationale". ABBIA No. 7: 83-99.

Njeck, Alice Forsab (1992): Official Bilingualism in the University of Yaounde : Some Educational and Social Issues. Mťmoire de MaÓtrise, Universitť de Yaoundť.

Tadadjeu, Maurice (1975): "Language Planning in Cameroon: Towards a Trilingual Education System". In: Herbert, Robert K. (ed.): Patterns in Language, Culture and Society: Sub-Saharan Africa. Colombus, Ohio: 53-75. (= Working Papers in Linguistics 19).

Tambi, Jot (1973): Received Language Bilingualism in Cameroon: A Study of Functions and Attitudes. Mťmoire du DES, Universitť de Yaoundť.

Todd, Loreto (1983): "Language Options for Education in a Multilingual Society: Cameroon". In: Kennedy, Chris (ed): Language Planning and Language Education. London: 160-171.

Yettwakkes-d umagrad-agi si Linguistik online 18, 1/04

http://www.linguistik-online.de/18_04/echu.html

Tasuqilt sghur Omar Mouffok

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