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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

Utt'un 17

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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad, 16006, Alger, Algérie
Tabrat n Yimedyazen
 
Uṭṭun 17
 
(imalas n 17  Mayyu gher 23 Mayyu 2009)
 
Zik nettini win yebγan tamaziγt, ad yissin tira-s
Ass-a nettini win yebγan tamaziγt, ad tt-yaru

 

Tigejdit :

Afra* n Ṛebbi fell-awen, azul fell-awen,

 

Afra d awal amaziγ ay sseqdacen deg tcelḥit, anamek-nnes ”talwit, lehna”, yerna yes-s ay nefren ad d-nebdu awal-nneγ deg wuṭṭun-a amaynut n Tebṛat n Yimedyazen, akk-n a d-nebdu tagjedit-nneγ, imi ay nessaram ad yili wefra, ad tili lehna deg tudert-nneγ, i wakk-n ad nezmer ad nkemmel ay-n ay d-nebda, ncalleh.

 

Aṭas ay-a seg wasmi ay iγab weγmis-nneγ, Tabṛat n Yimedyazen, ay yellan, naqal, itteffeγ-d yal dduṛt ed yessawal-d, s umata, γef yilsawen n tdersiyin (minorités) n umaḍal ed ttejṛibat ay n yiγerfan-nsen (ccuεub) akk-n ad ten-snernin. Deg tazwara, nella nessaram ad t-nebdu aγmis-a i wakk-n ur iḥebbes, maca tignatin ay γef yezmer ad d-yekk wemdan neγ tarbaεt n yemdanen ay iqeddcen ttemgerradent mliḥ seg tallit γer tayeḍ, yerna d ay-a ay aγ-yejjan ad neḥbes aγmis-nneγ.

 

Iswan n weγmis-nneγ mazal-iten d wid-nni n zik, yerna nezmer ad ten-id-njemmel, s umata am wakk-a: nebγa ad nesnerni iles amaziγ, ama s yisalan (lexbarat) ay d-nettawey deg weγmis-nneγ (imi ay-n ay inefεen iγerfan niḍen deg wesnerni n yilsawen-nsen yezmer ad aγ-yenfeε ula d nekni), am wakk-n ay nebγa ad nerr iles amaziγ d win ay yes nezmer ad nessiweḍ tamussni akk-n ay tt-nessawaḍ s yilsawen imuddiren niḍen. Nnig way-a, nebγa daγen ad naru s yiwen n yiles ay yes ara neεreḍ ad ssemqarab, akk-n nezmer, tintalyin (dialectes) timaziγin yemgerraden, i wakk-n ad yifsus ugar wemsefham gar Yimaziγen s yiles-nsen.

 

Tanemmirt

 

Omar Mouffok

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

 

 

 

Amezruy n yiles akurdi

Taqcict takurdit s yicett'id'en imensayen (traditionnels) deg Tterk

 

Imassanen isdawanen (universitaires) ay yeγran γef umezruy n Yikudriyen, msefhamen akk γef tmuγli ay d-yeqqaren Ikurdiyen d aγref (cceεb) aqbur. D luluf n yiseggasen ay-a seg wasmi ay ddren Yikurdiyen deg tmurt-nni umi qqaren « dduḥ n tγerma (civilisatiion) n yemdanen », yerna llan zedγen tamurt-a qbel ad bdun yemdanen ttarun amezruy. Mi ara nγer amezruy, ad nẓer aṭas n tγermiwin ifazen ay d-yettusbedden deg tmurt n Yikurdiyen ed tmiwa ay d-yezzin fell-as, am tin n Tgersaft (Mésopotamie), taγerma n Yihittiyen, tin n Yiḥuriyen, taγerma n Yikarduciyen, tin n Yimittaniyen, tin n Yiṛartiyen ed tin n Yisasaniyen. Nnig way-a, aṭas seg ddyanat timeqranin ay yeddren deg tmurt n Yikurdiyen, am tmitrayit (ddyana n weεbad n tafukt), tamazdayit (tazaratuctit), ddyanat n yedrugen (mystères), ddyana tudayt, tamasiḥit, tamanikiyit ed Lislam. Ar ass-a, deg Kurdistan, nezmer ad naf aṭas n trebbaε ay yettḍafaren ddyanat ay deg xelḍen aṭas n ledyan seg wid-nni ay d-nebder sufella-a, am Yiyazdiyen, Ikakayiyen (wid umi γγaren Yarsan neγ Ali-Haqq, « Ayt Tidet »), Aleviyen, Icabaken, Isarayiyen, Ibajwanen, Ihaqqaten, atg. yerna tirebbaε-a akk sskanent-d timmeṛkantit n yedles ay d-weṛten Yikurdiyen.

 

Ikurdiyen uraren dduṛ d ameqran deg umezruy n Wegmuḍ (Ccerq), ama qbel neγ sdeffir n unnerni n Lislam, deg lqern wis sebεa. Sdeffir ma yekcem weḥric seg Yikurdiyen γer Lislam, Ikurdiyen inselmen εawnen tiwaculin n lḥekkam taεṛabin, tifarsiyin ed treṛkiyin akk-n ad d-sbeddent iwunak-nsent) (ddulat) yerna qlilit yiγerfan inselmen ay igan ay-a war ma nudan ula d nitni γef nnfeε-nsent. I wakk-n ad d-nekf kra n yimedyaten (lemtul), assebded n Uwanak Aεebbasi yella-d s uεiwen n Ukurdi Abu Muslim Xurasani deg useggas n 750, ma d Ṣlaḥeddin (1137 – 1193), yessaweḍ ad yessuffeγ Inmudag (Croisés) seg Falesṭin deg lqern wis tnac ; Awanak Aṣ̣afawi (1501/2 – 1736) deg tezwara n lqern wis 16 d Ismaεil Cah Ṣafi ay t-id-yesbedden, yerna aneggaru-a yella d memmi-s n Ccix Ṣafi, ccix n yiwet n ṭṭariqa n Yiderwicen, am wakk-n assebded n Umenkud (Empire) Aεetmani yella-d s uεiwen n tegludniwin timzirag (principautés indépendantes) n Yikudriyen. Yuγ lḥal, tigludniwin-nni ddukklent ed Twacult Taεetmanit deg 1515, sdeffir n yimenγi-nni mechuṛen n Caldiran, ay deg Iεetmaniyen, s uεiwen n Yikurdiyen, rnan Ifarsiyen, yerna akk-n ay d-yettussebded Umenkud Aεetmani.

Ay-n ay ssawḍen Yikurdiyen ad t-gen deg yinurar n tsertit (politique) ed yimenγi i lmend n ljiran-nsen d aḥric kan seg way-n ay yes d-ttekkan deg umezruy ; wanag imassanen Ikurdiyen ttekkan-d daγen mliḥ deg wesnerni n yedles aεṛab, idles afarsi ed yedles ateṛki, yerna attekki-nsen deg wesnerni n Lislam seg wakk-n meγγer, armi ula d amassan-nni mechuṛen n Lislam, Al-Γazali, asmi ay d-isemma ṛebεa seg yemdanen ay yettwali d « tigejda n yedles ineslem », tlata deg-sen d Ikurdiyen. Maca seg zik ay gren yibeṛṛaniyen tamawt i Yikurdiyen ur qdicen akk-n ad snernin iles ed yedles-nsen. Camsaddin Sami, ay yellan d amaru n tekṛuniyin (chroniqueur) aεetmani, yura-d deg lqern iεeddan deg ”Qamus al-Aalam” (Amawal n Yismawen) :

 

« Akk Ikurdiyen yeγran lhan-d ed yiles aεṛab neγ afarsi, ma d iles-nsen qqnen allen-nsen fell-as”.

 

Γef umedya (lemtel), amassan akurdi ineslem Ccix Marifi Node (yi) Barzinji (1733 – 1838) yura-d ugar n 46 n yedlisen imeqranen s taεṛabt ed tfarsit. Idlisen-a yura-ten-id γef lfiqh, imenzayen (principes) ed ladeb n tmussni, tamussni n ddin, tasnallunt (astronomie), tafilulujit ed tsekla. Node (yi) Barzinji yedder armi 85 n yiseggasen yerna yura-d yiwen kan n wedlis s tkurdit: d tamawalt tamecṭuḥt s taεṛabt ed tkurdit deg-s kra n tmeyyatin n wawalen. Deg tezzwert n wedlis-nnes, Barzinji yura-d s tfarsit ssebba ay γef t-id-yura : ”I wakk-n memmi, Aḥmad, ad yelmed tamawalt (lexique) n taεṛabt s tefses. Yerna γef way-a ay as-ssemmaγ i wedlis-a Aḥmadiyya”.

 

D ay-n yessewhamen mi ara nẓer deg tegludniwin-nni (principautés) tikurdiyin timzirag (indépendantes) am tin n Yihasnaγiyen (ay d-sbedden deg 959), Idostakiyen (990-1096), atg. iles unṣ̣ib (officiel) ur yelli d takurdit. D acu kan, takurdit teqqim d nettat ay d iles n weγref (cceεb) yerna d netta ay d ttawil n wemsefham gar wegdud ed yemḍebbren-nnes. Tijjin ay jjan Yikurdiyen iles-nsen ed lqella n wazal ay as-kfan d ay-n ay d-yejjan lateṛ n diri deg Yikurdiyen, yerna ay-a nezmer ad as-nḥulfu ar ass-a. Ar ass-a werεad nefhim ayγer Ikurdiyen ay yeγran sqedcen tamussni-nsen akk-n ad nefεen d iles ed yedles n wiyaḍ, neγ, akk-n d-ttinin, “aγenja-nsen γer beṛṛa ay yettseqqi”. Da, s tewzel kan ara d-nessiwel γef way-a, imi ta d tamsalt niḍen, yerna d tin ay yeqqnen ay deg nettnadi daγen ad nefhem d acu ay d ssebba ay yejjan Ikurdiyen yeγran ur zemmren (neγ ur beγγun) ad d-awyen tamussni n yiγerfan niḍen γer Kurdistan i wakk-n ad rren aγref-nsen d ”Aεṛab” neγ d ”Afarsi” ugar. Akk-n yebγu yili, lemmer yiwen ur d-yessawal γef yiman-nnes, yerna ur yettnadi γef nnfeε-nnes, d wiyaḍ ara igen ay-a deg wemkan-nnes, yerna ad t-gen akk-n yeεwej. Dγa d ay-a ay yejjan iγerfan niḍen ad d-snulfun, seg zik n zik, timucuha ur nelli akk-n ad d-sfehmen laṣ̣el n Yikurdiyen, neγ akk-n ad sseγlin s wazal n yiles akurdi. Maca d d-nessiwel kan s tewzel γef temsalt-a: azal n walef n yiseggasen ay qqimen yenmezruyen (historiens) aεṛaben am Al-Masεudi (ay yemmuten deg 956/7), Ibn Hawqal (ay yemmuten deg tizi n 977), atg. qqaren-d lejdud n Yikurdiyen d leṛwaḥ. Amedyaz Al-Firdusi ay yellan yettaru isefra imeqranen (932? – 1020), yella yettwali Ikurdiyen deg usefru-nnes “Cahname” (Adlis n Ugellid) d arraw n yelmeẓyen-nni ay iselken seg ugellid amesbaṭli Zohak (Ajdahak) ay yellan itteddu ad asen-yebbi iγfawen-nsen, yerna ssawḍen ad rewlen γer yidurar. Xuja Sadaddin (1537-1599), amefti ateṛki n Umenkud Aεetmani (Empire Ottoman) yura-d deg wedlis-nnes “Taj ul-Tawarix” (Aqacuc n Yimezruyen): 

 

“D Ṛebbi ay yebγan akk-n Ikurdiyen ur zemmren ad d-sbedden awanak (ddula) imi, yiwet n tikkelt, yusa-d yiwen n wergaz d ucmit aṭas yerna yessexlaε, yerza-d γef nnbi Muḥemmed. Nnbi yexleε yerna yesseqsa argaz-nni seg wansi ay d-yusa. Inebgi-nni yenna-as, s leεqel ed s leḥdaqa, “nekk d Akurdi”.  Dγa yerfed nnbi iγef-nnes s igenni, yenna-d ”Ad yeg Ṛebbi ur ttdukkulen Yikurdiyen; imi tadukli-nsen tezmer ad tili d ssebba I nnger ddunit”.

 

[Yuγ lḥal, aṭas n wid ay d-yettinin awalen werjin yenna-ten-id Nnbi Muḥemmed, taẓallit ed sslam n Ṛebbi fell-as, yerna ay-a d leḥṛam ameqran deg ddin n Lislam]

 

Kra ṛuḥen mebεid deg tḥeqranit n tnettit (identité) ed yiles akurdi, am wakk-n ay nezmer ad t-nẓer deg usefru-a aγerfan (populaire) ay d-yettussuqqlen seg tfarsit:

 

Taεṛabt d “llif” ed “lba”

Tafarsit (ẓidet) am sskeṛ

Tateṛkit d ccγel n lfenn

Takurdit d turriḍt n weγyul

 

D ay-n ibanen aggagen (intellectuels) ikurdiyen ḥeqren ed rran deg rrif iles akurdi, yerna γef way-a ay ggtent tmucuha ed tkerkas (lekdubat) γef Yikurdiyen. Ad d-nernu kan yiwen n umedya (lemtel) i wakk-n ad d-nessiweḍ takti. Win ay d-yesbedden ddyana tabahayt, Bahaullah (1817-1892), yedder sin n yiseggasen deg Kurdistan (1854-1856). Deg tallit-nni, Bahauddin yerra iman-nnes d aderwic (derγiche), isemma i yiman-nnes “Muḥemmed”, yerna yella yeγγar-as i yiles akurdi ”iles n Adem”. Yenna-d Adem yella yessawal s tkurdit imi, γef leḥsab-nnes, takurdit “ur telli γer-s tjeṛṛumt”. Bahaullah ur aγ-d-yenni d acu n yiles ay yessawel Adem ed tmeṭṭut-nnes Ḥewwa. Yerna nebγa lemmer ay aγ-d-yenni d acu-t yiles ay tella tessawal Ḥewwa ; imi nnbi Bahaullah ur aγ-d-ixebber γef way-a. D acu kan, iles d ay-n ay d-itteg leεqel n wemdan. Yal iles deg umaḍal (menγir tesperantot) yebda-d s wawal, ed yettusseqdec d ttawil i ttjaṛa ed teγwalt (communication). Sakk-in γef leḥsab n tegnatin n umezruy, iles-nni yellan deg wawal kan yezmer ad yeqqel d iles yettwarun. Tikkal, tignatin-a n wesnerni n yiles seεεunt tilisa deg tmetti (société). Maca tikkal, ddin yezmer ad yurar dduṛ, am wakk-n tasertit, tadamsa (économie) neγ ula d tasnafsit (psychologie) neγ mi ara ddukklent akk ti, zemrent ad εawnent iles akk-n ad yennerni ed yeqqel d iles yettwarun. D acu kan, nettwali ssebba tameqrant ay yejjan kra n yilsawen n tallit taqburt ad nnernin netta d ddin, imi d netta ay yejjan ilsawen-nni ay yellan naqal d itlayen (oraux) ad qqlen ttwarun, sakk-in, asmi ay bdan ttarun-ten, ssizγen-ten (standardiser). Ikurdiyen yessekf kan ad mmuqqlen γer ljiran-nsen akk-n ad ẓren ay-a. Ameγdaḍ (missionnaire) amasiḥi Mesrop Mashthotz d netta ay d-yesnulfan tirawt taṛminit deg useggas n 406 i wakk-n ad yaru iḍrisen (textes) n ddin amasiḥi s taṛminit. Deg ddyana tineslemt, Leqran, ay d-yettunezzlen s tentala (dialecte) n Yiqurayciyen, yerra tantala-a d nettat ay d iles n wakk Aεṛaben.

 

Akk-n ay d-nenna sufella-a, Kurdistan, seg zik n zik, tella-d d tamurt n ddyanat yemgerraden. Anadi deg ddyanat-nni tikurdiyen ay deg xelḍen waṭas n ledyan yemgerraden yesskan-aγ-d d ddyana tamazdayit (tazaratuctit) ay yellan d ddin icaεen aṭas γer Yikurdiyen n tallit taqburt. Wid ay yessnen ddin-a ẓran iḍrisen (textes) imqeddsen n tmazdiyit ttwarun s taγestit [d iles aqbur n Iṛan]. Γef leḥsab-inu, taγestit d iles ay seg ay d-yekka yiles akurdi. Ẓriγ llan wid ur iyi-nettwafaq deg wanect-a, maca ttwaliγ wi d imdanen ur neγri takurdit s telqey yerna ur ṭṭifen talemmast deg tmuγliwin-nsen. Wanag lemmer ssalqyen tamussni-nsen deg tkurdit ed ad ḍefren abrid n tussna, ad ttuqennεen, am nekk, s tmuγli ay d-yeqqaren iles aγesti llan ssawalen-t deg Kurdistan, ma ulac yessekf ad d-sfehmen akk-n niḍen laṣ̣el n yiles akurdi, yerna ur zmiren ad as-d-afen laṣ̣el niḍen ma maci d iles aγesti. Ihi, lemmer ad nemsefham Ikurdiyen ur llin d arraw n leṛwaḥ yerna ur d-γlin seg yigenni am lmalaykat, akk-n d-qqaren « yimassanen » aεṛaben ed yifarsiyen ay « inudan », yessekf ad nesteεṛef Ikurdiyen d imdanen ay yeddren seg zik n zik deg tmurt taqburt n Yimidiyen, yerna seg tallit taqburt ay ḍefren ddyana tamazdiyit ed llan ssawalen iles aγesti. D ay-n yessefṛaḥen imi taggara-a, inadiyen ttuwehhan γer webrid-a ay yettakfen lḥeqq i tmuγli-nneγ ay γef neqqim acḥal nessawal, ladγa inadiyen n Kirmashan, d amassan ay d-ilulen deg wegmuḍ (ccerq) n Kurdistan, ed Imadaddin Dolatshahi ay yeγran γef yismawen n yidurar ur εqilen anda ay d-zgan, d ismawen ay d-yekkan seg yiles aγesti. Aneggaru-a yessken-d, s webrid n tfilulujit (philologie), idurar-a d wid ay d-yezgan deg Kurdistan n wass-a, yerna neṣ̣ṣ̣ḥeγ-ken mliḥ ad teγrem adlis-nnes ay yura s yiles afarsi.

 

Ala aḥric amecṭuḥ seg yiles akurdi ay yettwazerwen (étudié). I wakk-n ad neg inadiyen deg yiles akurdi, yessekf ad d-nessebded Asudu n Tezrawin (Instituts d’études) Tikurdiyin, maca ass-a, ur yelli wemkan deg umaḍal anda ay yella Usudu seg ṣ̣ṣ̣enf-a. Ula d tlata-nni n tesdawiyin n Kurdistan n wenẓul (sud) (Dihok, Hawler ed Sulaymaniyya), ay d-yessebded unabaḍ (lḥukuma) akurdi yerna d netta ay tent-yesseddayen deg way-n akk-n umi γγaren ”Tama Takurdit” [deg Σiraq], ur yelli deg-sent usudu neγ agezdu (département) i tussna n yiles akurdi. Deg tesdawiyin-a, am deg waṭas n tesdawiyin Tuṛufiyin (am tin n Paris, gar tiyaḍ), sselmaden iles, tasekla ed tikkal, amezruy n Yikurdiyen. Maca ay-a ur yeεdil ed mi ara slemden « tussna n tkurdit » (kurdologie). Neqsed-d s « tussna »-a azraw (étude) n yiles akurdi seg yidis n umezruy yerna s webrid n tussna. Lemmer ur nettqaran s telqey yerna s webrid iṣ̣eggmen takurdit ed tiṛanit taqburt, tiṛanit talemmast ed tiṛanit tatrart, ur nezmir ad d-nini tella « tussna n yiles akurdi » n tidet.

 

Yessekf ad nẓer “tussna n tkurdit” deg Σiraq, ladγa deg tallit n leḥkem n ukabar n Baεt, tella tettwagdel (tettwamneε). Yella ttesriḥ i welmad n yiles akurdi deg Tesdawit n Beγdad ed Sulaymaniyya (umi semman ass-a Hawler), maca yella yettwagdel γef yiwen ad d-yini takurdit seg twacult n yilsawen iṛaniyen neγ ad iqaren s webrid n tfilulujit gar tkurtdit ed yilsawen iṛaniyen, yerna ay-a mazal-it ar ass-a. Win ara igen ay-a llan ḥessben-t neγ ula ass-a ad t-ḥesben d win “ay yebγan ad yebḍu tamurt” neγ d win yeddan ed tekta n « ccuεubiyya » [win yekfan azal ala i weγref-nnes/cceεb]. Maca ass-a, llant tlata n tesdawiyin seddaw n leḥkem n unabaḍ (lḥukuma) akurdi (deg Tama Takurdit), yerna yettwaḍmen, meqqar deg yiwet seg-sent, Tasdawit n Ṣlaḥeddin, ad ldin deg-s agezdu (département) n tussna n tkurdit. Yuγ lḥal, yessekf ad nessutter seg weγlif (ministère) n tteṛbiyya n Kurdistan ad yeg akk ay-n yezmer i wakk-n ad yebḍu Agezdu n Tezrawin Tikurdiyin seg Tesdawit n Tasekla, ed ad d-yessebded Tasdawit n Tussna n Tkurdit i yiman-nnes. Amgerrad gar « Tezrawin Tikurdiyin » ed « Tussna n Tkurdit » yessekf ad iban i yal yiwen.

 

Maca imir-a, ad d-neqqel γer temsalt-nneγ, tin n umezruy n yiles akurdi ed wamek ay iεedda seg tegnit n yiles atlay (oral) γer tin n yiles yettwarun. Cwiṭ kan sdeffir tmattant n Nnbi Muḥemmed, imgarayen aεṛaben, s tekbabt (taεellamt) n Lislam, bdan ttnaγen ed Yisasaniyen akked Yibizenṭiyen akk-n ad ten-sseγlin, yerna Ikurdiyen ay yellan ddren deg tmiwa-nni, ufan-d iman-nsen deg tlemmast n wenrar n yimenγi. Ikurdiyen qqimen d leqrun ttnaγen mgal Lislam, maca cwiṭ, cwiṭ, yeqqel umur amqran deg Yikurdiyen d inselmen. Akk-n ay d-nenna yagi, deg tallit-nni, iles ed yedles akurdi rran-ten waggagen (intellectuels) ikurdiyen deg yidis, yerna d ay-a yessaweḍen amedyaz ed ufelsuf akurdi Ahmadi Khanie (1650 /51 – 1706/7), win umi γγaren ”Shakespeare n Yikurdiyen”, ad d-yaru ungal-nnes « Mam ed Zin ». Deg wungal-nni iwet-d deg waggagen ikurdiyen yerna yenna-d, s lqerḥ, Ikurdiyen qqlen d « igujilen », ma d iles-nsen ay rran deg yidis ḥesben-d d « adaruγ » (nnḥas) (deg lweqt ay deg iles n leḥkem ḥesben-t d  « ureγ ».

 

D acu kan, Ikurdiyen-nni ur neqbil Lislam llan ttwalin iles ed yedles ikurdiyen akk-n niḍen. Deg tazwara, imḍebbren Aεṛaben ay iḥekmen Kurdistan steεṛfen s ddyana tazaratuctit ed ḥesben-tt d « Ddyana n Wedlis », d acu kan, sakk-in, zgan-d mgal (contre) ddyana tazaratuctit. Ikurdiyen-nni ay ikemmlen ttḍafaren ddyana tazaratuctit terra-ten tmara ad ffren ddyana-nsen, dγa d ay-nni ay yejjan ad d-nnulfunt, deg Kurdistan, ddyanat-nni ay deg xelḍen ledyan yemgerraden, akk-n ay d-nebder sufella-a (am Tyazdit, Tayarsant, atg.).

 

Ikurdiyen inselmen rran taεṛabt d iles-nsen n ddin, maca kemmlen sseqdacen takurdit deg tudert-nsen n yal ass. Seg tama niḍen, Ikurdiyen ur neqqil d Inselmen kemmlen ṭṭfen deg yiles-nsen akurdi i lmend n ddyanat-nsen ed leεwayed ay yeqqnen γer-sent. Ma deg way-n yerzan tira, Iyazdiyen snulfan-d tira-nsen tuffirin ay yes uran idlisen-nsen imqeddsen, wid umi γγaren « Jalwa » (Lewḥi) ed « Mahaf Rash » (Adlis Aberkan).

 

Ma d tirebbaε tidyaniyin niḍen am tin n Yiyarsanen, γef umedya (lemtel), sqedcen tira n taεṛabt s talγa-nnes tafarsit akk-n ad arun ddker-nsen n ddin s yiles akurdi.

 

Ikurdiyen ur nekcim γer Lislam ufan-d amek ara d-sbedden adasil (dogme) ara yeqqnen gar laṣ̣el-nsen, iles-nsen ed tmurt-nsen. Wa d yiwen n umedya (lemtel) :

 

Γef leḥsab n Yizadiyen, nitni s timmad-nsen ttwaxelqen-d seg zzerriεa n Adem, imi Adem s timmad-nnes yella d argaz yerna d tameṭṭut γef teswiεt, deg lweqt ay deg akk iγerfan niḍen lulen-d seg jjwaj ay d-yellan gar Adem ed Ḥewwa. Taddart n « Lalish » ay d-yezgan γef tqacuct n wedrar ay yesεan isem-a (deg tama n Shekhan, deg tlemmast n Kurdistan) d amkan imqeddes γer Yiyazdiyen imi adrar-nni ttwalin-t d tanezduγt tamezwarut n Ṛebbi, sakk-in Ṛebbi yeqqim tlatalaf n yiseggasen deg yiwen n uγerrabu, deg yilel (lebḥep). Γef leḥsab n Yiyazdiyen, Ṛebbi irezzu-d γef wid ay iḍefren ddin-nsen tikkelt i useggas, deg tefsut, deg tmeγra n Yiγef n Useggas-nsen, tin umi γγaren « Sarsal », ed tin ay sfugulen (célébrer) deg wass n Laṛebεa tamezwarut n Yebrir. Irezzu-d fell-asen akk-n ad yessiwel yid-sen γef lmektub n useggas ara d-itteddun, meḥsub ad asen-d-yekf isalan n Useggas Amaynut γef tegnit (lqaεa) ed wakk ay-n ay izedγen sufella-s, am wakk-n ay itteg yid-sen leεqed n « Leεwayed » ed « Uxelleṣ̣ n Tiwsi » (impôt). Ṛebbi yessawal yid-sen s tkurdit. Ula d wid ay yettḍafaren ddyana tayarsant ttamnen s wanect-a. Yerna ttamnen wid ay yettḍafaren ddin-nsen d nitni ay d iwḥiden ay yessnen “sser n Ṛebbi ur d-nettusawal”, yerna γef leḥsab-nsen, Nnbi n Lislam, Muḥemmed, ad yili yelmed-d “sser”-nni  sγur-sen, maca aneglus (lmelk) Pir Binyamen, iγef n “Sebεa n Yineglusen” n Yarsan, ay yesεan n dduṛ n “alter ego” n Ṛebbi, d Ṛebbi s timmad-nnes ay as-yekfan “sser”-nni yerna Netta yekfa-t s yiles akurdi I wid ay yettḍafaren ddyana tayarsant, dγa s way-a ay teqqel tkurdit d iles imqeddes. Menγir ay-a, llant aṭas n tugniwin tiwamyiyin (personnages mythiques) deg ddyana tayarsant am Baba-Nawus, Sultan Sahak (d ṣ̣ṣ̣ifat n Ṛebbi), neγ Dayirak, yemma-s n Ṛebbi ay d-ilulen deg Kurdistan. D yemma-s n Ṛebbi ay d-yurwen Sultan Sahak war “ma yennul-itt yiwen”, yerna Ikurdiyen qqaren-d tella s tidet, d yiwet n tlemẓit seg lεeṛc n Jaf.

 

Hennelore Kṭchler, ay yeγran s webrid ussnan (scientifique) γef wamek ay ttwalin Yikurdiyen iman-nsen, tessken-d deg yiwet n tesleḍt (analyse) ifazen n uduktuṛa-nnes deg Tesdawit Tilellit n Berlin, amek Iyazdiyen, Iyarsanen ed trebbaε tidyaniyin niḍen n Kurdistan “d tirebbaε ay yettakfen aṭas n wazal i yiman-nsent”. Γef leḥsab-nnes nettat, timuγliwin-nni ay yes qqnen Yikurdiyen iman-nsen γer ddyanat-nsen d tid ay d-yekkan seg “tmuγli-nni n tḥeqranit ay sεan Waεṛaben γef laṣ̣el n Yikurdiyen”.  

 

Talalit n Lislam ed unnerni-nnes deg Kurdistan deg lqern wis sebεa n Sidna Εisa d ay-n ay yuraren dduṛ ameqran deg umezruy n Yikurdiyen. Deg tallit-nni, Ikurdiyen ay iḍefren ddyanat ay deg xelḍen ledyan yemgerraden roan-d asalu, ed zwaren arraw n tmurt-nsen ay yeqqlen d inselmen, deg wesnulfu n tira i yiles-nsen. D acu kan, imi llant aṭas n trebbaε tidyaniyin tikurdiyin yemgerraden yerna ur yelli tsudut (institution) ara yesdukklen tirawt takurdit, yal tarbaεt tadyanit tura ddyana-nnes s tentala-nnes (dialecte) yerna s tirawt-nnes. Γef way-a, aṭas n leṣ̣naf n tira ay d-yennulfan. Tantala taguṛanit turar dduṛ s wazal-nnes deg way-a, imi iḍrisen (texts) iqburen akk s yiles akurdi deg tallit n Lislam ttwarun s tentala-a, yerna llan d iḍrisen n ddin. Wi d isefra n ddker imqeddsen n Yiyarsanen am “Dawra-I Bahlul (Tallit n Bahlul), d win ay d-yettwarun deg tizi n useggas 800.  Tirawt n yeḍrisen n ddin n Yiyarsanen tebda-d deg tallit-nni, yerna tkemmel armi d lqern wis seṭṭac. Iḍrisen-nni llan d idlisen yemgerraden, yal yiwen i yiman-nnes, yerna yiwen seg wid yesεan azal meγγren akk d “Daftar-i Pirdiγari” (Aḍris n Pirdiγari), imi ay d-qqaren d Sultan Sohak ay t-yuran. Amur ameqran seg yeḍrisen-a ttwarun s tesrit mm tmeγrut (prose avec rime), yerna ttwajemεen-d akk deg yiwen n wedlis isem-nnes “Saranjam”. Deg wedlis n “Saranjam” llan daγen yeḍrisen n tesrit ay d-iḥekkun γef Wexlaq ed weεbad deg ddyana tayarsant. Aḥric-nni ay yettwarun s tesrit mm tmeγrut isem-nnes “Klam”. Ifyar-nni (γers) n tesrit mm teγrut qqaren-ten-id s ccna. Kra seg yeḥricen n “Saranjam” yessuffeγ-iten-id umassan akurdi Sadiq Safi-Zadeh Borakayi ay iqeddcen deg Ṭehran, ay ten-yeγran yerna yessuqqel-d kra seg-sen γer tfarsit.     

 

Ddyana tayarsant tεedda-d γef yiwet n tallit n ujjujjeg ay yeṭṭfen acḥal n leqrun deg Kurdistan, ladγa deg tegludna (principauté) n Ardalan. Tagludna-a d Bawa Ardalan ay tt-id-yesbedden deg lqern wis ṛbeεṭac. Timiwa n Zardiawa (Karadagh), Khanaqin, Kirkuk led Kifrin ay yellan deg tallit-nni yagi d timura n Yikurdiyen Iguṛanen, llant akk d aḥric seg tegludna-a. Tamaneγt n tegludna n Ardalan d tamdint n Sharazur, d tamdint ay deg ass-a, madden ssawalen Takurdit takurmanit talemmast (d tin umi qqaren “tasuṛanit”). Imi ddyana tunṣ̣ibt (officielle) n tegludna-nni d tayarsant yerna imi ddyana-a tella teqqen γer tentala (dialecte) taguṛanit, teqqel tguṛanit d iles unṣ̣ib n Yikurdiyen deg tama ay nezmer ad d-nini meγγret deg Kurdistan. Daγen, tayarsant tella d ddyana n tmetti (société) yerna ay-a yurar dduṛ, imi wid ay yellan ttεafaren-tt llan seg Yikurdiyen igellilen akk yerna d ay-a ay yejjan kra seg Yikurdiyen ay yessawalen takurmanjit talemmast ad sseqdacen, ula d nitni, taguṛanit. Sultan Sahak, Ṛebbi n ddyana tayarsant, qqaren-d yettzulu (saluer) seg temdint n Barzinja medden ay yellan yessawalen, yerna mazal ssawalen ar ass-a takurmanjit talemmast (tasuṛanit). Γas ma yella imezdaγen n Barzinja ṭṭfen deg tentala-a, maca ttγimin-d d tasurif (exception). Asselmed n ddyana tayarsant yejja taguṛanit ad tezreε mliḥ, ladγa gar yigellilen. Nnig way-a, aṭas seg Yikurdiyen yeγran yellan ddren beṛṛa i tmiwa anda ay ssawalen taguṛanit, d taneggarut-a ay yeqqlen d iles-nsen n tira. Lemmer ad nekkes amedyaz-nni aṣ̣ufi ameqran, Baba Tahiri Hamadani (935-1010) ay yuran isefra-nnes ay mechuṛen (Pubaiyat) yiwen n yiles ay deg texleḍ tlakit, talurit ed tguṛanit, ad nwali imedyazen mechuṛen akk n ddyana tayarsant llan ttarun kan s tentala taguṛanit. Gar-asen, nezmer ad d-nebder Bawa Yadigar (ilul-d deg Sharazur deg lqern wis tmanya), Yal-Bagi Jaff (1493-1554) ed Khan Almas Khani Luristani (1662-1728). Sin-a ineggura ay d-nebder mechuṛit s yisefra-nsen ay yes caren γef yimal (futur) n Iṛan, Agmuḍ (Ccerq) ed umaḍal. Aṭas n yimedyazen Ikurdiyen inselmen niḍen, seg leqrun iqburen, uran s tguṛanit, am Mala Pareshani Kurd (yella mazal yedder deg 1398/99). Wa yella d Ineslem aciεi ay d-yezgan mgal (contre) n ddyana tayarsant ed Yiderwicen. Imedyazen niḍen am Saidi Hawrami (1784-1842) ed Mala Abdul-Rahimi Mawlawi Taγgozi (1806-1882) uklalen daγen ad ten-id-nebder. Sin-a ineggura llan d imedyazen ikurdiyen mechuṛen yerna d Inselmen isunniyen, yerna yessekf ad d-nger tamawt Inselmen isunniyen ed Yiderwicen llan mseεdawen mliḥ ed wid yettḍafaren ddyana tayarsant. D acu kan, γas llan aṭas n Yikurdiyen isunniyen ed waṭas n ṭṭayfat n Yiderwicen ikurdiyen, ay-a ur yeḥbis tantala taguṛanit seg unnerni. Deg tegludna (principauté) n Ardalan, tejjujjeg tsekla (littérature) yerna yejjujjeg yid-s daγen uẓawan (lmuziga). Aẓawan d aḥric s wazal-nnes deg leεwayed n ddyana tayarsant, yerna yessekf ad d-nger tamawt Ikurdiyen n Wegmuḍ ed wid n Wenẓul (sud) n Kurdistan, anda ay yezreε yedles n tkurdit taguṛanit, ula d awal “tizlit” qqar-as “gorani” s yiles-nsen. Yuγ lḥal, tudert ay d-terra tguṛanit deg yedles akurdi d ay-n ay yejjan ula d Ikurdiyen yeγran ad feṛḥen s laṣ̣el-nsen. Γef way-a, amedyaz akurdi ameqran, Khanai Qubadi (1700-1759), ay yellan daγen yeẓwer deg yiles ed tsekla tifarsiyin, yenna-d deg yiwen n usefru ay yura γef yiles akurdi:

 

Γas nnan-d tafarsit ẓidet am sskeṛ

Γer-i takurdit ẓidet kteṛ

Ddunit-a tban d mm leγrur

Yal yiwen s yiles-nnes kan ara yefṛeḥ”

 

 

S ljehd n tegludna (principauté) takurdit n Ardalan, ddyana tayarsant ed yiles akurdi aguṛani “imqeddes” ufan iman-nsen yerna zerεen deg wakk timiwa n Kurdistan. Γas ma yella llant tegludniwin tikurdiyin niḍen ay iḍefren Lislam asunni yerna zgant-d mgal (contre) n tyarsant, aṭas n Yikurdiyen ay iḍefren ddyana tayarsant.

 

Deg lqern wis seṭṭac, ḍrant-d tedyanin timeqranin deg ddin ed tsertit (politique) deg Kurdistan, yerna seg yimir-nni, aṭas n tγawsiwin ay ibeddlen γef ddyana tayarsant, iles akurdi ed weγref akurdi. Neẓra Iεetmaniyen sbedden-d Awanal-nsen (ddula) deg tgara n lqern wis tnac yerna llan ttḍafaren Lislam asunni, yerna nnuγen mgal (contre) akk ddyanat niḍen, ula ed Yimasiḥiyen akked Yiciεiyen. Seg tama niḍen, deg tezwara n lqern wis seṭṭac, Ismaεil Safaγi ay d-nebder yagi, yessebded-d Awanak aciεi deg Iṛran yerna yerra iman-nnes d imḍebber n wid yettḥaṛaben i lmend n  Lislam acoεi. Iwunak-a deg sin yid-sen εuqben ixṣ̣imen-nsen s teqseḥ. Imi amur ameqran deg tegludniwin (principautés) tikurdiyin llant ttḍafarent Lislam asunni, yerna Iṣ̣afawiyen iciεiyen llan d iεdawen-nsen, Iεetmaniyen rebḥen-d Ikurdiyen γer yidis-nsen war uguren. Dγa, s lemεawna ay ten-εawnen Yikurdiyen deg yimenγi, ssawḍen Yiεetmaniyen ad mmγen (ad hejmen) γef Uwanak aṣ̣afawi, yerna ṭṭfen ed rẓan tamaneγt-nnes (capitale), Tabriz, deg Iṛan. ”Tagmat-nni n yimenγi” ay yellan gar Yikurdiyen ed Yiεetmaniyen tejja-ten ad d-sbedden tamsisa tasertit (alliance politique).

 

Deg wass n 9 Γuct 1515, stenyan yigeldunen (princes) iεetmaniyen ed wid n Yikurdiyen leεqed ay deg ay msefhamen ad sdukklen timiwa-nsen ay deg ḥekmen, dγa syenna ay d-yettussebded Umenkud (Empire) Aεetmani. Deg leεqed-nni yella yiwen n weḥric ay d-nnan azarug (indépendance) n tmiwa tikurdiyin d ay-n ay yettwaḍemnen, d acu kan, iselṭanen iεetmaniyen ur qbilen aḥric-nni. Yerna γas ma yella Iεetmaniyen ed Yiṣ̣afawiyen llan mseεdawen, maca sakk-in, mεawanen akk-n ad rẓen azarug n tegludniwin (principautés) tikurdiyin, sakk-in, asmi ay tent-sseγlin, d igensasen-nsen (représentants) ay d-ssersen akk-n ad ḥekmen timiwa-a. Deg 1639,  ddukklen Yiεetmaniyen ed Yiṣ̣afawiyen ed gan Leεqed n Zahaw (Zuhab) ay deg ay bḍan Kurdistan gar-asen. Nnig way-a, Iwunak-a (ddulat) deg sin yid-sen qedcen akk-n ad d-gen taεdawt gar tegludniwin tikurdiyin.

 

Tagludna (principauté) n Ardalan, ur nelli d tasunnit wala d taciεit, tufa-d iman-nnes deg yiwet n tegnit iweεṛen. I wakk-n ad tḥudd iman-nnes, yella yessekf fell-as ad temsefham ed ugellid n Iṛan, am wakk-n ara temsefham ed uselṭan aεetmani, yerna deg tegnit am tin, ur d-yeqqim ḍḍmeε i wakk-n ad tkemmel tentala (dialecte) taguṛanit azraε-nnes deg Kurdistan. 

 

Yessefk ad d-nini lḥeṛs ay d-ḥettmen Yiεetmaniyen ed Yiṛaniyen γef Yikurdiyen d ay-n ay d-yeglan s way-n niḍen. Ikurdiyen yeγran yellan ddren deg tegludniwin (principautés) tikurdiyin ay yeqqlen seddaw n wecḍaḍ n uselṭan aεetmani yewwi-ten nnif γef tmurt-nsen, d ay-n ay d-yeslalen taγelnaẓri (nationalisme) ijehden deg wulawen-nsen, yerna ay-a yettekka deg wesnerni n yiles ed yedles (culture) ikurdiyen, imi deg lqern wis seṭṭac, takurmanjit n Ugafa (nord) teqqel d iles yettwarun. Iles-a bdan ttarun-t, naqal, deg tegludna n Botan ay d-yezgan deg ugafa n Kurdistan, sakk-in, yebda izerreε cwiṭ, cwiṭ, deg wakk timiwa n Kurdistan n ugafa. Ikurdiyen yeγran n tama-nni bdan lehhun-d ed yiles ed yedles ikurdiyen, ed llan bγan ad ten-snernin, am wakk-n llan bγan ad zerεen leεwayed n weγref-nsen (cceεb). Ay-a yettban-d mliḥ deg wedlis n ”Sharafname” (1596/97), ay yura ugeldun (prince) ed umassan akurdi Sharafaddin Bitlisi (1543-1603). Γas ma yella yura adlis-nnes s tfarsit, ay-n ay γef d-yura yesεa azal yerna d amaynut. Bitlisi yeḥka-d amezruy n tegludniwin tikurdiyin am wakk-n ay d-yewṣ̣ef leεwayed tikurdiyin. Seg tama niḍen, yekfa-d sslalat n waṭas n twaculin tikurdiyin, al wakk-n ad d-yebder daγen asaḍen (héros) n tmucuha ed yemyiten (mythes) n Yikurdiyen am Rostam ed Gorgin. Nezmer daγen ad d-nger tamawt adlis n ”Sharafname” yebder-d tilisa n Kurdistan amzun d tamurt ay yeddukklen. Daγen, mi d-yewṣ̣ef wedlis n ”Sharafname” iles, tasekla ed tgemmi (patrimoine) n Yikurdiyen, yebder-d amek ay ttemgerraden (ttemxallafen) seg tama γer tayeḍ.          

 

Imi ay yura Bitlisi adlis-nnes s tfarsit, ay-a yesskan-d imir-nni, γer Yikurdiyen inselmen, ur telli lεadda irekden n tira n yiles akurdi. Γas akk-n, llan kra n Yikurdiyen ay gan ussisen (lmejhud) akk-n ad arun s tkurdit:

Ali Taramakhi yura-d adlis-nnes amezwaru n tjeṛṛumt n taεṛabt s tkurdit deg useggas n 1591/92 (1000 n lhijṛa), yerna iga ay-a i wakk-n ad zemren yinelmaden ikurdiyen ad lemden taεṛabt imi ar imir-nni, werjin yelli wedlis i usselmed n taεrabt i yigerdan ikurdiyen s yiles-nsen. Adlis n Taramakhi yesnerna-t, sakk-in, Male Younis Halkataini (ay yemmuten deg 1785). Halkataini yura-d tlata n tarramin (essais) s tkurdit γef tseddast (syntaxe) n taεṛabt. Ma d Amassan n ddin akurdi ineslem Mele Jaziri (1570-1640) d netta ay irefden asafu n ujjujjeg-a n yiles ed yedles ikurdiyen. Jaziri yella yettwali isefra-nnes s yiles akurdi sεan azal am wid n umedyaz afarsi Hafizi Shirazi, ed yenna-d deg yiwen deg-sen:       

“Ma yella tḥemmleḍ

Taεeqqact-nni yeldin n tesrit mm tmeγrut (prose à rime)

Mmuqqel γer yisefra n Male,

Sakk-in d acu ara tgeḍ s Shirazi?” 

 

Male Jaziri yella yuki s tnettit-nnes (identité) takudit yerna yefṛeḥ s tmurt-nnes, Kurdistan, ed d ay-a ay d-yettbanen deg yefyar-a (γers):

 

”Kkreγ-d deg ljennet n Botan,

Cbiγ tafat n tcemmaεt deg waḍan n Kurdistan”

 

Imedyazen Faqe Tayran (1590-1660), Make Ahmade Batayi (1414-1495) ed Ali Hariri (1425-1541 ?) snernan mliḥ iles akurdi s tẓuri-nsen (lfenn). Ajjujjeg-a n yiles akurdi yewweḍ γer tqacuct-nnes asmi amedyaz, ademmay (penseur) ed uṣ̣ufi akurdi Ahmadi Khani (1650/51-1707) yura-d asefru-nnes aγezfan ”Mam ed Zin” (ay nezmer ad t-ncabi γer ”Romeo ed Juliet”) deg 1694/95. Sdeffir ma yemmut Khani, amassan n ddin Mele Mahmoude Bayazidi (ay d-ilulen deg 1791) ikemmel imenγi adelsan (culturel) deg Kurdistan deg Ugafa (nord). Bayazidi yettwassen ladγa s wedlis-nnes ”Leεwayed n Leεṛac Ikurdiyen ed Yilugan (règles) n Tmetti Takurdit”. S way-a, teqqel Kurdistan tesεa sin n yilsawen yettwarun: taguṛanit deg wegmuḍ (ccerq) ed wenẓul (sud), ed tkurmanjit deg ugafa.

 

Mi ara nwali γer tγawsiwin-a akk s umata, ad nger tamawt imezdaγen n Kurdistan ur ddukklen. Tamurt-nsen tebḍa γef waṭas n tegludniwin (principautés) yerna ur sεin yiwen n Uwanak (ddula) alemmas ara ten-yesdukklen. Nnig way-a, Ikurdiyen ur sεin yiwen kan n ddin ara ten-yesdukklen, am wakk-n tisertiyin (politiques) n lḥekkam Iεetmaniyen ed Yiṛaniyen zerεent taεdawt gar yigeldunen (princes) Ikurdiyen. Ay-a akk ur d-igi tagnit i Yikurdiyen akk-n ad d-meslen yiwen n yiles yettwarun seg yiwet seg snat-nni n tentalyin (dialectes) timeqranin ay ssawalen. Menγir ay-a, tennulfa-d yiwet n tezmert (puissance) deg lqern wis tseεṭac deg Kurdistan, d tin ay yesneqsen seg ljehd n tguṛanit armi ay tt-terra, tikkelt niḍen, d iles n wawal kan, ur d iles yettwarun. Yuγ lḥal, deg tizi n tgara n lqern wis tmenṭac, teddukkel tegludna n Ardalan ed yigelliden n Yikajaṛen akk-n ad d-tfukk iman-nnes seg Yiεetmaniyen. Imir-nni, Iεetmaniyen γran-as i wemsisa-nsen (allié), Ageldun n Baban, akk-n ad ten-iεawen ad sseγlin igeldunen n Ardalan. Ibabaniyen ssawḍen ad ṭṭfen s tefses akal n Ardalan ed ad smeγren tagludna-nsen. Imi Yibananiyen ssawalen takurmanjit talemmast (tasuṛanit), tantala-a tṣ̣aḥ-itt-id tegnit akk-n ad tezreε mliḥ deg Kurdistan, ladγa asmi ay yebna ugeldun ababani Ibrahim Pasha tamdint n Sulaymaniyya deg 1784 yerna d tin ay yerra d tamaneγt-nnes (capitale). Deg lqern wis tmenṭac, tennerna tentala takurmanjit n Sulaymaniyya. Gar yimedyazen imeqranen ay yuran s tkurdit-a ay yeqqlen tettwaru yerna tesεa azal, nezmer ad d-nebder Mahwee (1830-1904), Kurdi (1812-1851), Salim (1800-1869), Nali (1800-1857/58), Ccix Reza Talabani (1837-1909), Wafayi (1844-1914), Koyi (1817-1896) ed Salmi Sina (1845-1909).          

 

Γas ma yella takurmanjit talemmast n Sulaymaniyya teqqel d iles yettwarun deg waṭas n tmiwa n Kurdistan, maca amur ameqran deg yimedyazen imeqranen ikurdiyen ay yuran yes-s ”iles-nsen ayemmat” d taguṛanit. Yuγ lḥal, aṭas n tmiwa ay deg llan sseqdacen taguṛanit, am Kirkuk, Kifri, tama n wasif n Sirγan, Khanakin, Zardiawa (Karadagh) ed waṭas n tewsatin (leεṛac) ikurdiyen am Yijabaṛiyen, Iṭalabaniyen ed Yizanganiyen jjan taguṛanit ed qqlen sseqdacen takurmanjit. Ala cwiṭ kan n yimedyazen ay d-yeqqimen ssefruyen s tguṛanit. Gar-asen, nezmer ad d-nebder Mawlawi Tawgozi (1806-1882) ay d-yellan d yiwen seg yimedyazen imeqranen ay d-yeggran s tentala-a (dialecte). Asmi ay yewwi Uwanak (ddula) akajaṛi akal n tegludna n Ardalan, deg 1867, taguṛanit ur as-d-yeggri wazal ameqran ed s way-a ay tesṛuḥ tentala-a tameṛkantit amkan-nnes deg tsekla deg tmiwa n Wegmuḍ (Ccerq) ed Tlemmast n Kurdistan, yerna teqqel ”d iles n temγarin deg tḥencatin ed tzenqatin n Sanandaj”, akk-n ay d-yenna wemnadi asdawan (uniγersitaire) Said Khani Kurdistani.  

 

Tantala-nni (dialecte) tamaynut n Sulaymaniyya tennulfa-d s wexlaḍ n tentala n Sharazur, ay yellan d tanlata n Yikurdiyen n Ardalan, ed tentala n Kalatshwalan. Kalatshwalan tella d tamaneγt (capitale) tamezwarut n yigeldunen (princes) n Baban. Seg yimir-nni, tkemmel tkurdit n Sulaymaniyya tzerreε. Ass-a, imura ed yimedyazen ifazen akk n tama n Goran ttarun s tentala n Sulaymaniyya, gar-asen, nezmer ad d-nebder amassan n ddin Mala Abdulkarim Mudarris ed warraw-nnes deg sin, Mohammed ed Fatih. Yesekf daγen ad d-nger tamawt, ameqran akk seg wid ay d-yesnernan tamedyazt (poésie) takurdit deg tgara-a, d Abdullah Goran (1904/05 – 18 Nwembeṛ 1962), yerna ula d netta s tentala n Sulaymaniyya ay yura.   

 

Asmi ay ssawḍen Yiεetmaniyen, deg tlemmast n lqern wis tseεṭac ad rnun akk tinekriwin (réγoltes) tikurdiyin yerna sseγlin akk tigludniwin (principautés) n Yikurdiyen, am tegludna ijehden n Botan, takurmanjit n Ugafa (nord) tesṛuḥ azal-nnes deg wegmuḍ (ccerq) ed wenẓul n Kurdistan. Dγa d takurmanjit talemmast n Sulaymaniyya ay yeqqlen daγen d iles n tira n Yikurdiyen ay yessawalen takurmanjit n ugafa, yerna Ikurdiyen yeγran, yerna deg tgara n lqern wis tseεṭac, tisuda tidelsanin (institutions culturelles) timezwura n yiles akurdi, d Ikurdiyen yessawalen takurtmanjit n ugafa ay tent-id-yesbedden, maca d takurmanjit n Sulaymaniyya ay yes llan ttarun yerna s tentala-a daγen ay yella itteffeγ-d weγmis amezwaru n yiles akurdi, ”Kurdistan”, ay d-yeffγen i tikkelt tamezwarut deg 1898. 

 

Asmi ay tettwabḍa Kurdistan s yiγil, sdeffir n Wemgaru Amaḍlan (ṭṭrad n ddunit) amezwaru, takurdit tewḥel-d deg tegnit n tsehrest (listiεmaṛ) ay yellan d tamaynut fell-as. Imsisan (Alliés) (Briṭanya Tameqrant, Fṛansa ed Ṭṭalyan) ur jjin Ikurdiyen ad d-sbedden Awanak-nsen (ddula), dγa tettwabḍa Kurdistan gar xemsa n Yiwunak ihersdanen (coloniaux), d iwunak ay d-snulfant tzemmar timeqranin n umaḍal, neγ d win umi ttusemmḥen yimuren seg Kurdistan: Tteṛk, Iṛan, Σiraq, Surya ed Tdukli Tasuγyatit/Azerbijan.  

 

Iwunak-a (ddulat) imaynuten iγelnawen (nationaux) ay ṭṭfen Yiteṛkiyen, Aεṛaben ed Yifarsiyen, d iwunak n tkellax, sbedden-ten-id s lemεawna n ”wid ay irebḥen deg wemgaru (ṭṭrad)”, Uṛufiyen, yerna iwunak-a εerḍen ad ssefsin idles n Yikurdiyen deg yidelsan-nsen, asmi ur ssawḍen ad ten-rẓen s yiγil. Imi iles d yiwen seg tgeja timeqranin akk n tnettit taγelnawt (identité nationale), akk iwunak-a ay yellan sεan yerna mazal sεan iduba ay ḥekmen yiserdasen yerna ur telli deg-sen tugdut (démocratie), gelden (menεen) akk asseqdec n yiles akurdi, ama s wawal, ama s tira, neγ, γas ma jjan medden ad t-sseqdacen, ay-a yella-d seddaw n tεessast tameqrant. Tteṛk, seg tazwara, tebda tqeddec γef tsertit (politique) ay deg tessefray ad terr kullec d ”ateṛki”, dγa tegdel iles akurdi yerna tεuqeb s teqseḥ wid ay t-yesseqdacen. Maca sebεin-nni n yiseggasen n lḥeṛs yezgan ur sfeclen Ikurdiyen deg tmurt-a, wanag ssawḍen ad sjehden tafrit-nsen taγelnawt (conscience nationale), yerna ay-a iban-d deg leqduc-nsen deg wesnerni n yiles akurdi. Tantala (dialecte) n tkurdit n ugafa (nord) (tantala n Jazira), γas ma yella tedder deg tegnit iweεṛen, teqqim-d d iles n tira γer Yikurdiyen n ugafa, yerna mazal-itt tettmagar-d uguren alsiyen (linguistiques).      

 

Deg Surya, aggagen (intellectuels) ikurdiyen, ladγa arraw n twacult n Bedirkjani, fuṛsen asmi ay ḥekmen Yefṛensisen Surya ed Lubnan, i wakk-n ad qedcen i lmend n yiles akurdi. Deg tallit-nni, ssawḍen ad d-ssuffγen kra n tesγunin s tkurdit, am tin n ”Hawar”, ”Stér”, ”Roja Nu” ed ”Ronahi”. Ma d Jeladet Bedir Khan (1897-1951) yesnulfa-d agemmay (alphabet) alatini i tira n tkurdit (takurmanjit n ugafa [nord]), d win ay mazal sseqdacen-t ar ass-a Ikurdiyen yessawalen s tkurmanjit n ugafa. Agemmay-a llan deg-s aṭas n leεyub, ladγa deg way-n yerzan tira n yimesliyen (leṣ̣wat) n tentalyin (dialectes) tikurdiyin niḍen, dγa nezmer ad d-nini agemmay-a n Bedir Khan yeṣ̣leḥ kan i tira n tentala takurmanjit n ugafa. Γef umedya (lemtel), deg tkurdit yella wemgerrad deg wenṭaq n ”Ker”, imi awal-a yezmer ad yesεu anamek (lmeεna) n ”aγyul” neγ, ma nenṭeq-it-id akk-n niḍen, yezmer ad d-yeqsed”aεeẓẓug”, γef leḥsab n tmiwa yemgerraden n Kurdistan. Dγa yessekf ad yili wemgerrad deg tira n ”r” ed ”e”, akk-n ay yemgerrad wenṭaq-nsen seg tama γer tayeḍ, akk-n ur d-yettili weεraq deg unamek n wawalen-a. Amedya niḍen netta d awal ”Gel” (medden) ed ”Gel” (lbeεd yellan gar yiḍarren), maca s ugemmay n Bedir Khan ur nezmir ad neg amgerrad gar-asen. Akk-n yebγu yili, akk ay-n ay d-itteffγen s tkurdit ed leqdicat i lmend n wesnerni-nnes ttwagedlen (ttwamenεen) asmi ay ffγen Yefṛensisen seg tama-nni. Ifṛensisen jjan anẓul-utrim (sud-ouest) n Kurdistan war ma jjan-asen-d kra ara ten-iḥudden seg uwunak (ddula) aεṛab aγelnaw (national) n Surya.

 

Deg Σiraq, Ikurdiyen llan qedcen ugar n waytmaten-nsen n tmura niḍen i wesnerni n yiles-nsen, imi ay ten-id-tṣ̣aḥ tegnit yifen tin n waytmaten-nsen yerna ṣ̣aḥen-ten-id yimukan akk-n ad qedcen γef tkurdit. Sdeffir n Wemgaru Amaḍlan (ṭṭrad n ddunit) Amezwaru, Ikurdiyen n Wenẓul (sud) n Kurdistan ssawḍen ad d-sbedden tagelda seddaw n leḥkem n Ccix Mahmud Barzinji (1882-9 Tubeṛ 1956). Deg tazwara, Ibriṭaniyen n Beγdad, ay yeṭṭfen Σiraq, steεṛfen s Ccix Mahmud d anebbaḍ (gouγerneur) n Kurdistan n Wenẓul, maca asmi ay fernen Yikurdiyen Ccix Mahmud d agellid n Kurdistan, yebda-d yimenγi gar yiγallen Ibriṭaniyen ed wid n Yikudriyen, dγa tettwaqqen tama n Kurdistan n Wenẓul γer uwanak-nni (ddula) aεṛab aγelnaw (national) ay d-yennulfan imir-nni, Σiraq. Awanak akurdi n Ccix Mahmud yedder xemsa n yiseggasen, yerna deg tallit-nni, Ikurdiyen yeγran fuṛsen, qedcen i lmend n yiles akurdi. ”Anabaḍ (gouγernement) akurdi” n tallit-nni yessaweḍ ad d-yessuffeγ kra n yeγmisen s tkurdit, yerna yeldey kra n yiγerbazen i yeqcicen ed teqcicin ay deg asselmed yella s yiles akurdi. Maca ula d iγallen ibriṭaniyen ay yeṭṭfen tamurt ssuffγen-d iγmisen-nsen s yiles akurdi : ”Tegeyishtini Rasti” (Afham n Tidet) ed ”Peshkawtin” (Afara [progrès]). Sin n wangliziyen, amajuṛ Soane ed umajuṛ Noel, ay yellan seg yiγallen n tuṭṭfa ibriṭaniyen, ttekkan deg wesnerni n yiles akurdi. Amajuṛ Soane yura-d yiwen n wedlis n tjeṛṛumt n tkurdit ed yiwen n wedlis n yeḍrisen (textes) n tkurdit. Yella yettakf ula d ”arrazen n yedrimen” i yal Akurdi ara yessiwḍen ad yaru amagrad (article) deg weγmis n ”Peshkawtin” yerna ad zemren ad fehmen akk Ikurdiyen n tmiwa yemgerraden, yerna s usseqdec n awalen ikurdiyen. Yuγ lḥal, deg Σiraq, iles akurdi unṣ̣ib (officiel) yella d takurdit n Sulaymaniyya. 

 

Sdeffir ma tettussebded-d « Tgelda (royaume) n Σiraq », « Lqanun n Yilsawen Idiganen (locaux) n 1931 » yejja imezdayen n Kurdistan n Wenẓul (sud) ad sεun kra n yizerfan, maca, deg tidet, ur jjin Ikurdiyen ad stenfεen seg-s akk-n yessekf. Γas akk-n, εerḍen waggagen (intellectuels) ikurdiyen ad kemmlen asnerni n yiles akurdi. Asurif amezwaru ay gan netta d abeddel n ugemmay aεṛab-afarsi i wakk-n ad t-rren d agemmay atrar (moderne) i lmend n tira n tkurtdit, d win ay yes ara zemren ad arun akk imesliyen (leṣ̣wat) n yiles-a. I wakk-n ad ssiwḍen s ay-a, rnan kra n yeγdebba (accents) ed yizumal (symboles) i yisekkilen (lḥuṛuf) n taεṛabt akk-n ad arun imesliyen ikurdiyen ur nelli deg taεṛabt. Win ay yessawḍen ad yeg ay-a d afiluluji (philologue) akurdi, Tofiq Wahby (1891-1984), ay yellan daγen d aknaner (colonel) deg yigen (armée) aΣiraqi. Leqdic-nnes ussnan (scientifique) yerna ifazen d win ay ugin yemεebbren aεṛaben n Weγlif (minuistère) n Yedles, ay yellan malen γer tγelnaẓri (nationalisme) taεṛabt. Ineggura-a ufan-d ssebba ur yessekf ad yekcem ”weγdebbu abeṛṛani” neγ ”tacacit” takurdit deg ”yisekkilen imqeddsen n taεṛabt”, isekkilen ay yes yettwaru Leqran. Dγa da, yessekf ad d-nger tamawt isekkilen aεṛaben, deg laṣ̣el-nsen, ur llin d aεṛaben, ur llin d inselmen, wanag llan sseqdacen-ten yagi deg tallit n qbel n Lislam, yerna seg tirawt taṛamit taqburt ay ten-id-snulfan, meḥsub seg yiles aqbur ay llan sseqdacen-t Wudayen. Armi d iseggasen n 1950 ay jjan Ikurdiyen ad sqedcen isekkilen-a akk-n ad arun takurdit deg yeγmisen ed yedlisen n uγerbaz, maca γas akk-n, seg wasmi ay d-nnulfan, llan ssnen-ten Yikurdiyen yerna llan sseqdacen-ten.       

 

Taγawsa niḍen ay iga Wahby nettat d asnulfu n yiwen n ugemmay alatini, deg tezwara n yiseggasen n 1920, i tira n tkurtdit, d acu kan, yesseqdec isekkilen n ugemmay alatini akk-n ay ttusseqdacen i tira n tanglizit. Ula d agemmay-a ur yessaweḍ ad t-yesseddu, imi anabaḍ (lḥukuma) n Σiraq, ay d-yufan ssebba s ddin n Lislam, yegdel (yemneε) azraε n tirawt ”Tuṛufit-Tamasiḥit” deg Σiraq tineslemt. Γas akk-n, Wagby yeqdec d aneγlaf (lewzir) tmanya n tikkal deg unabaḍ aΣiraqi.

 

Yessekf ad d-nger tamawt agemmay alatini n Wahby, am win n Bedir Khan, yella yesεa aṭas n leεyub i tira n tkurdit. Deg lweqt ay deg agemmay n Wahby, akk-n d-nenna, yesseqdec isekkilen ilatiniyen akk-n ttusseqdacen deg tanglizit, win n Bedir Khan yesseqdec-iten akk-n ttusseqdacen deg tefṛensist ed tteṛkit. Maca lemmer mεawanen sin-a n yimassanen deg leqdic-nsen i lmend n tira n tkurdit, tili, war ccek, ad ssiḍen ad d-gen agemmay alatini igerrazn ugar, d win ay yes ara zemren Yikurdiyen, γas yemgerrad wawal-nsen, ad arun iles-nsen akk-n iwata.

 

Deg Σiraq, akk iγmisen, tisgilin n ṛṛadyu ed yedlisen ed tesγunin tikurdiyin llan ttwagayen-d s tkurdit n Sulaumaniyya, yerna ay-a ikemmel akk-n armi d asmi ay teγli tgelda (royaume) deg 14 Yulyu 1958, yerna llan γγaren-as i tkurdit-a ”tasuṛanit”, γas ma yella ay-a d tuccḍa. Wid ay yellan qeddcen ed ttarun s ”tkurdit tasuṛanit” ur as-kfin azal i tkurdit takurmanjit n ugafa (nord), dγa Ikurdiyen n tama-nni ur lmiden ad arun takurdit, am wakk-n ay llan ur fehhmen, ur qqaren ay-n ay d-yettwarun s ”tsuṛanit”, ed d ay-a ay ten-yejjan ad ttwaεezlen seg wenrar n wesnerni n tkurdit. Anabaḍ (lḥukulma) aΣiraqi, ay yegren tamawt i way-a, yekfa afus deg tegnit-a i lmend n beḍḍu n Yikurdiyen, akk-n ad yessiweḍ ad yessejhed leḥkem-nnes fell-asen.    

 

Yessekf ad d-nger tamawt Ikurdiyen n Iṛan iḥuza-ten unnerni n yiles akurdi deg Σiraq, yerna sseba n way-a nettat, seg zik, Ikurdiyen n Iṛan llan sεan assaγen isertiyen (relations politiques) ijehden ed waytmaten-nsen Ikurdiyen n Σiraq. Tin yernan γer-s, tintalyin (dialectes) tikurdiyin ay ssawalen deg Iṛan (tamukrit, tardalanit, talakit ed tkirmashanit) qernent γer “tentala tasuṛanit” n Σiraq. Nnig way-a, d agemmay-nni ay sseqdacen Yikurdiyen n Σiraq i tira n tkurdit ay sseqdacen daγen Yikurdiyen n Iṛan. D acu kan, armi n 1966/67 (1345 n lhijṛa) ay bdan teffγen-d yedlisen s ugemmay-nni aεṛab yettwabeddlen, asmi ay d-teffeγ yiwet n tenṭulujit (anthologie) n yisefra ikurdiyen. Ikurdiyen ur ssawḍen ad sqedcen agemmay-a uqbel, acku yella-d lḥeṛs aserti (politique) n wid ur ten-nejji ad t-sqedcen, yerna asseqdec-nnes i ussiffeγ n yedlisen d ay-n ay yellan yezmer ad d-yesqam aṭas.

 

Ikurdkiyen n Σiraq ay yettarun s tkurdit ”tasuṛanit” sseqdacen aṭas awalen, tinfalyin (expressions) ed yirmawen (termes) n Yikurdiyen n Iṛan, yerna ttawin-d awalen ladγa seg tentala (dialecte) tamukrit), dγa d ay-a ay ten-yessawḍen ad d-sbedden yiwen n yiles d izeγ (standard) deg tira, d win ay icerken Iṛan ed Σiraq, d win umi nezmer ad nsemmi ”takurmanjit talemmast”.

 

Ma d tagnit ay deg tella tkurdit deg Tdukli Tasuγyatit, d tin daγen ay yuklalen ad d-nessiwel fell-as. Deg tallit n Lenin, yerna armi d tagara n yiseggasen n 1920, tama tasuγyatit anda ay ddren Yikurdiyen tella tesεa tafulmant (autonomie), yerna llan γγaren-as ”Kurdistan Tazewwaγt”. Ikurdiyen, deg tama-nni, llan sseqdace, naqal, agemmay aṛmini, sakk-in qqlen sseqdacen agemmay alatini.  Sakk-in, asmi ay as-tettwakkes tfulmant i ”Kurdistan Tazewwaγt”, tettwaqqen tama-a γer Azerbijan, yerna imḍebbren isuγyatiyen n tallit n Stalin deg Azerbijan ssukken lbaṭel γef Yikurdiyen. Yuγ lḥal, deg Azerbijan, yettwagdel (yettwamneε) ula d assiwel n tkurdit, yerna ula d awal n ”Akurdi” yella ur yessekf ad d-yettwabder. Ikurdiyen, deg Tdukli Tasuγyatit, llan ddren deg tmanya tegdudyin (républiques) tisuγyatiyin, yerna ala deg Rusya ed Aṛminya ay yettunekf ttesriḥ i Yikurdiyen ad qedcen i lmend n yiles-nsen. Ikurdiyen yeγran deg snat-a n tegdudyin εerḍen ad snernin takurdit, γas akk-n ḥettmen fell-asen, deg snat-a n tegdudyin, ad sqedcen agemmay asirili (cyrillique) i tira n tkurdit. D acu kan, γas akk-n, Ikurdiyen isuγyatiyen llan zemren ad γren takurdit yettwarun s tlatinit neγ s taεṛabt. ”Ikurdiyen Izewwaγen” llan sεan anermis (contact) ed Yikurdiyen n Iṛan, Σiraq, Surya, ed wid n Tteṛk, yerna ay-a yekka-ten ad d-meslen iles yettwarun icebḥen, llsas-nnes d tantala (dialecte) takurmanjit n ugafa (nord), maca texleḍ daγen deg-s tkurmanjit talemmast. 

 

Tasuqilt: Omar MOUFFOK

Taγbalut: http://www.kurdishacademy.org/?q=ku/node/37

Sqerdcem amagrad-a deg wenmager-nneγ:

http://imedyazen.forumpro.fr/forum.htm


 
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