Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

Utt'un 18
Asebter n umager | Imagraden | Isalan | Imenzayen | Taftilt | Imawalen | Idlisen-nnegh | Leqdicat-nnegh | Imazighen | Lmed tamazight | English | Español | Français | Arabe | Anmager | Tabrat n Yimedyazen | Arum-agh-d | Imaslad'en | Tamesgida | Amezruy n Tiddukla

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad, 16006, Alger, Algérie
Tabrat n Yimedyazen
 
Uṭṭun 18
 
(imalas n 24  Mayyu γer 30 Mayyu 2009)
 
Zik nettini win yebγan tamaziγt, ad yissin tira-s
Ass-a nettini win yebγan tamaziγt, ad tt-yaru

 

Tigejdit :

 

Afra* n Ṛebbi fell-awen, azul fell-awen,

 

Deg yiseggasen-a ineggura, nezmer ad d-nini aṭas n yisurifen ay igar yiles amaziγ γer sdat. Yeqqel-d wawal γef ussekcem n yiles amaziγ γer uγerbaz ed wamek ay yessekf ad yettusselmed, sdeffir n wacḥal n yiseggasen n tutut, ay deg awanak (ddula) yessekcem tamaziγt γer uγerbaz maca yejja-tt kan akk-n. Γas ma yella ass-a, mazal nneyya-nni n wuccanen, wid-nni ay yebγan ad sfatan (saboter) tamaziγt deg uγerbaz (ur tt-ssekcamen deg lbak, ur tt-sselmaden deg wakk timiwa n tmurt, imawlan ttalasen ad agin asselmed n tmaziγt i yigerdan-nsen, atg.), maca aṭas n medden ay d-yukin, imir-a, yerna ur fessus ad asen-kellxen. Asselmed n tmaziγt yebda-d abrid-nnes, yerna ala aḥbas ur iḥebbes. Azref ay d-nerbeḥ ur nettsemmiḥ deg-s, talqimt ay aγ-d-yettunekfen ur aγ-tettwakkas seg yimi. Adlis amaziγ, seg tama-nnes, yebda yekkat taqlaqalt (yettazzal tazzla n wayis [aεudiw]), yal aseggas tteffγen-d ugar n yedlisen, γas akk-n, seg yidis niḍen, mazal yewεeṛ γef wedlis amaziγ akk-n ad yenz. Mazal llant aṭas n tnedlisin (librairies) ay yettagin ad ṭṭfent idlisen s tmaziγt, acku ”ur tteddun”. Amzun d ay d idlisen kan n tmaziγt ay sεan deg tḥuna-nsen ay yuli uγebbar. Maca ur yessekf ad nefcel, wanag d tamsalt kan n wakud (lweqt). Igerdan ara d-yeffγen seg temsirin (dduṛus) n tmaziγt azekka, d idlisen n wass-a ara d-afen, yes-sen ara bdun taγuri, yerna d nitni ara asen-inejṛen abrid n uzekka. Seg tama niḍen, ed sdeffir ma neṛja acḥal n yiseggasen deg usseḍmeε, tebda-d ”tilibizyu-nni n tmaziγt” n tmurt n Ldzayer. Γas maci swaswa kan akk-n ay tt-nebγa ay tella, maca meqqar nezmer, tameddit, mi ara d-nekcem γer yexxamen-nneγ, mi ara nessiγ tilibizyu, ad as-nsel tessawal s yiles-nneγ. Γas nsell ay-n ẓiden s yilsawen niḍen, maca d iles-nneγ ay ẓiden i tmesliwt. D acu kan, γas tettusselmad tmaziγt deg uγerbaz, γas tteffγen-d yedlisen yerna tella tilibizyu-a, acemma ur yezmir ad as-yeḍmen tudert i tmaziγt menγir ”awal s tmaziγt”. Abeddel-a akk ay neẓẓar iḍerru-d deg tmurt-nneγ neγ deg Meṛṛuk ur yessekf ad aγ-yejj ad nettu iman-nneγ, ad nessawal gar-aγ neγ ed warraw-nneγ s yilsawen niḍen, ma d tamaziγt ad tt-nerr deg yidis. Ay-n akk-a akk ay d-yettbanen deg yiseggasen-a ineggura, yettarra-as-d tudert i tmaziγt, yerna d ay-n ay yessekfen ad d-yerr ”tudert i yilsawen-nneγ”, ad aγ-yeg ifadden ad nessiwel s yiles-nneγ ed waytmaten-nneγ, s lfeṛḥ ed zzux. Awanak-nni ay imeḍlen zik iles-nneγ d amuddir, imir-a yejja-t ad d-yekfel, maca nekni ur yessekf ad t-nemḍel s yimawen-nneγ. Yessekf ad nessiwel tamaziγt.   

 

 

Tasertit n yilsawen* tasuvyatit deg Asya Talemmast

 

 

*politique linguistique

 

Sγur Mark Dickens

 

Grem tamawt: anadi-a yettwaru-d deg tgara n yiseggasen n tmanyin, qbel ad teγli Tdukli Tasuvyatit, dγa tilγa (informations) ara tafem deg-s d tid ay yerzan timura n Asya Talemmast qbel ad awint azarug (indépendance).

 

Tazzwert

 

Sdeffir n Tegrawla (Révolution) tarusit n Tubeṛ 1917,  Akabar abulcivi yekkes-as adabu (pouvoir) i uqiṣ̣er amesbaṭli Nikolai wis Sin, yessebded-d awanak (ddula) anemlay (socialiste) amezwaru deg umaḍal (ddunit). Ibulciviyen, asmi ay rebḥen imenγi-nsen, weṛten-d yiwet n tmurt d tameqrant, ay yellan deg yiwet n tegnit d tukrist (complexe) ama seg yidis n tsertit (politique), neγ seg win n yedles, neγ n yiles, deg-s ugar n 100 n yimelyunen n yimezdaγen ay yessawalen azal n 150 n yilsawen yemgerraden. Imḍebbren imaynuten n Tdukli-a Tasuvyatit ugaden lemmer ad ilint kra seg trebbaε-a ara ifaṛsen tagnit, imir-nni, akk-n ad awyen azarug-nsen (indépendance). Dγa, anabaḍ-nsen (lḥukuma) amaynut, taγawsa tamezwarut ay γef yeqdec nettat d aḥaṛeb n kra n way-n ay izemren ad ihudd ed ad yebḍu Amenkud-nni (Empire) arusi ay d-weṛten, akk-n ay teḍra i yimenkuden ni ḍen zik. Maca sennig way-a, anabaḍ asuvyati yekfa azal ameqran, daγen, i wezraε n usekkud (doctrine) asdukklan (communiste) gar yiγerfan (ccuεub) yemgerraden ay yeddren sdaxel n tlisa n Umenkud arusi aqbur, yerna iswi-nsen (but) seg way-a netta d assebded n yiwet n tmetti ay deg akk iεeyyalen ad ilin εedlen, qrib ur yettili akk wemgerrad gar-asen.

 

Amghar seg Tajikistan Tadukli Tasuvyatit teḍfer aṭas n yiberdan akk-n ad tessejhed tazmert-nnes deg tmurt-nni tamaynut ay d-tessebded ed i wakk-n ad tebnu llsisan n yiwet n tmetti tasdukklant (société communiste). Yiwet seg yiberdan-a netta d tasertit (politique) n yilsawen ay ḍefren Yisuvyatiyen deg way-n yerzan ilsawen n yiγerfan (ccuεub) ur nelli d irusiyen. Adabu asuvyati amaynut yuki s dduṛ ay yetturar yiles deg temsal yerzan iγerfan, dγa γef way-a ay yesnerna ilsawen niḍen, menγir tarusit, i wakk-n ad yeqdec i lmend n yeswan (buts) n Ukabar Amesdukkli.

 

Deg unadi-a, ad nẓer s ttfaṣ̣il tasertit (politique) ay teḍfer Tdukli Tasuvyatit deg tama n Asya Talemmast. Tama-a llant deg-s xemsa seg xmesṭac-nni n tegdudyin (républiques) n Tdukli Tasuvyatit: Tagduda n Kazaxestan, tin n Kirgizistan, Tajikistan, Turkministan ed Uzbikistan. Yal yiwet seg tegdudyin-a semman-as γef leḥsab n weγref (cceεb) ameqran akk ay yeddren deg-s. Imi ur nezmir ad nefhem tasertit n yilsawen deg Asya talemmast akk-n iwata lemmer ad d-nessiwel kan γef yiwen n yidis, deg unadi-a nefren ad d-nessiwel γef waṭas n yidisan, ama d win n usselmed n tira ed tγuri, neγ win n ubeddel n ugemmay (alphabet), tazrirt (influence) n yiles arusi γef yilsawen n Asya Talemmast ed tmerniwt ay rennun wid ay yessawalen sin yilsawen deg Asya Talemmast. 

 

 

Tagnit n yilsawen deg Asya Talemmast qbel ad tettussebded Tdukli Tasuvyatit

 

Asya Talemmast tezga-d, akk-n ay d-yemmal yisem-nnes, deg tlemmast n umenẓaw (continent) asyawi. Tama-a llan zik γγaren-as Turkistan, anamek-nnes (lmeεna) ”Tamurt n Yiteṛkiyen”, imi amur ameqran seg yimezdaγen-nnes laṣ̣el-nsen d ateṛki. Deg tidet, s tmuγli iwesεen, Asya Talemmast tettekka deg-s ula d tama n ugafa utrim (nord-ouest) n Ccinwa (tama-nni umi γγaren zik ”Turkistan tacinwat”, ma ass-a, γγaren-as tamnaḍt [province] n Xinjiang deg Ccinwa) ed ugafa n Afγanistan, maca anadi-nneγ yerza kan tama-nni n Asya Talemmast ay d-yezgan deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit.   

 

Qbel ad tettusbeddent tlisa tisertiyin (politiques) n wass-a ay yebḍan gar Rusya, Ccinwa ed Afγanistan, Asya Talemmast tella teddukkel mliḥ seg yidis n ddin, idles ed yilsawen. Ay-n ay d-igan tadukli-a netta d ddin n Lislam ed yedles aεṛab-afarsi-ateṛki ay icerken akk imezdaγen n tama-a, ed wemqarab (deg yimesla [leṣ̣wat], deg tseddast [syntaxe] ed wawalen) gar yilsawen iteṛkiyen n tama-a. Γas ma yella imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast ttwaferqen γef waytmaten-nsen Iteṛkiyen ay yeddren beṛṛa i tlisa n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, yerna Lumma Tineslemt terreẓ ed tesṛuḥ ljehd-nnes, iγerfan (ccuεub) n Asya Talemmast tasuvyatit mazal ddukklen mliḥ seg yidis n yedles ed yilsawen. Maca, akk-n ara nẓer, γas tadukli-a teqqim-d, maca tagnit la tettbeddil fell-asen seg wasmi ay d-yettussebded udabu asuvyati.

 

Amur ameqran seg yiγerfan (ccuεub) n Asya Talemmast laṣ̣el-nsen d ateṛki. Iγerfan iteṛkiyen imeqranen n tama-a nitni d Ikazaxiyen, Ikirgiziyen, Iturkminiyen ed Wuzbikiyen. Llan daγen aṭas n yimezdaγen yesεan laṣ̣el iṛani ed tekkan mliḥ deg yedles n tama-a, wi, s umata, d Itajikiyen ay yessawalen yiwen n yiles ay icuban aṭas tafarsit. Asya Talemmast tezga-d γef webrid-nni mechuṛen umi γγaren ”Abrid n Weḥrir”, yerna tama-a kkan fell-as yiserdasen n qrib akk imenkuden (empires) imeqranen n Asya (gar-asen Ifarsiyen, Igrigiyen, Aεṛaben, Iteṛkiyen, Imunguliyen ed Yirusiyen), γef way-a, aṭas n yiγerfan ay xelḍen gar-asen deg tama-a akk-d uεeddi n leqrun. Dγa, menγir iγerfan-nni imeqranen ay d-nebder sufella-a, nezmer daγen ad naf deg Asya Talemmast Aεṛaben, Udayen, Iziganen (tsiganes), Ifarsiyen, Itataṛen, Ikuriyen, Aziriyen, Aṛminiyen, Almaniyen, Ukṛaniyen, Ibyilurusiyen, ed d ay-n ibanen, Irusiyen.

 

Qbel ad d-asent tewsatin (tribus) titeṛkiyin γer Asya Talemmast, amur ameqran deg yimezdaγen n tama-a llan ssawalen ilsawen iṛaniyen. Seg lqern wis sin qbel n Sidna Σisa d asawen, Iteṛkiyen yellan kessen lmal ed ttbeddilen amkan-nsen n tmezduγt, bdan tteffγen-d seg tmurt-nsen taneṣ̣lit ay d-yezgan ass-a deg Mungulya, ed ttinigen d tirebbaε γer yizawaγen (steppes) n Asya Talemmast. Din, llan kessen tiqḍiεin-nsen n lmal am wakk-n ay llan ttemmγen γef ljiran-nsen ed ttakren-ten. Deg 552 sdeffir n Sidna Σisa, ddukklent waṭas n tewsatin titeṛkiyin ed sbeddent-d Amenkud (Empire) n Gokturk ay imγuren armi, asmi ay yuweḍ γer tqacuct-nnes, yeṭṭef akal seg Yilel (lebḥeṛ) Aberkan armi d agafa (nord) n Ccinwa. Iteṛkiyen-a imezwura jjan-d lateṛ yuran s tira turxunt (ay d-snulfan seg ugemmay [alphabet] aṛami ay llan sseqdacen-t Yimasiḥiyen inistuṛiyen ay yeddan γer tama-nni deg tallit-nni), yerna ay-a yesskan-d imdanen-a, γas ddren tudert qrib d taweḥcit, maca llan sεan idles ed tsekla (literature) deg tallit-nni. Sdeffir n wacḥal n leqrun sakk-in, Iwiguren, ay yellan d yiwen n weγref (cceεb) ateṛki ay yeddren deg Turkistan Tagmuḍant (tacerqit) snulfan-d ula d nitni tirawt-nsen, d tin ay d-jebden seg ugemmay aseryani. Tirawt-a tella tettusseqdac deg waṭas n tmiwa n Asya Talemmast armi d asmi ay teqqel d tirawt taεṛabt ay yettusseqdacen deg wemkan-nnes, d acu kan, tirawt-nni tawigurt mazal tettusseqdac, s kra n ubeddel, deg Mungulya.

 

Idles n Asya Talemmast ibeddel mliḥ s tisin n Lislam γer tama-a. Asmi ay zegren yiserdasen n Wexlif asif n Oxus (win umi γγaaren ass-a Amu Darya) deg 673 sdeffir n Sidna Σisa, Aεṛaben sjehden tazmert-nsen deg tama n Tetransuksyant (Tamurt n deffir n Oxus), yerna deg tizi n lqern wis εecṛa, yuγ ddin n Lislam aẓar deg tama-a, yerna amur ameqran seg yimezdaγen-nnes qqlen d Inselmen (γas ma yella kra seg tewsatin [tribus] n ugafa [nord] kemmlen ttḍafaren ddyanat-nsen ay deg εebbden leṛwaḥ, yerna ay-a yerna ikemmel acḥal n leqrun. Taεṛabt teqqel d iles n ddin ed d iles n wid yeγran, ma d tirawt taεṛabt teqqel d tin ay sseqdacen i tira n kullec, γas ma yella cwiṭṭ kan n medden ay d-iṣ̣aḥ ad lemden tira ed tγuri. Menγir taεṛabt, imassanen n tama-a llan daγen sseqdacen tafarsit takelsakt (classique). D acu kan, amur ameqran seg medden kemmlen ssawalen tintalyin-nsen (dialectes) titeṛkiyin ed tiṛaniyin yemgerraden.

 

Deg leqrun-nni ay d-iḍefren anekcum n Lislam, timdinin n Buxara ed Xiva (ay yeqqlen sakk-in d Samarqand) qqlent d ixxamen imeqranen n tmussni deg umaḍal (ddunit) ineslem. Tama-a tekfa-d aṭas n yimassanen mechuṛen am Wexwarizmi (783-847), d amusnak (mathematician) ameqran, d win umi semman “baba-s n waljibṛ” (algèbre), afelsuf, asengamay (physicien) ed umedyaz Ibn Sina (980-1037), d win umi γγaren deg Utaram (Ouest) ”Avicenne”. Deg tallit-nni, amur ameqran seg tsekla (littérature) n Asya Talemmast yettwaru s taεṛabt, s tfarsit ed tcagatayt, ay yellan d yiwen n yiles ateṛki semman-as γef yiwen seg warraw n Gengis Xan. D acu kan, γas ma yella imassanen n tama-a ssawḍen ad d-snulfun aṭas n tγawisin, amur ameqran deg Yiturkistaniyen llan ur ssinen ad γren, ur ssinen ad arun. Yuγ lḥal, amur ameqran deg-sen llan d imsenza (ttejjaṛ), d ifellaḥen neγ d imeksawen yerna llan ur ḥwajen tamussni n tγuri ed tira deg tudert-nsen. Maca γas ur tezriε tmussni n tira ed tγuri gar medden, ineggura-a llan sεan tasekla tatlayt (orale) d tameṛkantit, yerna ar ass-a, Asya Talemmast mazal tettwassen s kra seg yisefra iγezzfanen akk deg umaḍal.

 

Timur Lan, d yiwen seg yigelliden imeqranen akk ay ih'ekmen Asya Talemmast Deg tallit-nni ay deg yekka γef Asya Talemmast umenkud (empire) n Gengis Xan (1167-1227) ed win n Timur (1336-1405), tella tettenkar-d yiwet n tezmert d tamaynut γef tlisa n tama-a ay deg ddren Yiteṛkiyen ed Yimungulieyn. Ta d tazmert n Yirusiyen. Yuγ lḥal, Irusiyen qqimen acḥal n leqrun, ddren seddaw n tecḍaḍt n Yitataṛen, ay yellan d yiwet n tewsit (tribu) tateṛkit, ed d nettat ay iḥekmen awanak (ddula) n Yumunguliyen deg utaram (lγerb) n yidurar n Uṛal armi d lqern wis xmesṭac. D acu kan, tagludna (principauté) tarusit n Muskovi (Musku), teqqim tettimγur cwiṭṭ, cwiṭṭ armi ay yessaweḍ ugellid arusi, Ivan Aweεṛan, deg 1552, ad yeṭṭef tamaneγt (capitale) n Yitataṛen, tamdint n Astraxan. Seg yimir-nni, Rusya teqqel d tazmert ay yes yessekf akk timura ad steεṛfen, yerna simal tella tettaẓ, tettaṭṭaf akal deg Asya, simal tella tettimγur tezmert-nnes. Anekcum n Yirusiyen γ er Asya Talemmast d ay-n ay d-yebdan deg lqern wis tmenṭac ed ikemmel armi d 1884, asmi ay ssawḍen Yirusiyen ad ṭṭfen s lfeεl ay-n umi ne γγar ass-a Asya Talemmast tasuvyatit.

 

Asmi ay yettussebded udabu arusi deg Asya Talemmast, aṭas n tγawsiwin ay ibeddlen deg tama-a, ed gar-asent asselmed. Qbel taslakt (conquḍte) tarusit, medden llan zemren kan ad lemden deg temεemmṛin (iγerbazen n ddin ineslem umi ttinin makteb) neγ deg temdeṛsin. D acu kan, γas ma yella amur ameqran seg yeqcicen, deg temdinin, llan tteddun γer temεemmṛin, s umata, llan lemmden ala Leqran (s taεṛabt) ed yedlisen niḍen n ddin (s taεṛabt ed tfarsit), dγa cwiṭṭ maḍi seg-sen ay ilemden ad γren ed ad arun, γas s yilsawen-a, ma d ilsawen-nsen ineṣ̣liyen, ur ssinen ad ten-γren, ur ssinen ad ten-arun. Ala d cwi ṭṭ-nni ay d-iṣ̣aḥ ad lemden deg temdeṛsin (anda, menγir ddin, llan lemmden amezruy, tusnakt [mathématiques], tasnallunt [astronomie] ed tmedyazt [poésie]) ay yellan zemren ad ssirmen ad awḍen γer weswir (niveau) n welmad ay yessekfen akk-n ad yeqqel yiwen d amulla (mollah, d amassan deg ddin ineslem) neγ ad yezmer ad yeqdec deg tedbelt (administration) n uwanak (ddula). Menγir ay-a, ala medden ay ikecmen deg tnezzut (ttjaṛa) tameqrant neγ d win ay yebγan ad yif wayeḍ deg temkant-nnes deg tmetti, ay yellan yettnadi ad iγer akk-a, wanag medden, s umata, llan ur ttḥulfun ḥwajen ad γren. Lqella n tmussni n tγuri ed tira tella tegget ugar γer tlawin, imi qrib akk tilawin werjin γrint, ala ma d tid ay d-ilulen deg twaculin timeṛkantiyin.

 

Anagraw (système) n usselmed ineslem rnant-d γer snat n tliwa n welmad tibeṛṛaniyin deg lqern wis tseεṭac. Tamezwarut, Irusiyen ay kecmen γer Asya Talemmast sbedden-d aẓeḍḍa n yiγerbazen ay yesselmaden s trusit neγ s trusit ed yiles aneṣ̣li n tmiwa-a, ed bdan-d ssebdaden iγerbazen-a deg Kazaxestan (imi Ikazaxiten, ay yellan ddren deg ugafa [nord] n Asya Talemmast, llan d nitni ay d aγref [cceεb] amezwaru ay yeγlin seddaw n udabu arusi). Imi ay bdan yemhuras (colons) Irusiyen tteddun akk-n ad ddren deg tama-a, bdan leddyen iγerbazen s yiles arusi, yerna llan Yirusiyen ttajjan kra seg yimezdaγen ineṣ̣liyen n tama-a ad lemden deg yiγerbazen-a, ladγa wid ay ḍemεen ad qqlen d inelmaden yelhan. Nnig way-a, igerdan inselmen llan sselmaden-asen idles arusi s yilsawen-nsen deg yiγerbazen-nni ay deg sselmaden s trusit ed yiles aneṣ̣li. D acu kan, cwiṭṭ kan maḍi seg yigerdan n tmiwa-a ay d-iṣ̣aḥ ad γren deg yiγerbazen-a, maca Irusiyen llan ssaramen, s yiγerbazen am wi, ad zemren ad bnun tiqenṭert gar yemḍebbren irusiyen ed yimezdaγen n tmiwa-a. Tarusit tella, d ay-n ibanen, d iles unṣ̣ib (officiel) n Umenkud (Empire), yerna adabu arusi yella iqeddec mliḥ akk-n ad yerr medden ay d-yesseγli seddaw n tecḍaḍt-nnes d irusiyen. D acu kan, γas llan Yirusiyen ttgen akk ay-n zemren, cwiṭṭ-nni n yimezdaγen n Asya Talemmast ay yeγran γer-sen llan d imdanen ay yettasmen mliḥ γef tmura-nsen, tella teẓẓa tγelnaẓri (nationalisme) deg wulawen-nsen. Yuγ lḥal, ineggura-a bdan ssuffuγen-d idlisen ed yeγmisen (ijeṛnanen) s tkazaxit, s tturkminit ed tuzbikit, yerna ilsawen-a akk bdan tteqqalen d ilsawen n tsekla. Yerna deg tallit-nni daγen ay d-nnulfan sin n yisekkuden (doctrines) deg Umenkud (Empire) Aεetmani, win n tkislemt ([panislamisme], iswi-nnes d assebded n Umenkud-nni ineslem ameqran n zik) ed tekteṛkit (parturquisme) (iswi-nnes d asdukkel aserti [politique] n wakk iγerfan [ccuεub] iteṛkiyen), yerna isekkud-a yeqqel mechuṛ gar medden.

 

Tala tis snat n usselmed d tin n umussu (mouvement) n Jadid, d amussu ay d-sbedden Yitataṛen ay yeddren deg tama n wasif n Volga, yerna, war ccek, llan d nitni ay inselmen n Umenkud (Empire) arusi ay imalen aṭas akk γer yedles arusi ed yedles utrim (aγerbi). Win ay d-yesbedden amussu-a d yiwen n Utataṛ seg Krimya, isem-nnes Ismail Bey Gaspirali (1854-1914). Argaz-a yella yettwali Inselmen deg Rusya ur ssawaḍen ad ḥudden ddin ed yidelsan-nsen war abeddel, γef way-nni ay iga ifadden i lmend n ubeddel deg ddin ed usselmed gar Yitataṛen, am wakk-n a yeqdec i lmend n ussebded n yiles ateṛki ara yesdukklen akk iteṛkiyen, d iles ay yes yella yessuffuγ-d aγmis-nnes umi isemma Terjuman (Imsuqqel).

 

Dindin kan, Usul-i-jadid (“tarrayt [méthode] tamaynut”) tezreε deg tmiwa titataṛin am wakk-n ay tezreε deg tmiwa niḍen n Asya Talemmast, armi ay yugad Uwanak (ddula) arusi ad yezreε usekkud (doctrine) n tekteṛkit (panturquisme) ed tkislemt mliḥ gar medden, dγa yebda igedden (imenneε) Itataṛen seg ussebded ed usselmed deg yiγerbazen n Jadid deg Asya Talemmast. Γas ma yella iles-nni ateṛki ay yeεreḍ Gaspirali ad t-id-yessebded werjin yekfi aẓar gar medden, iγerbazen-nnes n ubeddel jjan-d lateṛ d ameqran deg medden, yerna wid yeγran deg Turkistan (Asya Talemmast) kemmlen sseddayen iγerbazen n Jadid deg tama-a. D acu kan, γas llan-d akk wussisen-a (lmejhudat) i lmend n usselhu n usselmed deg Asya Talemmast, ur aṭas n medden ay iḥuza usselmed deg tama-a. Deg tizi n 1912, ala 0,9% seg yigerdan n tama n Samarqand (deg Uzbikistan) ay yellan lemmden deg uγerbaz – deg tama n Fergana (deg Uzbikistan daγen), ala 0,5% seg yigerdan ay ikecmen γer uγerbaz (Desheriyev ed Mikhalchenko, 1976:389). Akk-a ay yella lḥal ula deg yimukan niḍen n tama-a. Yuγ lḥal, amur ameqran seg yimezdaγen n Asya Talemmast ay yeqqimen ur ssinen ad γren, ur ssinen ad arun.

 

Lḥemla tasuvyatit i usselmed n tira ed tγuri

 

Qbel ad nekcem deg ttfaṣ̣il n tsertit n yilsawen tasuvyatit deg Asya Talemmast, d ay-n yelhan ma nessawel-d γef wussisen (lmejhudat) ay d-yellan i lmend n usselmed n tira ed tγuri i yiiγerfan (ccuεub) n Asya Talemmast, imi d wa ay d asurif amezwaru ay gan Yisuvyatiyen i wakk-n ad beddlen anrar n yilsawen deg tama-a, yerna d ay-a ay yeldin tawwurt i yibeddilen imeqranen niḍen ay d-yeḍran sakk-in.

 

Cwiṭṭ kan qbel ad tenker Tegrawla Tarusit, imezdaγen n Rusya ay yellan seddaw n udabu n uqiṣ̣er (tsar), amur ameqran deg-sen llan ur ssinen ad γren, ur ssinen ad arun. Deg 1897, uddun (recensement) yekcef-d ala 28,4% seg yimezdaγen n Rusya ay yessnen ad γren ed ad arun, yerna gar akk timura n Tuṛuft, d Rusya ay yesεan amḍan (nombre) amecṭuḥ akk n wid yeγran deg tallit-nni. Tamussni n tγuri ed tira tella qlilet ugar gar tlawin (16,6%) (Kazakova, 1976:53). Ma gar yiγerfan (ccuεub) n Asya Talemmast, deg Yikazaxiyen ala 1% seg medden ay yellan ssnen ad arun ed ad γren, 0,6% deg Yikirgiziyen, 3,9% deg Yitajikiyen, 0,7% deg Yiturkminiyen ed 0,7% deg Wuzbikiyen, yerna tilawin yeγran γer yiγerfan-a llant qlilit ugar. Σecrin n yiseggasen sakk-in (deg 1917), tagnit tbeddel kan cwiṭṭ.

 

Yuγ lḥal, tagnit-a tella ur tettwaqbal γer Yibulciviyen γef ljal n waṭas n ssebbat. Γas ma yella ahat, Ibulciviyen llan ttxemmimen γef usselhu n tegnit n tudert n weγref (cceεb), maca iswi amezwaru-nsen deg leqdic i lmend n usselmed n medden yella yeqqen γer tsertit: ”lqella n tmussni n tira ed tγuri d ay-n ur nettajja assebded n tnemlit (socialisme). Dγa meḥḥu n lqella n tmussni n tγuri ed tira d ay-n yesεan azal ameqran imi anect-a ad yejj tagrawla tadelsant ad terbeḥ” (Tonkonogaja, 1976:26). Yerna Lenin s timmad-nnes yenna-d: ”D awezγi ad nebnu timetti tasdukklant (société communiste) deg tmurt ay deg medden ur ssinen ad γren, ur ssinen ad arun” (yules-it-id McLeish, 1972:310). Akabar asdukklan yenna-d deg 1918: ”Asselmed amatu (général) deg uγerbaz ed beṛṛa i uγerbaz yessekf ad ilin qqnen mliḥ γer tezniwt (propagrande) tasdukklant. Ur yelli kra n ṣ̣ṣ̣enf n tussna neγ n yedles ur nettwaqqan γer tekta (lfekrat) timeqranin n tesdukkla (communisme)” (yules-it-id McLeish, 1972:308). Kalinin, ay yellan yeṭṭef amkan s wazal-nnes deg udabu asuvyati, yessawel-d γef way-a s wawal qessḥen ugar : ”Deg usselmed n tira ed tγuri, akk leqdicat yessekf ad ilint deg-sen tmuγliwin n tmeγda tagrawalt (prolétariat révolutionnaire) – anamek-nnes (lmeεna), tiẓri (théorie) tagrawalt n Timmaṛksit ed Tleninit” (yules-it-id McLeish 1972:319).

 

Imi adabu asuvyati amaynut yettuqqenneε s tmuγliwin-a, yelha-d, deg tazwara, s wugur n usselmed n tγuri ed tira. Tanaḍt (décret) n 1919 i lmend n ”Meḥḥu n lqella n tmussni n tγuri ed tira deg yimezdaγen n Tfidiṛalit Tarusit” tenna-d : ”Akk iγermanen (citoyens) n Tegduda Tasuvyatit ur nessin ad γren ed ad arun [deg tegduda tasuvyatit n Rusya] ay yesεan gar 8 ed 50 n yiseggasen, yessekf fell-asen ad lemden taγuri ed tira s yilsawen-nsen ineṣ̣liyen neγ s yiles arusi, akk-n ay bγan nitni” (yules-it-id McLeish, 1972:309). Leqwanen am wa gan-ten ula deg tegdudyin tisuvyatiyin n Asya Talemmast.

 

Ibulciviyen bdan-d ṭṭrad-nsen i lmend n usselmed n tira ed tγuri s lebγi ed leḥṛaṛa imeqranen i lmend n ussebded n Uwanak-nni (ddula) asdukklan ay yes llan ttargun. Ibulciviyen llan sseqdacen tinfalyin (slogans) am “A wid yeγran! Sseγrem win ur nessin ad iγer”, yerna snekren akk wid yessnen ad γren s umata akk-n ad ttekkin deg lḥemla-a n usselmed n tira ed tγuri. Sbedden-d tiseqquma am “Tseqqamut tafeγnamit tarusit akk i lmend n meḥḥu n lqella n tmussni n tγuri ed tira”, yerna gan timliliyin i lmend n wesqerdec γef wamek ara frun ugur-a. Tennulfa-d daγen tiddukla tiwizit isem-nnes ”Tiddukla n usseγli n lqella n tmussni n tira ed tγuri” i lmend n usselmed n medden.

 

Isuvyatiyen ledyen aẓeḍḍa n yiγerbazen ed wammasen (centres) ama i wid ur neγri neγ i wid yeγran kan cwiṭṭ. Ledyen daγen aṭas n temkarḍiyin i tγuri n yedlisen yerna bdan ssuffuγen-d iγmisen ed tesγunin (revues) i wid yeγran kan cwiṭṭ deg waṭas n tegdudyin (républiques) tisuvyatiyin. Wid ur nezmir ad d-ttasen dima γer uγerbaz gan-asen ttawil akk-n ad d-yettas uselmad γer-sen ad asen-yesselmed. Nnig way-a, deg Asya Talemmast, kra n wammasen n usselmed llan tteddun seg wemkan γer wayeḍ, tteddun ed yimeksawen-nni ay yettbeddilen amkan: yuγ lḥal, iγerbazen-a llan deg yiqiḍunen-nni umi γγaren iyurten, zemren ad ten-ssalin deg yal amkan (iqiḍunen-nni ay ttgen s lubeṛ, sseqdacen-ten yiγerfan (ccuεub) Iteṛkiyen imeksawen ay yellan mazal, deg tallit-nni, tteddun seg wemkan γer wayeḍ, am Yikazaxiyen ed Yikirgiziyen).  

 

Yiwen seg wuguren ay iceγben wid ay igan lḥemla-a deg Asya Talemmast netta d tilawin ay deg ggtent aṭas tid ur nessin ad γrent, imi, s umata, deg yedles ed wansayen (leεwayed) n tmura-a, tameṭṭut tettwaεzel seg tudert tazayezt (publique) yerna tettwaḥqer. Timsirin (dduṛus) n usselmed n tira ed tγuri ay llan ttgen-tent i tlawin d tid ay iḥetteten daγen γef yizerfan n tlawin ed uttekki-nsent deg tsertit. Γef ljal n yedles ed wansayen n tmiwa-a, timsirin n yergazen ed tid n tlawin bḍant, ur lemmden deg yiwen n wemkan γef teswiεt.

 

Asselmed yettili-d ama s trusit neγ s yiles aneṣ̣li n yimezdaγen tama-nni. Deg tazwara, timsirin (dduṛus) n usselmed n tira ed tγuri llan ttaṭṭafen tlata n wayyuren – sakk-in, sγezfen tallit n usselmed γer setta ed tmanya n wayyuren. Γas ma llan kra n yiselmaden yessnen lḥirfa n usselmed ay yettekkan deg leqdic-a, maca iselmaden n tmurt ur d-kufan akk-n ad qablen lḥemla am ta, dγa aṭas n yiselmaden iwiziyen ay teḥwaj tmurt. “Asselmed n tira ed tγuri yella yesεa tlata n yeswan (buts): asselmed n tmussni n llsas i lmend n tγuri, tira ed leḥsab … assali n weswir (niveau) n yedles amatu (culture générale), ed usselmed n medden akk-n ad fehmen xir uguren isertiyen (politiques), ed welday n tewwurt i yinelmaden akk-n ad ttekkayen deg temsal n tmetti (communauté) ed lebni n tnemla (socialisme)” (Tonkonogaja 1976:30).

 

Deg tizi n 1920, ifuk usurif amezwaru n lḥemla n usselmed n tira ed tγuri, d acu kan, γas ma ssawḍen Yisuvyatiyen ad aẓen γer sdat, maca ay-n ay d-ḥellan drus aṭas, yerna ay-n yettekkan deg wanect-a netta d amgaru-nni aγarim (guerre civile) ay d-yellan deg Rusya deg tallit-nni. Isuvyatiyen bdan steεṛifen ḥwajen iselmaden yesεan aswir (niveau) ay yelhan xir, yerna ḥwajen assileγ (formation) yelhan i yiselmaden ed ttawil ed ttekniyin yelhan i usselmed. Imir-nni, bdan ssuffuγen-d idlisen i lmend n usselmed n llsas n tγuri ed tira, ed llan sseqdacen deg-sen awalen am ”Nennuγ i lmend n Yisuvyaten”, “Isuvyaten kfan-aγ-d akal, lluzinat ed tmacinin”, neγ daγen ”Isuvyaten d nitni ay d ljehd-nneγ” (Tonkonogaja, 1976:40). Ṛebεa n temsal timeqranin ay γef llan ssawalen-d yedlisen n usselmed deg tallit-nni : “1) bennu n temguri (industrie) n tmurt; 2) asnerni deg lγella n tfellaḥt; 3) assejhed n Uwanak (ddula) asuvyati; 4) assaγen (relations) n Rusya tasuvyatit ed tmura niḍen” (Tonkonogaja, 1976:41).

 

Asurif wis sin n lḥemla n usselmed n tira ed tγuri yebda-d deg 1921, yerna ifuk asmi ay d-yebda Uγawas (Plan) n xemsa n yiseggasen amezwaru, deg 1932. Asmi ay tfuk tallit n usurif-a, wid yeγran deg Tajikistan uw ḍen γer 52%, deg Turkministan γer 61%, ma deg Uzbikistan, γer 72% (Tongonogaja, 1976:48, maca yessekf kan ad d-nger tamawt, imdanen ay d-yettwaḥesben da ur llin deg-sen ala yineṣ̣liyen ay γef ttusemmant tmura-a, wanag ddan-d yid-sen ula d iγerfan [ccuεub] niḍen ay izedγen timura-a). Asurif wis tlata n lḥemla yebda-d deg 1933, yerna asmi ay gan uddun (recensement) n 1939, uwḍen wid yeγran deg Kazaxestan γer 83,6%, deg Kirgizistan γer 79,8%, deg Tajikistan γer 62,8%, deg Turkministan γer 77,7%, ma deg Uzbikistan γer 78,7%. Γas ma yella leqdic-a yeḥbes cwiṭṭ deg tallit n Wemgaru Amaḍlan (guerre mondiale) wis Sin, maca asselmed ikemmel, yerna imdanen yeγran kemmlen rennun armi ay ay tessaweḍ Tdukli Tasuvyatit ad tessγer qrib akk medden deg Asya Talemmast deg yiseggasen n 1950. Ur telli tmurt tineslemt niḍen deg Asya ay yessawḍen ad teg ay-a.

 

Ay-n ay ssawḍen Yisuvyatiyen ad t-gen deg Asya Talemmast d ay-n ifazen yerna yewεeṛ ad yamen yiwen mi ara iẓer ssawḍen ad rren medden ay yellan qrib akk ur ssinen ad γren ed ad arun, d medden ay deg qrib akk imdanen ssnen ad γren. Leqdic-nsen ameqran yuklal ad d-yettwackeṛ yerna yessekf ad yeqqim d amedya (lemtel) ay d-yesskanen amek ay nezmer ad nemḥu lqella n tmussni n tγuri ed tira deg twennaḍt (environnement) iweεṛen am tin n Asya Talemmast. D acu kan, ur yessekf ad nxemmem leqdic-a akk yella-d i lmend kan n tigin n lxir, wanag, akk-n ay d-nennan, yiwet seg ssebbat timeqranin ay yejjan Isuvyatiyen ad sseγren medden netta assekcem n usekkud (doctrine) asdukklan (communiste) deg wallaγen n medden. Dγa tuttra (asseqsi) ay yessekf ad tt-netter da nettat: S wacu ay d-yegla usselmed n tira ed tγuri i medden ? Anekcum deg ttfaṣ̣il n tsertit (politique) n yilsawen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit deg Asya Talemmast d ay-n ara aγ-yejjen ad nefhem kra n tγawsiwin s wazal-nsent deg way-n yerzan lḥemla n usselmed deg tama-a.

 

Tasertit n yilsawen tasuvyatit deg Asya Talemmast

 

Tadukli Tasuvyatit d tamurt ay deg ggten yilsawen ed yidelsan. Awanak (ddula) n tmurt-a yeqdec, seg yiwet n tama, i lmend n wesnerni n tesdukkla, ma seg tama niḍen, yeqdec i lmend n wesnerni n yilsawen yemgerraden n tmurt ed yiγerfan (ccuεub) ay ten-yessawalen. Asnerni n tesdukkla d ay-n ay deg yessekf γef Uwanak ad d-yessebded yiwen n yedles amγid (culture prolétaire) yeddukklen deg wakk timiwa n tmurt, ma d asnerni n yilsawen d win ay deg yessekf γef Uwanak ad yeqdec i wakk-n ad yeqqim tuggta n yilsawen ed yidelsan deg tmurt, maca iswi-nni amezwaru ed wis sin-a mgerraden, yerna deg temsalt-a ay weḥlen Yisuvyatiyen (Shorish, 1984:35).

 

Ihi, yella-d yimenγi gar snat n tmuγliwin yemgerraden, seg tama tin n ussebded n tmurt yeddukklen maca mgerraden yilsawen ed yidelsan-nnes, neγ tamurt yeddukklen ay deg ula d iles ed yedles ad yeddukkel, dγa d ay-a ay yessawḍen Tadukli Tasuvyatit ad tesseqdec snat-a n tsertiyin (politiques) yerna mi tejja ta, ad teḍfer tayeḍ. Yuγ lḥal, abeddel n tikli n Yisuvyatiyen deg temsalt-a yella-d γef  leḥsab n ubeddel tegnit tasertit.

 

Deg yiseggasen imezwura n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, Awanak (ddula) yeqdec i lmend n wesnerni n yilsawen n tdersiyin (minorités) deg tmurt. Dγa yewεeṛ ad neg amgerrad gar way-n ay iga Uwanak i lmend n wesnerni n yilsawen deg tallit-nni s tin n lxir, ed way-n ay iga s tin n usseddu n tesdukkla. Deg wakud ay deg, deg tallit n uqiṣ̣er arusi, d tarusit ay yellan d iles unṣ̣ib, deg tezwara n tallit tasuvyatit, Awanak (ddula) yerra akk iγerfan (ccuεub) ed wakk ilsawen εedlen. Dγa imir-nni (yerna ula ass-a) ur yelli yiles unṣ̣ib deg lqanun asuvyatit yerna yal yiwen yettalas ad yelmed s yiles-nnes. Lenin yura-d : ”Iqeddacen ddan ed weεdal n wakk iγlanen ed yilsawen ... aεdal n tidet tekcem deg-s tukksa n wesmenyifi n kra n yiles γef yilsawen niḍen” (yules-it-id Bruchis, 1984:129). Lenin iwet-d mliḥ deg “tfernant [patriotisme] taqurant i lmend n ussebded n Rusya Tameqran”, ed iwet-d deg wid ay yebγan ad rren tarusit d iles unṣ̣ib (officiel) n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, γas ma yella, war ccek, yella yettakf azal ameqran aṭas i yiles-a:

 

”Neẓra xir-nwen iles n Turgenev, Tolstoy, Dobrulyubov ed Chernynshevski d iles yesεan azal ameqran yerna yejhed … Yerna, d ay-n ibanen, nebγa lemmer yal amezdaγ n Rusya ad t-id-iṣ̣aḥ ad yelmed iles arusi ameqran. D acu kan, ay-n ur nebγi netta d lḥeṛs ed uḥettem ... lemmer ad nerr iles d unṣ̣ib (officiel), ay-a ad d-yeglu s uḥettem, s usseqdec n udebbuz” (ulsen-t-id Desheriyev ed Mikhalchenko, 1976:391).

 

Maca ayγer ay qedcen Yisuvyatiyen s lḥir i lmend n wesnerni n yilsawen n yiγerfan (ccuεub) niḍen ? Tasertit (politique) n yilsawen tasuvyatit teqqen mliḥ γer tmuγli tamaṛksit-talininit (ed tmuγli tastalinit) deg way-n yerzan iγlanen (nations). Tasertit tasyvtatit def way-n yerzan tiγelnin (nationalités) tettwali ”timetti (communauté) n yemdanen d tin ay yettwabnan s yiderman (clans), sakk-in iderman-nni bennun-d aγlan, yerna d aneggaru-a ay d taqacuct wuγur zemren ad ssiwḍen yemdanen deg lebnu n tmetti-nsen” (Bennigsen ed Quelquejay, 1961:1). S wugar n ttfaṣ̣il, Stalin yenna-d aγlan ”d timetti irekden n yemdanen ay d-sbeddent tedyanin n umezruy, yecrek-itt yiles, wakal, tadamsa (économie) ed tγawsiwin tiṛuḥaniyin ay yes ttamnen, yerna tineggura-a kecment deg tekti n tmetti n yedles aγelnaw (national)” (ulsen-as-d Benningsen ed Quelquejay, 1961: 2-3). Gar teskanin-a (caractéristiques) akkk, ”iles d netta ay d taskant yesεan azal akk deg weγlan. Ur yezmir ad yili weγlan war ma yella yiles ay icerken imezdaγen-nnes” (Isayev 1977:192).

 

Imi aγlan (nation) d iles-nnes ay d taγawsa tamezwarut ay t-id-yesbanayen sakk-in, ad d-yernu wakal, yiwen seg leqdicat imezwura ay iga unabaḍ (lḥukuma) netta d aḥuddu n tlisa n wakal n yal iles ed wesnerni n yiles i lmend n yal tarbaεt ay yella Uwanak (ddula) asuvyati yeẓẓar-itt d aγlan. Qbel ad tettussbeded Tdukli Tasuvyatit, imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast werjin telli tmurt ay d-iḥettmen fell-asen tasertit (politique) n yilsawen. Yerna imezdaγen n tama-a ur telli γer-sen takti (lfekra) ijehden n temsetla taγelnawt (solidarité nationale), imi ay llan akk d Inselmen yerna ẓẓaren iman-nsen yecrek-iten akk yiwen n ddin, yiwen n yedles ed yiwen n yiles, am wakk-n ay keṛhen akk, s umata, Irusiyen. Seg tama niḍen, llan yimezdaγen n Asya Talemmast qqnen yerna ttqadaren, tamezwarut qbel kulci, tiwsatin (tribus) neγ iderman-nsen, dγa ttemsegman, tamezwarut, ed warraw n tewsit neγ n wedrum, qbel ad msegman ad warraw n weγref (cceεb) neγ n weγlan (nation). Deg waṭas n tmiwa n Asya Talemmast, imi ay ttemcabahen aṭas yilsawen iteṛkiyen gar-asen, ur llint tlisa ara yebḍun gar terbaεt yessawalen iles-a ed tin ay yessawalen iles-inna, wanag simal ntteddu seg tama γer tayeḍ, simal nettḥulfu yettbeddil yiles cwiṭṭ, cwiṭṭ, arma nufa-d iman-nneγ deg tama anda ay ssawalen tantala (dialecte) niḍen, yili tintalyin-nni akk d yiwen n yiles. D acu kan, tikkal, amgerrad yettilin gar wid itteddren deg temdint ed wid ay tteddren deg tmurt meγγer ugar n wemgerrad yettilin gar yemdanen ay izedγen deg yiwen n wemkan neγ deg yiwet n temdint.

 

Imukan anda ay llan ttdukkulen yiγerfan (ccuεub) deg Asya Talemmast, nezmer ad naf deg-sen, s umata, tlata n trebbaε timeqranin: tarbaεt n yimeksawen ay yettbeddilen amkan d Ikirgiziyen ed Yikazaxiyen, ttdukkulen akk-n (yerna ilsawen-nsen mqaraben mliḥ), tarbaεt n Yiturkminiyen, ed terbaεt n Wuzbikiyen-Itajikiyen (γas ma iles atajiki ur yelli seg twacult n yiles uzbiki, maca Uzbikiyen ed Yitajikiyen yecrek-iten yedles, ttemyejwajen aṭas gar-asen, yerna ay-a yegla-d s wembaddal ameqran gar yilsawen-nsen). D ay-a ay yejjan, deg tallit n qbel Tdukli Tasuvyatit, takazaxit, taturkminit ed tuzbikit ad bdun ad tteqqalen d ilsawen n tsekla (littérature) γer yidis n  taεṛabt, tafarsit ed tcagatayt. Lemmer d ay ur d-tgir Tdukli Tasuvyatit iman-nnes deg tama-a, yezmer lḥal, ahat, assaγen (relations) gar trebbaε-a ad ilin kemmlen ed nnernan.

 

”Nezmer ad d-nini iγerfan (ccuεub) inselmen n Rusya ddren, qbel n Tegrawla n 1917, yiwet n tudert d ”tagmawit” (naturelle): llan ssedmaren (réagir) i yisekkiren (facteurs) n tdamsa ed tmetti ama d wid n daxel neγ n beṛṛa ... Maca seg 1928 d asawen, ... tudert-nsen teqqel ur d ”tagmawit” am zik; d iduba (autorités) ay yeqqlen sseddayen-ten ed sseknayen-ten akk-n ay asen-yehwa s ubeddel n usekkir yesεan azal ameqran akk deg tudert n weγlan (nation) : iles.” (Benningsen ed Quelquejay, 1961:16).

 

Yiwen seg lecγal imeqranen ay yes d-yelha unabaḍ (lḥukuma) amaynut netta d assebded n yiles aseklan (littéraire) i yal tarbaεt titnit (ethnique) tameqrant deg tmurt. ”Deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit, annulfu n yiles yuran ur yelli dima d ay-n ay d-yekkan seg tikli taγezzfant ay d-uwyen yimawlan n yiles-nni; wanag asnulfu n tira yettili-d, s umata, s ṛṛay n yiduba (autorités) ay izemren ad d-ssersen i tmetti-nni (communauté) kra n yiles aseklan ay d-snulfan yimesnilsiyen (linguisties) irusiyen”, (Benningsen ed Quelquejay, 1961:16).  Yal yiwet seg trebbaε n Asya Talemmast ay fernen Yisuvyatiyen akk-n ad tili d aγlan (nation) yettunekf-as yiles aseklan, yerna gan-d imgerraden n tkellax gar yilsawen-a, γas akk-n, s umata, llan ttemcabahen aṭas gar-asen (akk-n gan, γef umedya [lemtel] i tkazaxit ed tkirgizit). S way-a, tadukli n yilsawen n tama-a thudd deg wakud ay deg imgerraden gar yilsawen-nnes ttusnernan. Beḍḍu-a yessemγer-it ugar Uḥuddu n Tlisa Tiγelnawin n 1924, d win ay yesrekden tilisa n tegdudyin (républiques) tisuvyatiyin n Asya Talemmast, d tilisa ay d-yettuḥudden γef leḥsab n tid n yiγerfan ed yilsawen.

 

Mi ara nẓer γer tegnit-a sufella, ad aγ-d-iban tukci n wakal ed yiles aseklan i yal taγlent (nationalité) deg Asya Talemmast d ay-n ara inefεen tirebbaε-a, yerna yella yessekf ad d-yili way-a i lmend n usselmed n tira ed tγuri i medden s yilsawen-nsen ineṣ̣liyen. D acu kan, mi ara nẓer s telqey, ad naf yella yeswi aserti (but politique) sdeffir way-a, imi Isuvyatiyen sqedcen tikli-nni n ”beḍḍu i lmend n leḥkem” i wakk-n ad bḍun gar yiγerfan (ccuεub) iteṛkiyen ed ad rẓen tikta n tekteṛkit (panturquisme). Nnig way-a, imezwura ay d-yesbedden tasertit (politique) n yilsawen deg tama-a sjehden taγelnaẓri (nationalisme) deg leqdic-nsen i lmend n wesdukkel n wakk iγerfan deg yiwen n Uwanak (ddula) asdukklan. Isuvyatiyen, i wakk-n ur ttilin yemdanen ara ten-iḥaṛben s yisem n yiγerfan-nsen, ur kkisen ula d yiwen n yedles neγ iles seg tmurt-nsen, wanag jjan-ten ad d-banen ed gan ifadden i yimawlan-nsen akk-n ad ten-ḥerzen, i wakk-n ad awḍen γer yeswan-nsen isertiyen. Azamul-nni ay yellan yezmer ad yesdukkel wid ara d-yekkren mgal (contre) n Yisuvyatiyen s yisem n weγref neγ aγlan-nsen (nation) netta d iles, yerna Awanak (ddula) asuvyati, seg wasmi ay d-yennulfa, iga-asen ifadden i medden akk-n ad ssiwlen ed ad γren s yilsawen-nsen, yerna d ay-a ay ireglen iberdan i trebbaεt tiγelnaẓriyin akk-n ad d-kkrent” (Allardyce, 1987:4).

 

Yessekf ad d-nesmekti daγen d adabu ay d-ijebden ṛṛay-a yerna d netta ay t-yesseddan deg wenrar, ur d imezdaγen n tmiwa-a. Dγa asnerni n yilsawen ineṣ̣lieyn d ay-n ay yeqqimen dima seddaw n uḍebber n Yisuvyatiyen.

 

Tasertit (politique) n yilsawen tasuvyatit d tin ay yettwalin yessekf ad ggten yilsawen deg tmurt, akk-n ay d-yenna Lenin : ”Iγlanen (nations) n lγella ur nezmir ad as-nessinef, adennit (labudd) ad d-nnulfun deg tallit taburjwazit n tneflit timettit (développement social)” (yules-it-id Isayev 1977:188). S way-a, deg tmuγli tasdukklant, aγlan d asurif kan deg tikli n tmetti tasdukklant n tidet, sakk-in, timetti-a ad taweḍ γer tegnit ay deg ara temḥu imgerraden-a yellan gar tserkmin (classes), ed ad d-yili way-n umi ttinin ”afsay n yeγlanen, ilsawen ed yidelsan” (Stalin, yules-it-id Lewis, 1972:54). Addukkel-a n wakk ilsawen ed yidelsan ara yeqqlen d yiwen kan yiles ed yedles d ay-n umi γγaren sliyaniye s trusit (Allardyce, 1987:10). Tamsalt-a, wuγur ara d-neqqel sakk-in, yesban-itt-id Ukabar Asdukklan n Tdukli Tasuvyatit deg Tubeṛ 1961, asmi ay d-yettussebded wahil (programme) ay d-yennan:

 

”Lebni n Tmetti tasdukklant (Société communiste) yeqqel d ccγel amezwaru n Yisuvyatiyen ... meḥḥu n wakk imgerraden gar tserkmin (classes) ed wesnerni n wassaγen (relations) isdukklanen ad sjehden addukkel imetti n yeγlanen ... meḥḥu n yemgerraden iγelnawen, ladγa imgerraden n yilsawen, d abrid ara yiγzifen ugar n meḥḥu n yemgerraden gar tserkmin” (yules-it-id Bruchis, 1987:231). 

 

Dγa d ay-n ibanen, Akabar Asdukklan n Tdukli Tasuvyatit yettwali ”meḥḥu n yemgerraden n yilsawen” d asurif ay yessekfen ad d-yili i lmend n lebni n Tmetti tasdukklant (Société communiste).

 

Deg wakud ay deg Lenin iḥettet γef tuggta n yilsawen deg tsertit (politique) n yilsawen ara teḍfer tmurt, Tadukli Tasuvyatit teḍfer tikli ay deg teεreḍ ad d-tḥettem ala yiwen n yiles, asmi ay  yuli Stalin γer udabu, sdeffir n tmattant n Lenin deg 1924. Γas teqqim Tdukli Tasuvyatit ur tesεi, deg lqanun, iles unṣ̣ib (officiel), Awanak (ddula) asuvyati yella yeḥwaj iles unṣ̣ib deg wenrar akk-n ad yesseddu tamurt, yerna, deg tmuγli n Yisuvyatiyen, ala yiwen n yiles ay yellan yezmer ad yefru ugur-a akk-n yessekf: d tarusit. Akk-n ara nẓer sakk-in, ay-a yeldey abrid i leqdic i lmend n wezraε n yiles arusi ed uḥettem n yiγerfan (ccuεub) niḍen akk-n ad t-sseqdacen deg tallit n Stalin, yerna ay-a ikemmel armi d ass-a. ”Tisertiyin n yilsawen ay d-yellan sdeffir n Lenin d abeddel seg weεdal gar yilsawen ed wesnerni n yilsawen iγelnawen γer uḥettem n trusit” (Kreindler, 1982:133)

 

Yessekf ad d-nger tamawt Isuvyatiyen llan zemren ad d-snulfun iles ara yesdukklen akk ilsawen iteṛkiyen n Asya Talemmast akk-n ad gen asurif i lmend n yeswi-nni-nsen n sliyaniye (asdukkel n yilsawen akk deg yiwen yiles), maca ur gin ay-a.

 

Mi ara nẓer γer way-a sufella, nezmer ad d-nini asdukkel n yilsawen iteṛkiyen deg yiwen kan n yiles d ay-n ara iḍefren abrid n wahil-nni (programme) n Ukabar asdukklan ay d-yennan yebγa ”meḥḥu n yemgerraden gar yilsawen”, maca asnulfu n yiles ateṛki yeddukklen d ay-n ara d-yezgen mgal (contre) yeswi (but) n tidet n Yibulciviyen : ”meḥḥu n yemgerraden gar yilsawen” akk-n ad d-gen abrid i trusit, ad ternu akk ilsawen niḍen” (Bruchis, 1984:135)

 

Lemmer d ay d-tesnulfa Tdukli Tasuvyatit iles ateṛki ucrik (commun) (yerna, seg yidis asnilsi [linguistique], tezmer ad t-teg), ay-a ad as-d-yeglu s wuguren isertiyen (politiques) imeqranen, ladγa asmi ay bdan yemḍebbren isuvyatiyen steεṛifen ur ssawḍen ad zerεen tagrawla tasdukklant (révolution communiste) deg umaḍal, akk-n ay llan ssaramen. Deg tidet, timura ay d-yezzin γef Tdukli Tasuvyatit bdant tteqqalent, ta sdeffir tayeḍ mgal (contre) n tesdukkla (communisme), yerna d ay-a ay yekkan Isuvyatiyen ad ḥulfun ḥwajen ad sjehden tadukli-nsen seg sdaxel, sseqraben ilsawen yemgerraden n Tdukli Tasuvyatit γer trusit, yerna εezzlen-ten γef way-n ay izemren ad asen-d-yekk seg beṛṛa.

 

I wakk-n ad ssiwḍen γer yeswi-a (but) deg Asya Talemmast, tasertit n yilsawen tasuvyatit teḍfer tlata n yiberdan: ”tamezwarut, d ”akemmel” ed ”wesbuγer” (enrichissement) n yilsawen yellan, assemγer n wenrar-nsen n tmuγli ed ubeddel n yilsawen n tewsatin (tribus) ed tmettiyin (communautés) akk-n ad ten-rren d ilsawen iγelnawen yeddan γer sdat, yesεan tasniremt (terminologie) ed tmawalt (vocabulaire) timeṛkantiyin”, tis snat, tukksa n wawalen-nni ay yeggten ay d-yekkan seg taεṛabt ed tfarsit, d wid ay d-yekkan seg unekcum n Lislam; tis tlata, d assekcem n trusit ara yeqqlen d ”iles aneṣ̣li” wis sin”” (Wheeler, 1964:165). Imir-a, ad nẓer amek ay qedcen Yisuvyatiyen akk-n ad awḍen γer yeswan-a.

 

Abeddel n ugemmay*

 

*alphabet

 

Deg tallit n Tegrawla (Révolution), aṭas seg yilsawen n tdersiyin (minorités) ay yellan ur ttwarun. Ma d wiyaḍ llan sseqdacen igemmayen (alphabets) ay walan yiduba (autorités) ur watan i yilsawen-a ed ufan-asen-d ssebbat akk-n ad ten-beddlen. Dγa bdan yimesnilsiyen (linguistes) isuvyatiyen qeddcen γef yiwen n ccγel d ameqran: ad d-snulfun igemmayen i tira n yilsawen ur nettwaru (ugar n xemsin n yilsawen umi d-snulfan tirawt i tikkelt tamezwarut) ed ad beddlen inagrawen (systèmes) n tira ay walan ur watan yerna ur qeddcen i lmend n yeswan n Uwanak (ddula). D tidet, yella yesself fell-asen ad d-afen tifratin akk-n ad ssifessen asselmed n tγuri ed tira, maca llant daγen nneyyat yeffren sdeffir way-a.

 

Yiwen seg yigemmayen (alphabets) ay yettwakksen i lmend n ubeddel-a netta d tirawt n taεṛabt. Agemmay aεṛab sseqdacen-t deg wakk timiwa n Asya Talemmast ed γer akk Inselmen niḍen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit. (Agemmay ay yettusseqdacen deg tmiwa-a d win umi ttinin “agemmay aεṛab-afarsi”, rnan-as ṛebεa n yisekkilen [leḥṛuf] akk-n ad arun imesliyen yellan deg tfarsit, maca ur llin deg taεṛabt : [g], [p], [tc] ed [ j ]). Isuvyatiyen ufan-d aṭas n ssebbat tifṛagmatiyin (pramatiques) akk-n ad t-kksen, maca llan ula d aggagen (intellectuels) seg Asya Talemmast ay yellan bγan ad t-kksen daγen. Yiwen seg wuguren n ugemmay aεṛab netta ur iwata ad arun yes-s tiγra (voyelles) ay yettbeddilen n yilsawen iteṛkiyen, yerna tirawt taεṛabt nezmer ad naru yes-s ala tlata n teγra. Nnig way-a, tirawt taεṛabt llan deg-s aṭas n yisekkilen ur llin deg yilsawen iṛaniyen ed yiteṛkiyen, yerna amur ameqran seg yisekkilen aεṛaben ttbeddilen talγa (forme) γef leḥsab n wemkan-nsen deg umeslay. Ay-a akk llan ttwalin-t yessewεeṛ almad n ugemmay-a yerna yezmer ad yessewεeṛ asselmed n tira ed tγuri.

 

D acu kan, llant daγen ssebbat tisertiyin (politiques) ay yejjan imḍebbren isuvyatiyen ad agin agemmay-a (alphabet). Imi Leqran yettwaru s ugemmay aεṛab yerna tasekla tineslemt tameqrant n zik yettwaru s taεṛabt ed tafrsit, agemmay-a yeqqel d azamul ay yeqqnen Iturkistaniyen γer Yinselmen n tmiwa niḍen, ladγa γer Waεṛaben ed Yifarsiyen ay yuraren dduṛ ameqran deg ddin ed yedles n tam-a. Yuγ lḥal, amur ameqran deg yilsawen iteṛkiyen llan sεan aṭas n wawalen (gar 20 ed 40%) ay d-reḍlen seg taεṛabt ed tfarsit. Maca Awanak-a (ddula) arneflas (athée) ay yegren tamawt i tezmert n yizumal, ed yugad lemmer ad msegman yimezdaγen n Asya Talemmast ed yinselmen niḍen, ur yeqbil ad yeqqim uzamul-a. Nnig way-a, agemmay aε ṛab, imi ay yecrek akk iγerfan (ccuεub) iteṛkiyen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, ed waytmaten-nsen ay izedγen beṛṛa i tlisa n tmurt-a, llan zemren ad ttemsefhamen yes-s s tefses. Dγa ur bγin Yisuvyatiyen, daγen, ad d-yeqqim uzamul ara yejjen iγerfan iteṛkiyen ad msegman gar-asen.

 

Ibulciviyen gren tamawt ur llin zmiren ad kksen agemmay aεṛab γef tikkelt, war ma snekren-d urfan n Yinselmen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit. Γef way-a, uwyen-d abrid aγezfan, ttaẓen deg-s cwiṭṭ, cwiṭṭ, i wakk-n ad beddlen tira. Ahat Irusiyen ḥulfan mazal keṛhen-ten Yinselmen n Asya Talemmast deg tallit-nni, yerna ttxemmimen ad sbedden Awanak (ddula) ineslem ameqran ara yesdukklen ama d Turkistan arusi neγ win n Ccinwa, akked Afγanistan ed Iṛan, dγa γef way-nni, deg tazwara n yiseggasen n 1920, jjan agemmay aεṛab maca beddlen-t kan s tmerniwt n yezmal (signes) ay yes ara arun tiγra (voyelles) n yislawen iteṛkiyen, am wakk-n ay kksen isekkilen-nni taεṛabt ay yes ttarun imesliyen ur nelli deg yilsawen iteṛkiyen.

 

Abeddel wis sin yella-d deg 1926, asmi ay gan Aswir (Congrès) n Tussna n Yedles Ateṛki deg Baku (Azerbijan), yerna wid yettekkan deg-s, imir-nni, ssumren-d (proposer) ad qqlen ad sseqdacen agemmay alatini I tira n yilsawen iteṛkiyen deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit. Deg 1930, yettwakkes ugemmay aεṛab ed rran-d deg wemkan-nnes Birlashdirilmish yangi Turk alifbesi (Agemmay ateṛki amaynut yeddukklen). Deg 1935, azal n sebεin yilsawen isuvyatiyen (ur akk d iteṛkiyen), ay ssawalen wazal n 35 n yimelyunen n medden, qqlen ttwarun s ugemmay alatini umi rnan izmal (signes) i ussenṭeq iṣ̣eḥḥan. Ibeddilen-a akk, d ay-n ibanen, ssaẓyen lḥemla-nni n usselmed n tira ed tγuri, yerna llan-d deg tallit ay deg d-yeqqel leqdic s ljehd i lmend n usselmed n medden. Nnig way-a, tuddma n ugemmay alatini i tira n yilsawen isuvyatiyen teγli-d deg tallit-nni ay deg ula d Ataturk, deg Tteṛk, iḍebber-d i wakk-n tateṛkit ad teqqel ad tettwaru s ugemmay alatini. D acu kan, Isuvyatiyen llan ttwalin agemmay-a d arawsan (neutre) seg yidis n yedles, yerna ur yettajja inselmen isuvyatiyen ad t-agin ed ad as-inin bγan yemḍebbren isdukklanen ad ten-rren d Irusiyen.

 

Maca deg tallit-nni daγen, tuddma n ugemmay alatini i lmend n tira n yilsawen n Yinselmen isuvyatiyen “d ay-n ay yekfan tiyita d tameqrant i yimassanen inselmen ay yellan sseqdacen tirawt taεṛabt d ttawil akk-n ad ḥeṛsen yes-s seg yidis n ṛṛuḥ … iqeddacen” (yules-it-d Isayev, 1977:242). S ubeddel n tira, qqlen Yinselmen Isuvyatiyen ttwagezmen seg yezri-nsen (passé), seg tsekla-nsen n zik ed wassaγen-nsen (liens) ay ten-yeqqnen γer yedles aεṛab ed win n Yifarsiyen, ed way-n ay ten-yeqqnen γer Yinselmen niḍen n umaḍal. Nnig way-a, agemmay alatini d win ay yesjehden amgerrad gar yimezdaγen n Asya Talemmast tasuvyatit ed waytmaten-nsen n tmura ay ten-id-iqerben. Yerna, imassanen n ddin ed waggagen (intellectuels) inselmen, llan ttagaden-ten Yibulcivyen ad qqlen d imḍebbren n tnekriwin (révoltes) mgal n udabu asuvyati, dγa asmi ay yettwabeddel ugemmay, qqlen akk medden lemmden ad arun s ugemmay alatini, nitni kemmlen ttarun s ugemmay aεṛab, dγa yeγli wazal-nsen, yerna yella yessekf ad εawden almad seg swadda. “Tisutwin-nni (lejyal) ay yebdan lemmden deg yiγerbazen isuvyatiyen ed yiγerbazen n usselmed n tira ed tγuri i yimeqranen, tettwasfeḍ tfelwit (tableau) i lmend n welmad n tirawt tamaynut” (Bacon, 1966:191).

 

Isuvyatiyen beddlen ugar agemmay alatini i wakk-n ad d-gen imgerraden n tkellax gar yilsawen iteṛkiyen, dγa yiwen n yimesli (ṣ̣ṣ̣ut) llan ttarun-t s yisekkilen (leḥṛuf) yemgerraden gar yiles-a ed yiles niḍen (γef umedya [lemtel], deg tuzbikit, ”c” ttarun yes-s imesli [tc], “ç” ttarun yes-s imesli [ j ]. Deg tazirit, am deg ugemmay ay sseqdacen deg Tteṛk, “c” ttarun yes-s [ j ], ma d “ç” ttarun yes-s [tc], Allworth 1964:171), yerna asmi ay rran ilsawen-a ttwarun s ugemmay asirili (cyrillique, arusi), imgerraden-a n tkellax gar yilsawen yemqaraben rnan ugar. Ur telli kra n ssebba yelhan ay ten-yejjan ad gen ay-a. Seg tama niḍen, yella-d ubeddel d ameqran ay d-yeglan s wuguren i yiwen seg yilsawen-a, tuzbikit, deg 1934. Yuγ lḥal, tuzbikit, am wakk ilsawen iteṛkiyen, tesεa amtawa n teγra (harmonie de voyelles), yerna d ay-a ay tt-yesseqraben ugar γer yilsawen iteṛkiyen niḍen. Zik, d tuzbikit n ugafa (nord) ay yellan d iles n tsekla (littérature) n Wuzbikiyen, maca Isuvyatiyen, deg useggas-nni, d tuzbikit n Tackent, ay ixelḍen ed tiṛanit, ay rran d iles n tsekla ed tira, yili tuzbikit-a tesṛuḥ amtawa-nni n teγra. S way-a, ṛebεa n yisekkilen ay yettwakksen seg ugemmay alatini n tuzbikit yerna ay-a yessemγer amgerrad gar-as ed yilsawen iteṛkiyen niḍen, am wakk-n ay yergel way-a abrid i yiγelnaẓriyen (nationalistes) uzbikiyen akk-n ad ssizedgen iles-nsen. Abeddel niḍen yella-d deg 1938, asmi ay εawden aṣ̣eggem n yisekkilen n ugemmay alatini ay yettusseqdacen i tira n yilsawen isuvyatiyen akk-n ad d-yemyezg ed uṣ̣eggem n yisekkilen n ugemmay asirili [dγa yeqqel ugemmay-nni alatini ur d-ibeddu s yisekkilen “a, b, c, …”, wanag s “a, b, v, g, …”, akk-n ay ttemseḍfaren yisekkilen isirilieyn]. Ay-a yeldey tawwurt i lmend n ubeddel ay d-itteddun. 

 

Deg tgara n yiseggasen n 1930, ssumren-d (proposer) ad yettwakkes ugemmay alatini ed ad yettusseqdec deg umur-nnes ugemmay asirili (cyrillique). Aṭas seg wid yellan deg tenmegla (opposition) ay-a ttwanγan deg wussan-nni ay deg yella Stalin yessizdig tamurt seg wid ay yettagad, yerna ddan yid-sen waṭas seg waggagen (intellectuels) n Asya Talemmast, ma d wid ay d-yeqqimen, qqlen qeddcen i lmend n udabu, γas ur bγin. Deg tizi n 1940, yeqqel ugemmay asirili yettusseqdac deg umur ameqran seg tmiwa n Asya Talemmast. Imesnilsiyen (linguistes) isuvyatiyen kfan-d daγen ssebat-nnes γef ubeddel-a, ed nnan-d agemmay asirili d win ay yifen agemmay alatini i lmend n tira n yilsawen iteṛkiyen yerna d win ay yesseqdacen qell n yezmal (signes) i tira n yimesliyen iteṛkiyen, maca ay-a ur yelli d tidet. Yuγ lḥal, am wakk-n ay d-ttwarnan yisekkilen i ugemmay alatini i lmend n tira n yilsawen iteṛkiyen ay d-ttwarnan yisekkilen ula i ugemmay asirili. Nnan-d daγen iγerfan (ccuεub) n Tdukli Tasuvyatit ur nelli d irusiyen d nitni ay yebγan ad ttwarun yilsawen-nsen s tira n yiles arusi ay yesεan azal d ameqran, maca ay-a yella deg-s ccek.

 

Abeddel-a yegla-d, i tikkelt niḍen, s ussaẓey n lḥemla-nni n usselmed, imi imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast yella yessekf fell-asen ad lemden agemmay amaynut i tikkelt tis snat deg εecṛa n yiseggasen. D acu kan, ay-n ay d-yesfaydi udabu asuvyati seg way-a yugar uguren-a n usselmed n teswiεt-nni. Asmi ay yettwakkes ugemmay alatini, thud tqenṭert ay izemren ad tebnu tagmat gar yiγerfan (ccuεub) Iteṛkiyen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit ed waytmaten-nsen n Tteṛk. Nnig way-a, tira n yilsawen n Asya Talemmast s ugemmay arusi d ay-n ara yessifessen anekcum n wawalen irusiyen deg yilsawen n tama-a, ed ad yessifses γef yemdanen-a ad lemden iles arusi, yerna snat-a n temsal ad d-nessiwel fell-asent ugar ukessar-a. (Tagnit-a tuklal ad tt-nqaren, daγen, γer tin n yiles n Yiwiguren (ay icuban tuzbikit), ay ssawalen yinselmen iteṛkiyen n Ccinwa. Zik, iles-a yella yettwaru s ugemmay aεṛab, sakk-in, deg 1947, Ccinwa tbeddel agemmay-nni, terna-as izmal [signes] akk-n ad t-tessezg ed yimesliyen n yiles-nni, maca deg 1965, snulfan-d Yicinwaten daγen agemmay alatini i tira n twigurt. Agemmay-a icuba apinyin, agemmay-nni alatini ay yettusseqdacen i tira n tcinwat. Ar ass-a, sin-a n yigemmayen mazal ttusseqdacen i tira n twigurt, maca agemmay-nni aεṛab d netta ay icaεen γer Yiwiguren ugar n ugemmay-nni alatini. Adabu acinwat ur yessaweḍ ad d-iḥettem tirawt tacinwat i tira n twigurt, acku isekkilen icinwaten ur zmiren ad arun yes-sen ilsawen niḍen menγir tacinwat. Lemmer ur yelli lḥal akk-a, tili ahat Beijing ad tili tga ay-n ay tga Musku).

 

Kra n tnebdurin (citations) ad kafint akk-n ad nefhem xir iswan isertiyen (buts politiques) ay yeffren sdeffir n ubeddel n tira n yilsawen isuvyatiyen:

 

“Yiwet seg tγawsiwin timeqranin akk ay d-rebḥen yiγerfan (ccuεub) n Tdukli Tasuvyatit ... netta d asnulfu n yigemmayen ed yinagrawen (systèmes) n tira i lmend n yiγerfan [n tdersiyin (minorités)], llsas-nsen d isekkilen irusiyen … Tuddma n tirawt tarusit i lmend n tira n umur ameqran seg yilsawen yettekka deg wesnerni-nsen, am wakk-n ay iεawen aṭas iγerfan yemgerraden n Tdukli Tasuvyatit akk-n ad lemden tarusit akk-n igerrez ed ad ḍefren idles arusi” (Rywkin, 1963:86).

 

“Akk-n ad asen-neddu deg lebγi i yiqeddacen n Tegduda tanemlayt tasuvyatit n Uzbikistan ay yessuttren ad jjen tirawt talatinit n tuzbikit akk-n ad ttarun iles-a s tirawt tarusit, yerna ay-a d ttawil i werfad ed wesnerni n yiles uzbiki yettwarun, am wakk-n ay-a ad yessejhed tammidwa (amitié) ur netthuddu gar yiγerfan (ccuεub) n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, Asuvyat Anafella (Soviet Suprḍme) ed Tegduda tanemlayt tasuvyatit n Uzbikistan, ddmen ṛṛay ad …” (yules-it-id Allworth, 1964:175).

 

“Maca yella yessekf kra n wakud i wakk-n iγerfan (ccuεub) isuvyatiyen ad akin i dduṛ amaynut ara uraren yiles arusi ed tirawt tarusit i lmend n ussifses n teγwalt (communication) deg twacult tucrikt n yiγerfan yeddren deg tgadda (égalité) … iles arusi ed tirawt tarusit sseddan γer sdat annerni n tnemla (socialisme) γer wakk iγerfan, ed ttekkan deg ussiweḍ n yiγerfan-a γer tnemla, am wakk-n ay tessafses taγwalt gar yal aγref ed wayeḍ” (Isayev, 1977:266).

 

S way-a, amecwaṛ-nni akk ay d-yekka ubeddel n tira, seg ugemmay aεṛab armi ugemmay asirili, yessaweḍ ad yebḍu ilsawen iteṛkiyen gar-asen, ed ad ten-yebḍu daγen seg yedles aεṛab-afarsi, am wakk-n ay yeldi tawwurt i lmend n unekcum n wawalen irusiyen deg yilsawen-a, am wakk-n ay qqlen waṭas n medden deg tmiwa-a ssawalen deg tmura-nsen sin yilsawen, tarusit ed yiles-nsen aneṣ̣li. D acu kan, iduba (autorités) irusiyen mazal ttinin-d “asenfar-a (projet) aweεṛan d win ay d-yellan s lebγi n yiγerfan-a (ccuεub), yerna Akabar Asdukklan (Parti Communiste) ed unabaḍ (lḥukuma) asuvyati d imḍebbren kan”. (Isayev, 1977:271).

 

Anekcum n trusit deg yislawen n Asya Talemmast

 

Tuddma n ugemmay asirili i tira n yilsawen n Asya Talemmast teldi tawwurt i unekcum n wawalen, imesliyen (leṣ̣wat), tesnalγa (morphologie) ed tseddast (syntaxe) n trusit deg yilsawen-a. Maca ahat lateṛ arusi ameqran akk ay d-yettbanen deg yilsawen n Asya Talemmast netta d areḍḍal n waṭas n yimeslayen (mots) irusiyen. Aṭas n yilsawen n Uwanak (ddula) asuvyati amaynut, ed gar-asen ilsawen n Asya Talemmast, llan xuṣ̣ṣ̣en-ten yimeslayen deg waṭas n yinurar ay yesεan azal γer Tmetti tasdukklant (société communiste), anemek-nnes imeslayen yeqqnen γer timmaṛksit, tamṣ̣uka tasertit (structure politique) tasuvyatit, tussna ed teknussa (technologie) ed temguri (industrie). Γef way-a, yella yessekf ad skecmen imeslayen imaynuten deg yilsawen-a akk-n ad d-ssiwlen γef tγawsiwin-a timaynutin.

 

Deg yiseggasen imezwura n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, llan snernayen inumak (lmeεnat) n yimeslayen ay d-yekkan seg taεṛabt, tafarsit neγ ilsawen iteṛkiyen ay yellan yagi, akk-n ad sεun inumak n wawalen-nni imaynuten irusiyen, am wakk-n ay llan snulfuyen-d awalen imaynuten s yilsawen ineṣ̣liyen n yiγefan (ccuεub) isuvyatiyen. Maca, simal itteddu wakud, Isuvyatiyen llan ttruẓun ifadden i wesnulfu ed wesnerni nyinumak n wawalen ay yellan yagi, ed llan ttgen ifadden i ussekcem n yimeslayen “igraγlanen” (internationaux), deg yilsawen-a. Yerna d ay-n ibanen, amur ameqran deg yimeslayen-a “igraγlanen” d irusiyen deg laṣ̣el-nsen neγ, meqqar, deg talγa-nsen (forme). Taγemsa (presse) ay yeṭṭef udabu turar, ula d nettat, dduṛ d ameqran deg usseddu n yimeslayen irusiyen deg yilsawen isuvyatiyen. Yessekf ad d-nger tamawt tira n yilsawen isuvyatiyen s ugemmay asirili d ay-n ay d-yeglan s wuguren; γef umedya (lemtel), ameslay “agraγlan” am Hamlet yella yettwaru s trusit “Gamlet” (imi agemmay arusi ur yelli deg-s usekkil “h”), yili deg wakk ilsawen n Asya Talemmast, yella yimesli [h], maca imi ay ttwarun s ugemmay asirili, terra-ten tmara ad arun isem-a akk-n ay t-ttarun Yirusiyen (Fierman, 1985:224).

 

Akk-n ad ssiwḍen Yisuvyatiyen γer yeswi-nsen (but) deg Asya Talemmast, kksen imeslayen aεṛaben ed yifarsiyen ay yellan deg yilsawen-a ed ssersen deg wemkan-nsen imeslayen irusiyen. Gar 1923 ed 1940, imeslayen ay d-yekkan seg tfarsit ed taεṛabt neqsen seg 37% γer 25% deg tuzbikit, ma d imeslayen irusiyen deg yiles-a rnan seg 2% γer 15% (Rywkin, 1963:86). D acu kan, deg yiseggasen-a ineggura, ay-a yebda yettbeddil, imi imesnilsiyen (linguistes) n Asya Talemmast εawden skecmen-d imeslayen iteṛkiyen iqburen γer yilsawen-nsen, am wakk-n ay d-rran kra n yimeslayen aεṛaben ed yifarsiyen ay yettwakksen naqal. Γas ma qqimen-d kra n yimeslayen irusiyen (am kolkhoz, akulxuz, neγ ”lfirma icerken”), maca awalen irusiyen niḍen ur uγen aẓar.

 

Assekcem n yimeslayen irusiyen yegla-d s yibeddilen niḍen deg yilsawen n Asya Talemmast. Deg tazwara, imeslayen ay llan ssekcamen-ten-id γer yilsawen-a llan ssezgayen-ten-id γer wenṭaq n yilsawen-a, yerna idfiren (suffixes) ay yes ttfakan yimeslayen deg yilsawen-a llan zemren ad ten-rnun i wawalen irusiyen. D acu kan, seg 1952 d asawen, yeqqel yettuḥettem ad ttwarun yimeslayen irusiyen ay d-yettwareḍlen deg yilsawen-a akk-n ay ttwarun deg trusit, yerna s yedfiren n yiles arusi. Γas ma yella medden llan neṭṭqen-d imeslayen irusiyen akk-n ay d-neṭṭqen ilsawen-nsen, deg uγerbaz, iselmaden llan sseḥṛasen ad d-ttwaneṭqen yimeslayen irusiyen akk-n ay d-ttwanṭaqen deg trusit, dγa d ay-a ay yeskecmen tasniselt (phonologie) ed tesnalγa (morphologie) n trusit deg yilsawen-a. Tarusit tekcem ula deg tseddast (syntaxe) n kra seg yilsawen-a, wid ay d-yessuqqlen (sṭerjmen)  tasekla (littérature) tarusit γer yislawen n Asya Talemmast llan ttbeddilen tikkal taseddast n yilsawen-a akk-n ad tcabi tin n trusit. D acu kan, γas ilsawen-a llan ttbeddilen deg tira, maca deg wawal, qrib ur yelli way-n ay beddlen deg-sen. Maca, seg tama niḍen, ilsawen-a qrib ur d-jjin akk lateṛ deg trusit. Iswi ay qesden Yirusiyen ad t-awḍen sdeffir n tikli-a akk, ur yewεiṛ akk-n ad t-nẓer:

 

“Tikli-a ay deg ilsawen iteṛkiyen sseknan-ten seddaw n uzaglu n tesniselt (phonologie), tasnalγa (morphologie), taseddast (synthaxe) ed yimeslayen irusiyen, yessaweḍ, seg yiwet n tama, γer usseḍεef n temṣ̣ukiwin (structures) ed yinagrawen-nsen (systèmes), yerna yergel-asen abrid akk-n ad ilin d ilsawen ara izemren ad sεun dduṛ deg tmetti, yerna d ay-a ay yeldin abrid i yiles ijehden [tarusit] akk-n ad ten-yernu” (Bruchis, 1984:138).

 

Dduṛ n tesnilest*

 

*bilinguisme

 

Akk-n ay d-nenna sufella-a, tasertit n yilsawen tasuvyatit d tin ay deg ay d-tella, tikkal, tikli ay yettakfen azal i yilsawen n yiγerfan niḍen, maca tikkal, tella-d tikli ay yekkaten akk-n ad terr tarusit d nettat ay yernan akk tiyaḍ, yerna tessaweḍ ad teg amnekni (équilibre) gar snat-a n tikliwin, d acu kan, takti-nni tamaṛksit n sliyaniye (afsay n yilsawen ed yidelsan akk akk-n ad d-gen yiwen kan n yiles ed yedles) teqqim d nettat ay d iswi wuγur llan Yisuvyatiyen bγan ad awḍen. Ay-a nnan-t-id s lejheṛ wid ay d-yessumren tasertit n yilsawen n Ukabar Asdukklan (Parti Communiste) n Tdukli Tasuvyatit deg tlemmast n yiseggasen n 1960:

 

“Annerni ay d-ittedden deg tikliwin ay yeqqlen γer lebni n Tdukli Tasuvyatit tasdukklant (communiste) ur yessawaḍ γer tmerniwt n yilsawen ay yellan, wanag γer ussenqes-nsen cwiṭṭ, cwiṭṭ, arma uwyen kra n yilsawen ijehden amkan n wiyaḍ” (yules-it-id Bruchis, 1987:233).

 

Akk-n ay d-nebder sufella-a, d tarusit ay fernen ad tili d iles “unṣ̣ib” ur nelli d unṣ̣ib deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit. Yerna d ay-n ibanen Isuvyatiyen llan ttwalin tarusit d iles-nni ameqran ara isummen akk ilsawen niḍen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, γas ma yella adabu arusi yella, s umata, ur d-yettini ay-a s lejheṛ, wanag yessemεan-d kan fell-as:

 

“Iles arusi yettunekf-as wemkan yugaren win n wakk ilsawen niḍen ay ssawalen deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit, yerna iγlanen isdukklanen (nations communistes) n Tdukli Tasuvyatit n uzekka nettwali-ten ddukklen seddaw n yiwen kan yedles ed yiwen kan yiles, tarusit [amaslaḍ-a utrim (analyste occidental) yebder-d yiwen n wawal ay d-nnan Yisuvyatiyen]:

 

Iγlanen (nations) ad ddukklen deg yimal (futur), yerna ilsawen[-nsen] iγelnawen (nationaux) ad xsin ed ad yili deg wemkan-nsen yiles ucrik – ay-a akk ad d-yili asmi ara jjujjgen yeγlanen isdukklanen (communistes) … Tarusit simal tetteqqal d iles ucrik n wakk iγlanen inemlayen (socialistes) n Tdukli Tasuvyatit” (yules-it-id Rywkin, 1963:88). 

 

“Dduṛ n trusit deg tudet n yiγerfan (ccuεub) isuvyatiyen la yettimγur yal ass ... [Tarusit] la tetteqqal d iles ayemmat wis sin n tmeyyatin n yimelyunen n yemsiwlen n yislawen yemgerraden [deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit]” (yules-it-id Bruchis, 1984:139-140).

 

Ssebbat n way-a yekfa-tent-id Feodot P. Filin, anemhal n Usudu (Institut) n Yiles Arusi deg Tkadimit n Tussniwin n Tdukli Tasuvyatit:

 

“(1) Ugar n wezgen n yimezdaγen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit d Irusiyen; (2) Tarusit tesεa iqeddicen ikelsaken (classiques) n tsekla (littérature); (3) Tarusit tesεa ikelsaken n timmaṛksit ed tlininit; (4) Irusiyen, s wansayen-nsen (traditions) n tegrawla, s timmeṛkantit-nsen deg tussna ed yedles, s ṛṛuḥ-nsen agraγlan ed uεiwen n waytmaten-nsen seg yiγerfan (ccuεub) niḍen, ttqadaren-ten akk medden seg wulawen-nsen” (yules-it-id Kreindler, 1982:133-134).  

 

Tarusit d “iles n weγlan (nation) ay yeddan γer sdat akk deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit, d aγlan ay yejjan ad d-ilin ibeddilen imeqranen akk ay iḥuzan tamurt yerna d win ay d-irebḥen tayri ed leqder n wakk iγerfan (ccuεub)” (Isayev, 1977:299-300), tarusit tleddey daγen abrid i medden akk-n “ad kecmen deg yedles yuẓan mliḥ γer sdat, yerna ad d-rebḥen tamussni lqayen ed tin ara idumen deg wakk inurar n tussna” (Rakowska-Harmstone 1970:248).

 

Tikta-a ay yes yettuqenneε Ukabar Asdukklan (Parti Communiste) n Tdukli Tasuvyatit glant-d s tsertit (politique) umi ttinin ”dva potoka” (sin yengiten [courants]) (Allardyce, 1987:8). Ilsawen iγelnawen (nationaux) ttusnernin i wakk-n ad nefεen deg tmiwa-nni anda ay ten-ssawalen ed ad sεun dduṛ deg yedles, wanag iles arusi sseddayen-d gar medden akk-n ad yeqdec i lmend n yeswan (buts) n Uwanak (ddula) tasuvyatit, am temguri (industrie) ed teknussna (technologie). Dγa Isuvyatiyen qesden ad rren “akk imezdaγen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit d isnilsen (bilingues), yerna yettwarfed wemkan n trusit akk-n ad teqqel d “iles ayemmat wis sin” n yeγlanen (nations) ur nelli d irusiyen” (Solchanyk, 1982b:23).

 

Γas teqdec aṭas Tdukli Tasuvyatit akk-n ad terr imezdaγen n tmurt d isnilsen (bilingues), maca tella mazal tebεed akk-n ad taweḍ γer yeswi-nnes. Deg 1979, 23,3% seg yimezdaγen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit ay yellan d isnilsen, ssawalen tarusit ed yiles-nsen aneṣ̣li. D acu kan, lemmer ad nẓer s udeqqeq, ad naf ala 3,1% seg Yirusiyen ay yellan d isnilsen (ssawalen tarusit ed kra n yiles niḍen), deg wakud ay deg 49% seg yimezdaγen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit ur llin d Irusiyen (Comrie, 1981:28; Solchanyk, 1982b:25). D ay-n ibanen tasnilest-a (bilinguisme) tettuḥettem-d kan γef wid ur nelli d Irusiyen, wanag qlilit Yirusiyen ay yessawalen iles niḍen menγir tarusit, yerna γas ma llan aṭas n Yisuvyatiyen ur nelli d Irusiyen ay yessawalen tarusit, qrib tis ṛebεa seg yimezdaγen ur ssinen tarusit mliḥ akk-n ad tt-ssawalen yal ass-a.

 

Gar 1970 ed 1979, imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast ay yeqqlen d isnilsen (bilingues), ssawalen tarusit ed yiles-nsen, rnan s waṭas, d acu kan, leôsabat-a n yesnilsen ay yellan deg tmurt s umata ttbanen-d d imeqranen, wanag lemmer ad neüüef yal avref (cceεb) i yiman-nnes, ad naf isnilsen ur ggiten deg-s aüas, ala deg way-n yerzan Ikazaxiyen, imi ineggura-a qqlen imir-a d tadersi (minorité) deg tmurt-nsen, yerna d nitni ay d imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast ay iôuza aüas yedles ed yiles arusi. Ssebba tamezwarut ay yejjan tarusit ad yimvur wazal-nnes netta iles-a d win ay yessekf ad yessen wemdan akk-n ad yelmed deg tesdawit, ad yeqdec deg tsertit nev ad yerbeô deg tmetti (société), am wakk-n ay yella d iles yettuôettmen i welmad n kra n lôirfat yeqqnen ver tussna ed tteknit (technique), ed d netta ay d iles n tedbelt (administration). D acu kan, yessekf daven ad d-nger tamawt tuzbikit, ay yellan d iles yesεan cciεa tameqrant gar wakk ilsawen n Asya Talemmast, yeqqel d iles wis sin n waüas seg yimezdaγen n tama-a yerna yezmer ad yeqqel d iles ay yes ara ttemsefhamen akk yimezdaγen n Asya Talemmast.

 

D acu kan, Musku ay yebvan ad tezreε tesnilest (bilinguisme) deg yimezdaγen-nnes, tessaram ad teqqel trusit, deg tgara, d nettat ay d iles amezwaru n Yisuvyatiyen. Deg kra n yimukan n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, yessaweḍ Uwanak (ddula) ad yeg ay-a, akk-n ay nezmer ad t-nöer deg tmerniwt, yal aseggas, n medden ur nelli d Irusiyen ay d-ttininiles-nsen aneṣ̣li d tarusit : gar 1926 ed 1959, 103.000 n medden i useggas, gar 1959 ed 1970, 254.000 i useggas, gar 1970 ed 1979, 373.000 i useggas – Bruchis, 1984:143). Imir-a, 13,1% seg wid ur nelli d Irusiyen ay yessawalen tarusit d iles-nsen amezwaru. D acu kan, qrib akk imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast d iles-nsen aneṣ̣li ay ttwalin d iles-nsen n tidet. Dva, iban mazal Tadukli Tasuvyatit tebεed aüas akk-n ad terr imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast d imdanen yessawalen kan tarusit.  

 

Tasertit n dva potoka iqeyyem-itt yiwen n umaslaḍ utrim (analyste occidental) am wakk-a: “Seg yiwet n tama, Tadukli Tasuvyatit tebva ad d-tessken (i tmura niḍen [akk-n ad teεjeb timura tifriqiyin ed tasyawiyin]) tesεa ilsawen ivelnawen (nationaux) ay yejjujjgen deg yiseggasen-nni n udabu asuvyati … maca, seg tama niḍen, adabu asuvyati yettḍafar iswi-nnes n ussebded n trusit d nettat ay d iles awôid deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit” (Bruchis, 1984:145).

 

I wakk-n ad ssiwḍen ver way-a, yessekf vef trusit ad asen-tekkes i yilsawen ivelnawen (nationaux) ddup ay tturaren deg tmetti. Tasetit (politique) n yilsawen tasuvyatit ay d-yettinin yal tavlent (nationalité) “tesεa azref akk-n ad tesseqdec iles-nnes deg tlisa n tenfa-nnes tudrawant (intérḍts vitaux)” (yules-it-id- Bruchis, 1984:141-142), maca awal-a n “tanfa tudrawant” yezmer ad d-yeqsed aüas n tvawsiwin.

 

Yiwet n tezrawt (étude) ay d-yeffven seg melmi kan deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit tebder-d inurar yemgerraden ay deg tettusseqdac trusit ed yilsawen ivelnawen (nationaux). Deg Asya Talemmast, tarusit tettusseqdac kan deg Yivallen Imsellôen ed deg tevwalt (communication) n unabaḍ (gouvernement), maca tavwalt tatlayt (orale) ttusseqdacen deg-s ala ilsawen n tama-a. Tarusit ed yilsawen n tama-a sseqdacen-ten deg yexxamen n ccpeε, deg tvemsa, deg tilibizyu ed ppadyu, deg tvawsiwin yuran ed tevwalt ay yeqqnen ver leqdic, ed deg yigalisen unṣ̣iben (panneaux officiels). Ilsawen n tama-a sseqdacen-ten deg yisura ay d-gan yimezdaγen n tama-a, deg yedlisen n tmussni ay d-ttarun yimezdaγen n tama-a ed deg tnezzut (ttjapa) n tama-a (Robson, 1984:4). Tagnit n usselmed d tukrist (complexe) ugar yerna ad d-nessiwel fell-as swadda-a.

 

Tasnilest* ed usselmed

 

*bilinguisme

 

Maca ahat, amkan anda ay nezmer ad nöer amek ay tḍurr trusit ddup ay tturaren yilsawen niḍen deg tmetti (société) netta d averbaz, imi d amkan-a ay deg yessedday udabu iles arusi gar wid ur nelli d Irusiyen. “Sdeffir ma yessutter-itt wegdud”, tarusit teqqel d iles ay yettuôettmen i welmad i wakk inelmaden ur nelli d Irusiyen deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit seg 1938 d asawen. Armi d tazwara n yiseggasen n 1970, imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast ed wakk wid n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, llan zemren ad fernen gar sin n yiberdan akk-n ad slemden arraw-nsen. Seg tama, imawlan llan zemren ad ssiggzen (mmepkin) arraw-nsen deg yiverbazen n yiles aneṣ̣li (anda asselmed yettili-d s yiles aneṣ̣li, maca tarusit lemmden-tt d tanga [matière]), nev ver yiverbazen n yiles arusi (anda akk tinegwa llan sselmaden-tent s trusit). Vas ma llan yimawlan d ilelliyen akk-n ad fernen sanda ara aznen arraw-nsen, maca aüas seg-sen ay ifehmen yessekf ad aznen arraw-nsen ver yiverbazen n yiles arusi akk-n ad rebôen deg tezrawin (etudes) deg Uwanak (ddula) asuvyatit, yerna, war ccek, yif-it ma yelmed yiwen deg uverbaz n yiles arusi ma yebva ad yeqdec deg yinurar n tussna ed teknussna (technologie).  

 

D acu kan, seg 1973 d asawen, Tadukli Tasuvyatit tuwey-d tikli ay deg tessekcam ugar tarusit deg usselmed. Deg useggas-nni, yessuffev-d udabu yiwet n tanaḍt (décret), Vef Uwanak (ddula) ed yisurifen i lmend n usselhu n usselmed n yiles ed tsekla tarusit deg yiverbazen ivelnawen (nationaux) n Tegdudyin (Républiques) n Tdukli, anda ay ”yettwaqbel ussebded n yiverbazen ixelḍen, anda ara tettusseqdac trusit ed yiles aneṣ̣li deg usselmed” (Solchanyk, 1982b:26). Asarag (Conférence) n Tackent Amezwaru, deg 1975, vef Termit (ttejpiba) n Welmad ed Usselmed n Yiles Arusi deg Yiverbazen ed deg tsuda tiεlayanin, tisnawiyin ed tid yemmuzzgen (spécialisées) n tmurt, telha-d s waüas n tvawsiwin, gar-asent asselmed n qbel n uverbaz: ”Ayver ur nbeddu nesselmad iles arusi i yigerdan seg qbel n uverbaz s ussekcem n wuraren n udiwenni (discussion) ?” (yules-it-id Solchanyk, 1982b:27). Nnig way-a, ssumren-d (proposer) ”ad yebdu usselmed n trusit seg tṣ̣eddart tamezwarut n usselmed deg wakk tigdudyin tivelnawin (républiques nationales), (Solchanyk, 1982b:27 – yuv lôal imir-nni, ala tesεa n tegdudyin ay yellan sselmadent tarusit akk-a), am wakk-n ay ssuttren daven ad rnun tisaεtin n usselmed n trusit deg yiverbazen n yiles aneṣ̣eli, ad rnun ad ledyen ugar n yiverbazen ixelḍen (yesselmaden s trusit ed yiles aneṣ̣eli) ed wugar n yiverbazen ay yettgen timsirin (dduṛus) timeṛkantiyin nev tussidin n yiles arusi. Ma d anrar n usselmed aεlayan, d Apresidium n Tkadimit n Tussniwin n Tdukli Tasuvyatit ay d-yelhan yes-s deg 1978, yerna yenna-d ”ineḍfaren (disciplines) ay yemmuzzgen (spécialisés) yerna yettwacreḍ welmad-nsen deg tsuda (institutions) n usselmed aεlayan n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, yessekf ad ttuslemden s trusit”. (Solchanyk, 1982b:30).

 

Aṭas seg yisurmar-a  (proposition) qqlen d leqwanen deg tanaḍt (décret) n 13 Tubeṛ, 1978, Γef Yisurifen i lmend n usselhu n usselmed n yiles arusi deg Tegdudyin (Républiques) n Tdukli. Leqwanen-a lhan-d ed waṭas n yinurar s wazal-nsen, gar-asen ”timerniwt n tsaεtin n temsirin (dduṛus) tussidin n trusit deg uεawed n bedḍu n tsaεtin n wahilen (programmes) n usselmed; asselmed n yineḍfaren (disciplines) yemmuzzgen (spécialisés) [deg tsuda (institutions) n usselmed aεlayan] s yiles arusi; [ed] n trusit deg usselmed n qbel n uverbaz ed uverbaz n uheyyi n yigerdan” (Solchanyk, 1982b:30). Latep n leqwanen-a deg Uzbikistan nezmer ad t-nẓer s tmerniwt n yiverbazen n yiles arusi ed yiverbazen n temsirin tussidin n trusit. Naqal, iverbazen n yiles arusi deg tmurt-a, llan 211 deg 1978, sakk-in uwḍen armi d 618 deg 1979, ma deg 1981-1982, uwḍen armi d 1050. Adabu yella yessefray ad yessiweḍ ad yeldi 2212 n yiverbazen n yiles arusi deg 1985 deg Uzbikistan (Fierman, 1985:231). Ma d iverbazen n temsirin tussidin deg tmurt-a rnan seg 400 deg 1980 arma d 676, deg 1981, ed uwḍen ver 1959 deg 1982 (Fierman, 1985:221).

 

Deg Usarag (Conférence) wis sin n Tackent (deg 1979), win umi semman Iles arusi – Tammidwa (amitié) ed wemεiwen gar yiγerfan n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, rnan ssumren-d (proposer) ugar n tvawsiwin, yerna yebda-d am wakk-a:

 

” ... ineḍfaren yemmuzzgen (disciplines spécialisées) deg yiγerbazen isadaren ed yitekniyen (professionnels et techniques) ad ttuslemden s trusit, yerna tarusit ad tettusseqdec deg usselmed deg yeswiren (niveaux) iεlayanen n yiγerbazen n usselmed amatu … tizrawin timettiyin (études sociales), asselmed amatu ed yineḍfaren yemmuzzgen deg tsuda (institutions) n usselmed aεlayan ad ttuslemnden s trusit seg useggas wis sin neγ wis tlata, yerna almad n trusit yessekf ad d-yebdu deg useggas amezwaru neγ wis sin, tisaεtin ara as-yettunekfen ad d-ttwakksent i tnegwa (matières) niḍen. Nessefray ad ilin ugar n yinelmaden, deg tsuda n usselmed aεlayan neγ asnawi ara yarun timsirin-nsen (dduṛus) neγ isenfaren-nsen (projets) n tgara n tezrawin (études), yiṛabulen-nsen ed tarramin-nsen (rapports) deg yinurar-nsen imeqranen n tezrawin s trusit” (Solchanyk, 1982b :32).

 

Iban wid ur nelli d Irusiyen ugin isurifen-a, ladva imezdaγen n tegdudyin (républiques) tibaltiyin, Islaviyen ur nelli d irusiyen (deg Ukṛanya ed Byilurusya) ed Yikuṛjiyen, yerna aṭas n tmeskanin (manifestations) ay d-yellan deg waṭas n tmiwa, am wakk-n aṭas n yiγerbazen ay d-iwten deg tsertiyin-a timaynutin. Γef ljal n tigin n medden, Musku terra citṭ aḍar γer deffir, maca ur yelli way-n ay d-yesskanen s tidet Awanak (ddula) asuvyati yejja tikli-nnes n wezraε n yiles ed yedles arusi.

 

War ccek, timerniwt n uḥettem n yiles arusi deg usselmed yekka-d seg ubeddel ay d-yellan deg yemḍanen (nombres) n yimezdaγen deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit. Deg wuddun (recensement) asuvyati n 1979, iban-d azgen seg yimezdaγen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit d Irusiyen (52,4%), yerna Isuvyatiyen ssefrayen ad neqsen Yirusiyen deg tgara n lqern, ad qqlen gar 46 ed 47% seg yimezdaγen n tmurt. Ma d imaslaḍen utrimen (analystes occidentaux) ttwalin zemren ahat ad neqsen ugar n wanect-a (Solchanyk, 1982b :24). Vef leḥsab n yisalan imaynuten, 18% seg yimezdaγen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit d Inselmen (azal n 50 n yimelyunen n yemdanen) – yerna 60% seg Yinselmen-a seg imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast. 

 

Ssebba n tmerniwt n wid ur nelli d Irusiyen deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit (ladva deg Asya Talemmast) nettat d tuggta n tlaliyin deg tlatin n yiseggasen-a ineggura. Γef umedya (lemtel), Uzbikiyen rnan s 53% gar 1959 ed 1970. Ass-a, afmiḍi (taux) n tlalit deg tmura n Asya Talemmast 34 deg 1000, anamek-nnes yugar tlata tikkal afmiḍi aγelnaw (taux national). Imassanen ssefrayen deg useggas n 2000, yiwen n wegrud γef sin ara d-ilalen deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit, ad yili d Ineslem. Ass-nni, 40% seg wakk inubiyen (adolescents) n Tdukli Tasuvyatit ad ilin ur d Uṛufiyen, yerna amur ameqran deg-sen ad ilin seg Asya Talemmast (Allardyce, 1987:15). Ilmeẓyen-a d nitni ay itteqqalen d ”iqeddacen ed d iserdasen” deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit, yerna mi ara nxemmem tidyanin ay yeḍran seg melmi kan deg Afγanistan ed Iṛan zemrent ad awḍent γer Asya Talemmast Tasuvyatit, ad nefhem ayγer ay “ugaden yemḍebbren isuvyatiyen ad qqlen Yirusiyen d tidersi (minorité) deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit” (Solchanyk, 1982a:116). Ma yella ur zemmren ad qqimen d nitni ay d tigti (majorité) deg tmurt, yessekf ad yeqqim, meqqar, yiles ed yedles-nsen d nitni ay yernan wiyaḍ deg tmurt-a. Ay-a yenna-t-id Filin s lejheṛ: “D imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast ay yesεan aṭas akk n yigerdan ur nuwiḍ γer leεmeṛ n uγerbaz (ed wid ay yuwḍen γer leεmeṛ-a) deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit, ugar n yimezdaγen n tmiwa niḍen n tmurt, γef way-a, tamussni n yiles arusi s yisem-nnes d iles agraγlan (d win ay yes ara ssawalen yeγlanen [nations] gar-asen) d ay-n ay iḥaren” (yules-it-id Solchanyk, 1982b:24).

 

Tagrayt

 

Mi ara nemmuqqel s telqey γer tsertit (politique) tasuvyatit n yilsawen, ad aγ-d-iban Musku ur tettnadi ad terr imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast d Isuvyatiyen kan, wanag tettnadi, ahat, ad ten-terr d Irusiyen. Asselmed n tγuri ed tira d ay-n yeldin abrid i way-a.  Sakk-in, abeddel n ugemmay (alphabet), assekcem n tira ed yimeslayen irusiyen deg yilsawen n tmura-a ed tmerniwt n yemdanen isnilsen (bilingues, ssawalen iles-nsen ed trusit) d ay-n ay yettusqedcen i lmend n wawwaḍ γer yeswi aneggaru n Yisuvyatiyen, win n ussefsi n yimezdaγen n Asya Talemmast deg yedles arusi.  Γas ma qedcen Yisuvyatiyen aṭas i lmend n way-a, mazal llan yemgerraden imeqranen gar Yirusiyen ed yimezdaγen n Asya Talemmast. Ur yelli waṭas n wemxalaḍ gar snat-a n trebbaε yerna citṭ kan seg Yirusiyen ay yeddren deg Asya Talemmast ay iεerrḍen ad lemden ilsawen ay ssawalen deg tama-a, yerna ay-a d ay-n ay yejjan aṭas n medden d-ccetkin seg Yirusiyen. Nnig way-a, xemsa-nni n yiγerfan (ccuεub) imeqranen n Asya Talemmast bdan ttagaden γef yidelsan-nsen ed ttxemmimen γef wamek ara ten-ḥerzen ed ad ten-snernin akk-n ad ḥudden iman-nsen seg tikli n Uwanak (ddula) ay yebγan ad ten-yerr d Irusiyen.

 

Deg tegnit tukrist (complexe) am tin n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, yewεeṛ ad d-nini d acu ay izemren ad yeḍru deg yimal (futur). Kra n yimaslaḍen utrimen (analystes occidentaux) nnan-d “lemmer ur yettili usurif n tγara (qualité) (akk-n ay teḍra deg wussan anda ay sseγlin lbaṭel n uqiṣ̣er [tsar] … ilsawen n yiγerfan (ccuεub) ur nelli d Irusiyen deg Tdukli Tasuvyatit la tteddun γer wengar” (Bruchis, 1984:14). Wiyaḍ ttwalin: “ma tkemmel akk-a, tisertiyin (politiques) tisuvyatiyin n wesnerni ed yilsawen ad yessiweḍ Asya Talemmast γer unnerni udmis (économique), yerna imezdaγen n tama-a ad ssnen mliḥ ama d tarusit, ama d ilsawen-nsen iyemmaten” (Shorish, 1984:46). Maca wiyaḍ ttwalin “timerniwt n tesnilest (bilinguisme) γer Yinselmen Isuvyatiyen ur yelli d ay-n ara ten-yerren d Irusiyen. Wanag tamussni n trusit d ay-n ara yejjen Inselmen Isuvyatiyen ad sεun amkan ijehden ugar akk-n ad ssuttren izerfan i lmend n usseddu n tγawsiwin-nsen i yiman-nsen ed ad qqlen d iγlanen (nations) ikemlen” (Henze, 1984:127). Imezdaγen n Asya Talemmast ggten, yerna weṛten-d idles d aqbur, d win ay ibedden acḥal n leqrun deg wudem n waṭas n yidelsan iberṛaniyen yerna yeqqim yejhed, dγa yettban-aγ-d d awezγi ad jjen iman-nsen ad fsin deg yedles arusi.

 

 

Sγur Mark Dickens

Tasuqilt: Omar Mouffok

 

Taγbalut (source): http://www.oxuscom.com/lang-policy.htm

Sqerdcem amagrad-a deg wenmager-nneγ:

http://imedyazen.forumpro.fr/forum.htm


 
Win yeslan ad yini i wiyad'
 

 
Arut-agh-d, gret-d tamawin-nwen, neqqar lâeslama i s kra n tebrat ara d agh-d-yawd'en sghur-wen. 
 
Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad
16006, Alger, Algérie

 <<< Qqel γer Uun 17


Akk ụṭ̣̣ṭ̣unen


 Qqel γer usebter n umager

Qqel d asawen

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
Association culturelle Imedyazen
BP 129 Poste Didouche Mourad
16006- Alger - Algérie
Tel. (+213) (0) 64 77 07 37