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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

Utt'un 3
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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad, 16006, Alger, Algťrie
imedyazen89@yahoo.fr

Tabrat n Yimedyazen

Taghmist n Tiddukla - Utt'un 3

Tigejdit :

Azul fell-awen ay atmaten d teysetmatin,

At'as seg watmaten-nnegh si tmiwa timazighin nnid'en (Merr'uk, Icawiyen, Libya), ay d agh-d-ittarun s tmazight, akken ad agh-gen ifadden u ad agh-d-sfer'h'en d akken fehmen ayen d asen-nura, xas akken yura s tentala ay nesseqdac nekni, taqbaylit. Amsefham ger n Yimazighen s tmazight yezmer ad d-yili, anect-a at'as n yimassanen ay d-yemmeslayen fell-as, u gar-asen Salem Chaker. D acu kan, anect-a yeh'wadj digh citt' n leqdic si tama-nnegh, nekni s Yimazighen. Yugh lh'al, zik-nni, asmi wer‚ad d agh-d-kciment tutlayin tiberr'aniyin, nella nekni s Yimazighen nettmeslay yiwet kan n tutlayt, xas tes‚a tantalyin, llan lejdud-nnegh n tama-ya zemren ad msefhamen d wid n tama-yadi. Anect-a yessbanay-it-id wemcabi ay ttemcabint tentalyin-nnegh ass-a deg wat'as n lumur', gar-asen amawal (vocabulaire), tajerr'umt, inzan, timucuha, atg. D acu kan, asmi ay bdant keccment-d tutlayin idjehden gher Tmazgha, at'as n tmiwa ay d-igezmen ghef tiyad', u d lqella n unermis (contact) ger n Yimazighen ay yerran tutlayt-nnegh temgerrad si tama gher tayed' akken tella ass-a, alammi yughal yew‚er' ghef Wemz'abi ad yefhem Aqbayli, negh Acawi ad yefhem Acelh'i. Ughalen warraw n Tmazgha, akken ad msefhamen wagar-asen, terra-ten tmara ad sseqdacen tutlayt taberr'anit. Ass-a, mi akka ay nuki d yiman-nnegh wi gh-ilan, neldi-d allen-nnegh ghef tnettit-nnegh (identitť) u nebgha ad d-nessider idles d tutlayt-nnegh, at'as deg-negh ara yessaramen ad dduklen Yimazighen i tikkelt nnid'en, u ad d-tughal tegmat-nni yellan gar-asen. Yugh lh'al tutlayt d yiwet si tgejda ay d agh-yesduklen, yernu ur nezmir ad nerwel fell-as imi ay tecrek akk imdanen ay d-yeqqaren d akken d Imazighen ay llan. D acu kan, ur tezmir tutlayt-a ad teddukel ma yella ad neqqim dima kan a nesseqdac tutlayt taberr'anit akken ad nettmeslay wagar-anegh, am akken ur tezmir digh ad teddukel ma yella ara nettkel kan ghef leqdic n yinagmayen (laboratoires) imi tutlayin n unagma y werdjin rbih'ent. Ihi, ayen ara d-yerren tamazight d ttawil n wemsefham ger n Yimazighen d asseqdec-yines deg wennar akk d wembaddel n tmusni ghef tmazight  (yernu akken nu‚a s tmazight) ger n tegrawin timazighin ay d-mazal ddrent ass-a. Ur ilaq ara ad nkukrut ad nettemyaru s tmazight d watmaten-nnegh n tmiwa nnid'en, imi d anect-a ara d agh-yeddjen ad d-nissin ayen ssnen, u ad asen-nesselmed ayen nessen. Lemmer dgha ad tughal tmazight d ttawil n teywalt (communication) ger n tegrawin timazighin, anect-a ad agh-yeddj "ad d-nemsel" yiwet n tmazight tamaynut, tamazdayt (commune), tin ara d agh-yesduklen merr'a, tin i yes ara nemsefham merr'a, u anect-a yezmer ad d-yili mebla ma negrent tentalyin yellan ass-a, imi seg-sent ara d-tettagem tmazight-nni "yedduklen" ara d-yilin s wazekka, ma yebgha R'ebbi. I lmend digh n wanect-a, yal tarba‚t iqeddcen ghef kra n tantala ad teqdec ghef wamek ara tt-tesselmed i wid yettmeslayen tantalyin nnid'en, imi anect-a ad yessishel mlih' a msefham ger n Yimazighen. D acu kan, ass-a ilaq ad nesseghli yiwen n u‚ekkur (obstacle) d ameqqran : d tuqqna n wallen ghef wuguren-agi. Dgha ah'urif amenzu ay ilaq ad t-nexdem netta d assaki d wesh'ulfu n medden akken ad fken ugar azal i tutlayt-nsen.

Qqaren-as : Agdud mebla idles am wemdan mebla iles.
Nekni ad as-nini : Agdud mebla iles d agdud ur nes‚i idles.       

Imedyazen

 


Amezruy n tutlayt talitwanit

Aqeddem : ad'ris ay d-nefren ass-a i watmaten-nnegh d win d-yettmeslayen ghef tutlayt talitwanit d wamek tennugh mgal n umennekcam aberr'ani akken ad tidir ar ass-a. Agdud alitwani ay d-isbedden tamurt i yiman-is di leqrun n Tallit Talemmast (Moyen-Age), yem‚awan akk d Pulunya si 1385 d asawen akken ad yerr asseh'r'es (colonisation) arusi. D acu kan, asmi ay d-zzin ye‚dawen si yal tama ghef Litwanya, teddukel tmurt-a akk d Pulunya u tughal d ah'ric seg-s di 1569. D anect-n ay yeldin tawwurt i yedles aberr'ani ad d-yekcem tamurt-a, yernu inesbughar Ilitwaniyen (tiserkam tiburjwaziyin) fkan afus deg wanect-a, imi dindin kan ddjan tutlayt d yedles-nsen yernu ughalen ttzuxxun s yedles apuluni. Di 1795, ah'ric meqqren si Litwanya tewwi-t Rrus, dgha seg yimir-n ay bdan Yirusiyen tthuddun akk ayen d-iqqimen seg yidles d tutlayt ilitwaniyen. D acu kan, xas a‚daw yedjhed, xas amer'kanti yefka afus, agdud alitwani afellah', igellil, ur yeqbil ad isemmeh' di tutlayt-is. Zzin-as-d ye‚dawen si yal tama, maca netta yeddem tutlayt-is d asafu i yes ara yewwet ghef tnettit-is (identitť) akk d uzarug (indťpendance) n tmurt-is. Di 1990, asmi ay tewwi Litwanya azarug-is, yufa-d lh'al tutlayt-is mazal-itt tedder,  xas akken yesse‚ya-tt zzman, u tewjed akken ad tebnu tamurt. Akken ad tissinem amezruy negh tadyant yessewhamen, tamkerra (miracle) ay d-yed'ran akk d tlitwanit, nefren-awen-d tlata n tukkas (passages) seg yed'risen yemgerraden. Yiwen newwi-t-id seg yiwen wemd'iq n tutlayt talitwanit, yettmeslay-d ghef wamek tekcem tlitwanit s annar n tira, ma d snat tukkas nnid'en, newwi-tent-id seg yiwen wedlis ifazen, "Amezruy n Tutlayt Talitwanit", (Mokslo Ir Enciklopediju Leidykla - The History of the Lithuanian Language), yura-t-id Dr. Zigmas Zinkevicius, u yeffegh-d di Vilnius di 1996. Adlis-agi nettwali-t d yiwen seg yedlisen ifazen akk deg umezruy n tutlayin. Yettmeslay-d ghef umennugh ay d-wwin Yilitwaniyen n tserkam n wadda (basses classes) n tmetti akken ad d-ssukksen tutlayt-nsen ay yellan d ajgu alemmas n tnettit-nsen, d ajgu n we‚rur n yedles-nsen, d ayen i ten-yessawd'en ad d-kksen tamurt-nsen i uberr'ani. Nessaram d akken taghuri-yagi ad d-tili di lfayda n watmaten-nnegh akk d tin n tutlayt-nnegh. Afud igerrzen.  

Ms. Omar MOUFFOK
Amaru Amatu

Si lqern wis 16 gher lqern wis 18 :

Tira n tutlayt talitwanit :

Ad'ris-agi nekkes-it-id seg wemd'iq n Tiddukla Tadelsant Tasamugtit n Litwanya
(Samogitian Cultural Association Editorial Board)
www.mch.mii.lt

LitwanyaAt'as ay teqqim tutlayt talitwanit ur tes‚i ara tira-s i yiman-is, imi alammi d lqern wis 16 ay d-yeffegh wedlis amenzu s tutlayt-a. Asmi ay d-sbedden Yilitwaniyen tamurt-nsen, s kra n tebratin ay llan ttarun-tent i tmura n Turr'uft tutrimt (Europe occidentale) llan ttarun-tent s tutlayt talitt'unit (tutlayt n Litt'unya, d tamurt ay iqerben gher Litwanya), ma sdaxel n tmurt, llan Yilitwaniyen sseqdacen tabyilurusit taqburt (ancien biťlorusse) n lqern wis 14, ay yellan d yiwet si tentalyin n teslavit taqburt. Ger n lqern wis 15 d wis 16, tejme‚-d Litwanya tasekla meqqren s tutlayt tabyilurusit, [imi iselghayen-is imens'aben -documents officiels- merr'a llan uran s tutlayt-a], dgha nezmer ad naf deg-s iselghayen n Uwanek (documents d'Etat), isud'af (leqwanin) akk d yiz'uyar (statuts) ilitwaniyen n lqern wis 16, tasekla tazernant (littťrature polťmique), idlisen i deg llant tikta icuban tid n "Tallit n Teftilin" (Renaissanc e), atg. Am akken ay tughal temdint n Vilnius di lqern wis 16 d tamaneght n ussuffegh n yedlisen.

Asmi ay d-yekcem ddin amsih'i di lqern wis 14 d wis 15 gher Litwanya, yughal yedles d tutlayt ilitwaniyen ttidiren deg umihi (danger) imi ay ten-id-yekcem yedles apuluni. Ihaggaren (nobles) d yimer'kantiyen ipuluniyen ‚erd'en ad gen akk ayen umi zemren akken ad h'ettmen tutlayt tapulunit, agemmay-nsen akk d wansayen-nsen (traditions) ghef Yilitwaniyen. Ma d ihaggaren akk d yimer'kantiyen n Litwanya bdan cwit', cwit', ttaddamen tutlayt d wansayen ipuluniyen. Dgha bdan a ttseth'in s las'el-nsen alitwani yernu ughalen a qqaren i yiman-nsen "gentle lituanus, natione polonus" (d Ilitwaniyen di las'el, d Ipuluniyen di tghelnawt -nationalitť). Ghur yimer'kantiyen-agi, awal "Alitwani" yella yeqqen kan gher kra n "tama taklunghant" (rťgion gťographique), ur yelli d isem n wegdud wala d win n weghlan (nation). Ihaggaren akk d yimer'kantiyen ur llin ara ttmeslayen talitwanit yernu llan h'eqren-tt am nettat, am wansayen ilitwaniyen. Taklizt (ťglise) takat'ulit tella-d d allal idjehden i wezra‚ n yedles apuluni imi ala kan citt'ah' n yemrabd'en n Yir'umyen ay yellan ttmeslayen talitwanit. Ma deg wayen yerzan medden s umata, talitwanit llan ttmeslayen-tt ala kan yifellah'en akk d yimer'kantiyen ur nes‚i iglamen (privilŤges). Yugh lh'al, takufd'a (aliťnation) i deg ghlin lh'ekkam akk d yimer'kantiyen Ilitwaniyen tesseb‚ed-iten ghef tutlayt, ghef wansayen akk d yedles n wegdud alitwani, d anect-a ay d-yeglan s twaghit ay ih'uzan idles aghelnaw alitwani u teddja-t yesbek ach'al n leqrun, ur yeddi gher sdat. D anect-a ay yeddjan anekcum n tsekla talitwanit s annar n tira akk d ussuffegh n yedlisen s tutlayt-a ad ‚ett'len yernu ula asmi ay d-yella waya, lumur' a teddunt kan s taz'eyt.

D azra‚ n tikta n Usemmeskel (Rťforme) di Litwanya di lqern wis 16 ay yeddjan adlis amezwaru s tutlayt talitwanit ad d-yeffegh. Di 1547, yessuffegh-d Martynas Mazvydas adlis n Temsirin n ddin s tlitwanit (catťchisme), "Catechismvsa Prasty Szadey", di temdint n Konigsberg, di Prusya Tacerqit [d tama iqerben gher Litwanya]. Adlis-agi ur t-iwala ara bab-is d timsirin kan di ddin wanag yella yebgha-t digh ad yili d "aselmad" n yimez'yanen i tghuri akk d ccna n tezlatin timsih'iyin. Adlis-agi yedda-d deg-s ugemmay alitwani, abacid (abťcťdaire), kra n yilugan n llsas i tghuri n tlitwanit akk d kra n yilugan n tjerr'umt. Ur i‚ett'el ara wedlis-agi d'efren-t-id yedlisen nnid'en n ddin ay d-yeffghen di Litwanya.

Akken ad teh'bes azra‚ n tikta n Usemmeskel, tufa-d teklizt takat'ulit iman-is -nettat yellan tesseqdac kan talatinit akk d tpulunit- tettuh'ettem ad tesseqdac talitwanit akken ad d-tessuffegh yis-s idlisen n ddin. Dgha, di 1597, yessuffegh-d udabu [apuluni] n Vilnius yiwen n wedlis n temsirin n ddin, u yerna-d di 1599 adlis nnid'en di ddin, isem-is Postilla, yessuqel-iten-id Mikalojus Dauksa di sin yid-sen gher tlitwanit.

Adlis n Postilla yes‚a azal meqqren deg umezruy n tlitwanit, maci ghef lxet'bat yellan deg-s wanag ghef Tezzwart (introduction) ay d as-d-yura Dauksa, i deg ay d-yessefhem d akken tutlayt tayemmat (langue maternelle) tes‚a azal meqqren at'as yernu yeccetka-d ghef tegnit n th'eqranit i deg tella tettidir tutlayt tayemmat di Litwanya :

"Ulac aghlan (ldjens) abujehli (ignorant) yernu ameh'qur di ddunit am win ara yesr'uh'en tlata n tghawsiwin i yes d-ilul : tamurt-is, ansayen-is akk d tutlayt-is. Aghlan ur yezmir ad yidir s tband'ilt (fertilitť) n wakal wala s ccbah'a n yicett'id'en-is, ur yezmir ad yidir s ccbah'a n tmurt-is wala s ldjehd n temdinin-is akk d tghermin-yines (ch‚teaux), wanag aghlan yettidir s weh'raz akk d usseqdec n tutlayt-is ay yellan d tigejdit n weghlan yernu d nettat ay yessedjhaden tighariwin-is (qualitťs), tessedjhad amsefham ger n warraw-is akk d tayri d tegmat gar-asen. Tutlayt tayemmat d nettat ay yettcuddun s tayri arraw n weghlan wagar-asen, d nettat ay d tayemmat n tdukli, d tayemmat n wazalen igharimen (valeurs civiques), d ta‚essast n tmurt. Be‚det ghef tutlayt-nwen, ad d-tafem iman-nwen tbe‚dem ghef wemsefham, ghef tdukli akk d nneyya yes'fan d wayen akk yeqqnen s anect-a ! Be‚det ghef tutlayt-nwen, ad d-tafem iman-nwen tessensem tafat n yit'ij deg yigenni, td'eggre m ddunit di tt'lam u tes‚erqem-as abrid, tengham tudert u terram-d arway d ucewwel deg wemkan-is ! Mi d-qqaregh anect-a, ur d-qsidegh ara d akken ilaq ad nergel abrid i welmad n tutlayin tiberr'aniyin, wanag iswi-yinu awh'id netta ad d-sseknegh tah'eqranit, xas ini-as ankar' ay nenker' tutlayt-nnegh talitwanit. Ttmennigh di R'ebbi ad tmeyyzem u ad d-takim yiwwas si lefsad-agi ! Ma d nekk si tama-w, ad fer'h'egh imi ara iligh ttekkagh, s wedlis-agi amect'uh', deg usaki n wegdud-iw akken ad ih'emmel, ad yeh'rez u ad yesnerni tutlayt-nnegh tayemmat".

Awal-agi ay d-nuder yesskanay-d tugdi n kra n medden di Litwanya ghef wayen yes‚an azal meqqren akk ay tezmer ad t-tes‚u tmurt : tutlayt-is, yernu xas akken tella Litwanya tettidir di tallit n tkufd'a (aliťnation) taberr'anit, llan medden ay ih'ulfan belli maci akken ay ilaq ad ddunt lumur', ur ilaq ara ad fken afus di tutlayt-nsen.

Di 1629, yeffegh-d yiwen n umawal n tlitwanit, s tpulunit akk d tlatinit, yura-t-id Konstantinas Sirvydas. Tajerr'umt n tlitwanit tamezwarut ay yuran s tlatinit yura-tt-id Daniel Klein u teffegh-d di Konigsberg, deg useggas n 1653. At'as seg yedlisen ay d-yeffghen di tallit-nni ay ih'etten (insister) ghef wazal n tutlayt tayemmat yernu fkant digh azal i wezra‚ n tira n tlitwanit. D acu kan, nesh'issif imi leqdicat-agi llan qlilit yernu ur ssawd'en ara ad d-ldin tawwurt i umussu (mouvement) idjehden i lmend wesnerni n yedles alitwani. Talitwanit yuran tughal simmal keccmen-tt-id wawalen n tpulunit yernu qlilit wid ay d-yelhan d uzzizdeg akk d usselhu-yines. Lqern wis 18 nezmer ad as-nsemmi d tallit  i deg tughal tlitwanit yuran d tigellilt, d tallit i deg tenqes at'as ussuffegh n yedlisen s tutlayt-a. (...) 

Si 1795 alammi d lqern wis 20 :

[Nekkes-it-id seg wedlis n Dr. Zigmas Zinkevicius, "History of the Lithuanian Language", 1996]. 

Mbe‚d ma tettwabd'a tkunfidir'alit Talitwanit-Tapulunit i tikkelt tis tlata [1795], ah'ric ameqqran seg wakal i deg yella yettidir wegdud alitwani is'ah'-as-d i Rusya, di lweqt i deg ala kan d tama ay d-yuzgan akin i wasif n Nemunas (tin umi ara semmin sakin tama n Suvalkai) ay s-d-is'ah'en Prusya [d tamurt yettmeslayen talmanit]. Tasertit ay d'efren lh'ekkam di snat-agi n tmiwa tella d tamesbat'lit: deg weh'ric arusi, d tutlayt tarusit ay yettuh'ettmen ghef wegdud, ma deg weh'ric n Prusya, d talmanit i yes bghan ad d-sxedmen medden. Mbe‚d n Weswir n Vienna (CongrŤs de Vienne) di 1815, ula d tama ay d-yuzgan akin i wasif n Nemunas tettunefk-as i Rusya, d acu kan, yufa-d lh'al beddlent kra n lumur' di tama-nni. Abeddel ameqqren akk ay d-yed'ran dinna netta d tukksa n temsagelt (fťodalisme) di tallit n Napolťon. D anect-nni ay yeddjan ad d-tekker tmegzi (intelligentsia) talitwanit ay d-yeffghen seg yifellah'en, di tama-ya. D acu kan, tama yellan s ddaw n udabu arusi ur d-yed'ri deg-s kra n ubeddel, bitt d annerni ay yennerna deg-s lbat'el n temsagelt.

¬erd'en ad kksen Yirusiyen isem n Litwanya si ccfawat n medden, dgha semman-as Severn-Zapadskij Kraj [asun n Ugafa-Utrim = territoire du Nord-Ouest]. Llan qqaren-d d akken tama-ya seg wasmi ay s-d-yecfa zzman ay tella d ah'ric si Rrus, d acu kan, wwin-tt Yipuluniyen u zer‚en deg-s idles-nsen, deg mi ay yella ilaq ad d-tughal d tarusit "tikkelt nnid'en". Irusiyen ur sen-gin ara akk ccan i Yilitwaniyen, amzun le‚mer' akk xliqen di ddunit. D acu kan, Litwanya ur tt-yenghi ara uh'ettem n tutlayt tarusit, yernu tkemmel tettaddam tutlayt akk d yedles apuluni ugar n wakken tella zik-nni. Imi yiwen n we‚daw ay s‚an, dduklen Yipuluniyen d Yilitwaniyen mgal n Rrus u msegman akken ad tt-qablen. D acu kan, anect-a yeddja Ilitwaniyen ad rren di rrif takti-nsen n azarug n Litwanya, dgha ulac win d-yezgan mgal n wezra‚ n tutlayt tapulunit di Litwanya. Ma d "Ipuluniyen" n Vilnius, llan kkaten ghef les'lah' akk d tlelli n Pulunya ugar n Yipuluniyen n Varsovie. Tarist'uqrat'it talitwanit yellan tettmeslay tapulunit tettekka mlih' deg wesnerni n yedles apuluni, imi ay d-kkan seg-s at'as n yimura (ťcrivains) am Adam Mickiewicz, Julius Slowacki, Ludwik Kondratowicz, Wladyslaw Syrokomla, atg. D acu kan, xas wigi merr'a uran s tpulunit, taneffut (rr'uh') n tsekla-nsen tella d talitwanit. Ala kra kan n yimura n tmegzi n tallit-nni ay yefkan azal i tutlayt-nsen tanes'lit, am Ksaveras Logusas/Lohusz, Kazimieras Kantrimas/Kontrym akk d Leonas Uvainis, d acu kan wigi, ur sqedcen ara talitwanit di tsekla, wanag gan kan fell-as tizrawin (ťtudes).

Cwit', cwit', bdan Yilitwaniyen at yedles apuluni (wid akken yellan qqaren-as "gente Lituani, Natione Poloni" - Ilitwaniyen di las'el, d Ipuluniyen di tghelnawt-) a ttxemmimen ghef lebni n weghlan (nation) alitwani ara yes‚un tapulunit d tutlayt-is. Ala kan d ifellah'en-nni ur nettu ara tutlayt talitwanit ay imen‚en si tsertit n wezra‚ n tutlayt d yedles apuluni. Dgha, zzin-asen merr'a wid yebghan ad tili tpulunit d tutlayt n tmurt akken ad qd'un fell-asen. Imrabd'en n Yir'umyen llan qqaren-d d akken R'ebbi ur ifehhem ara talitwanit, dgha tiz'illa akk d dde‚wat ilaq ad d-ilint s tpulunit, yernu llan ula d imrabd'en ay sen-yugin i medden ad gen aqirri (confession) s tlitwanit. ¬erd'en yifellah'en ad ttz'allan s tpulunit, d acu kan, ur llin ara fehhmen tutlayt-a. Llan zzluguyen (sse‚wajen) awalen n tz'illa akk d dde‚wat alammi ay yughal wayen d-qqaren ur yettwafham ara. Deg ugherbaz, yella yegdel ad mmeslayen s tlitwanit u la di tesgunfut (rťcrťation). Ibalmuden ara yemmeslayen s tutlayt-nsen llan ttqasan-ten yiselmanden, yernu win ara d-yettuzenzen yemmeslay talitwanit, ad as-‚ellqen "tagalist n wekruked'" (plaque de la honte) di temgerd't-is, yernu akken ara tt-yettawi alamma d asmi ara yett'ef ula d netta abalmud nnid'en ara yettmeslayen s tlitwanit akken as-tt-i‚elleq. 

Imi ay tettwah'qer tlitwanit di kul amkan (deg wakal n yimer'kantiyen, di teklizt, deg ugherbaz, atg.), jerh'en yifellah'en di tneffut-nsen (tar'wih't), dgha ughalen ttseth'in s tutlayt-nsen tanes'lit yernu ssinifen-as, ur tt-ttmeslayen ara di berr'a, deg yizenqan negh anda akk ay zemren ad asen-slen medden. Dgha ughalen ttwalin-tt d tutlayt kan n tenwalt (cuisine) akk d udaynin ! Ma d tutlayt tapulunit tella d tutlayt umi meqqer ccan, d tin n zzux, dgha ughalen ughen medden tanumi ssekcamen-d awalen n tpulunit deg wawal-nsen, mi ara ttmeslayen talitwanit. Llan ttxemmimen d akken awalen-agi "ttcebbih'en" yernu "sselhayen" talitwanit. D acu kan, seg wakken llan sseqdacen at'as n  wawalen n tpulunit, alammi ay kecmen wat'as seg-sen gher tlitwanit, ughen az'ar deg-s. At'as seg wawalen-agi ur terri ara tmara ad d-ttwared'len si tpulunit, imi talitwanit tes‚a at'as n wawalen ay ten-imutlen deg unamek.

Dgha, tughal tlitwanit tazedgant ur nezmir ad tt-naf ala kan deg yimukan ay ibe‚den ghef temdinin, ghef wakal n yimer'kantiyen akk d teklizin, imi imukan-agi merr'a tekcem-itent tutlayt tapulunit, yernu d ayen yessewhamen ma nenna-d d akken simmal yettili wemkan ur yewwid' ara ghur-s welmud (leqraya), simmal tettili tlitwanit ay ttmeslayen deg-s d tin is'ehh'an yernu zeddiget.

Mbe‚d n tnekriwin n 1831 d 1863, yexdem unabad' (gouvernement) arusi akken ara yeh'bes azra‚ n yedles d tutlayt tapulunit di Litwanya, u ad d-yerr deg wemkan-nsen idles d tutlayt tarusit. Mbe‚d ma yerna ighewwaghen (rebelles) ay d-yekkren mgal n Rrus, ye‚zem umesnabad'-amatu (gouverneur-gťnťral) arusi Mixail Muraviev ad yeqd'e‚ idles d tutlayt tapulunit si Litwanya, ay yeddren ugar n 400 n yiseggasen di tmurt-a. Yeghleq akk igherbazen ipuluniyen u yeldi deg wemkan-nsen igherbazen irusiyen. Si tama nnid'en yesnerna Muraviev amd'an (nombre) n Yirusiyen ay izedghen di Litwanya, imi ay yella yettawi-d imdanen seg yimukan ibe‚den akk di Rusya u yettak-asen ixammen d wayla n wid ay d-yekkren mgal n Rrus. Ma d ineggura-yagi, tenfa-ten Rusya si tmurt-nsen. Ye‚red' Muraviev ad yekkes ula d agemmay-nni alatini yes‚an 300 n yiseggasen seg wasmi ara t-tesseqdac tlitwanit u ad yerr tutlayt-a tettaru s ugemmay arusi, u yenna-d d akken agemmay alatini ilaq ad yettwakkes imi ay yella d agemmay n "Yipuluniyen". Dgha yefka lamer' akken ad ughalen yedlisen merr'a n tutlayt talitwanit ad d-teffghen s ugemmay asirili (arusi), d acu kan medden ur llin ara ttaghen-d idlisen-agi yernu llan sserghayen idlisen ay d asen-d-yettunefken bat'el. Akken ad ih'ettem medden ad ghren tutlayt-nsen s ugemmay aberr'ani, yegdel (interdire) Muraivev assuffegh n tedlisen s tlitwanit yuran s ugemmay alatini. S wanect-a, yeqd'e‚-yasen tuffgha i yedlisen merr'a n tlitwanit, d ayen werdjin ned'ri deg umezruy n wemd'al aneghrum (civilisť). D acu kan, anect-a ur t-qbilen Yilitwaniyen yernu bdan ssuffughen-d idlisen di lberr'ani yernu llan yemsettiyen n yedlisen (trafiquants de livres), wid umi qqaren s tlitwanit "knygne iai", ssekcamen-d s tuffra idlisen-agi gher Litwanya u ferrqen-ten ghef yemzenza (commerÁants). Akka ay d-tebda tallit n id "knygne iai", d ayen werdjin nwala di kra n tmurt nnid'en di Turr'uft (Europe) n tallit-nni. Agdal n yedl isen s tlitwanit yel‚eb ddur' d ameqqran deg umezruy n weghlan alitwani, idles-yines akk d tutlayt-is. Ayen akken akk yexdem Muraviev akken ad d-yerr idles arusi deg wemkan n yedles apuluni di Litwanya ur yessawed' s acemma : s kra xedmen yimestulen (gendarmes) akken ad h'ebsen imsettiyen n yedlisen ur yenfi‚ ara, imi idlisen s tutlayt tapulunit kemmlen keccmen-d gher Litwanya yernu imzenza n yedlisen llant ttcur'ent th'una-nsen seg-sen.

Tazrirt (influence) tapulunit ur tenqis ara wanag tennerna ugar. Lbat'el ay yella yes‚edday-it unabad' arusi ghef Yilitwaniyen, yesnerna aqerreb-nsen gher tutlayt tapulunit, xas ma yella maci s anect-nni ay tt-iqas.

Xas talitwanit tettwakkes si tesnawit (lycťe) yernu tella a tettwakkas cwit', cwit' seg yigherbazen imenza, simmal ara ttnernin yifellah'en ay yellan lemmden-tt di tmurt, imi wigi llan ‚ewwlen ad issinen ad ghren u ad arun. Asmi ay d asen-iga ubesku (ťvÍque) Motiejus Valanius ifadden akken ad lemden tira d tghuri n tutlayt-nsen, bdan yifellah'en ad d-tgen s tuffra igherbazen imect'ah' n tutlayt talitwanit, u llan yiselmaden (umi qqaren "direktoriai") teddun si tferka gher tayed' akken ad sseghren medden (taxedda‚t!) [akken llan ttwalin anect-a Yirusiyen]. Igherbazen-agi semman-asen s tlitwanit "vargo mokyla" negh "igherbazen n lh'if". Yugh lh'al di tallit-nni, tt'uqqten yigherbazen-agi n tmurt di Litwanya alammi ara ilin ‚eddan i wanect yellan d imdanen irusiyen di tmurt-a.

Anect-a yesskanay-d d akken ifellah'en llan simmal ara d-ttakin d akken s‚an aghlan yernu ‚ewwlen ad nnaghen akken ad ten-id-ughalen yizerfan-nsen u ad ten-id-tughal tutlayt-nsen tanes'lit. Dgha at'as n Yilitwaniyen ay yellan ur ttaddjan ara igerdan-nsen ad kecmen s agherbaz n Uwanek (Etat) arusi alamma lemden ad ghren u ad arun talitwanit deg yigherbazen-agi uffiren. Yugh lh'al, di tallit-nni, Ilitwaniyen yessnen ad ghren u ad arun llan tlata yiberdan kter' n Yirusiyen yessnen anect-a. Xas akken yettwagdel ussuffegh n yedlisen s tlitwanit, amd'an n yedlisen ilitwaniyen yennerna s wat'as, yernu ula d isental-nsen (sujets) beddlen imi ay yughal umur ameqqran deg yedlisen n tutlayt talitwanit yekkat-d di tsertit tarusit [azal n 80% seg-sen].

Ma di tlisa tigmud'anin (ticerqiyin) n tama i deg yella yettidir wegdud alitwani [d tama ay iqerben gher Byilurusya], xas ‚erd'en kra ad zer‚en dinna tutlayt tapulunit, ur ssawd'en ara imi di tama-yagi, d tutlayt tabyilurusit ay yes‚an tazrirt (influence). Tutlayt tapulunit tettusexdam kan d tutlayt n welmud di tama-ya, di lweqt i deg agdud yesseqdac snat n tutlayin : talitwanit akk d yebyilurusit. Yugh lh'al, tabyilurusit umi llan qqaren Yebyilurusiyen "tutlayt timserreh't" tella tif talitwanit deg wat'as n tghawsiwin. Imi ay tella d tutlayt taslavit, teqreb gher tpulunit akk d trusit, tella tebyilurusit tenfe‚ medden. Win yessnen tutlayt-a yezmer ad yefhem s tefses amrabed' n yir'umyen negh bab n wakal yettmeslayen s tpulunit negh digh lh'ekkam yettmeslayen s trusit. Xas Pulunya teb‚ed ghef tama-yagi, maca Byilurusya teqreb-itt-id imi akal n Yilitwaniyen yella yes‚a tilisa d win n Yebyilurusiyen. Ihi, imi ay ttmez'ran kullas d yinaragen-nsen (ldjiran), at'as n Yilitwaniyen ay d-ilemden tabyilurusit, am akken tutlayt tabyilurusit teddem at'as n wawalen si tlitwanit u qqimen-d deg-s ar ass-a. D acu kan, anabad' arusi yexdem akken ara yezre‚ tutlayt tabyilurusit deg Yilitwaniyen n tama-ya, imi ay yella yettwali tabyilurisit d tantala kan (dialecte) n tutlayt tarusit.

(...)

Di tallit n Tutt'fa (Occupation) taberr'anit (si 1945 d asawen):

Yebda-d Wemgaru Amad'lan (tt'rad n ddunit) wis sin deg wass n 1u n Ctember', 1939. Amgaru ih'uza ah'ric meqqren seg wemd'al (ddunit) yernu yengha ugar n 50 n yimelyunen n medden. Uqbel ma yebda-d wemgaru-yagi, yett'ef Hitler tama n Klaipeda [di lgherb n Litwanya] deg wass n 22 Meghres 1939. Yugh lh'al, arkawal (pacte) ay iga V. Molotov akk d J. Ribbentrop deg wass n 23 Ghect akk d yepr'ut'ukulen uffiren ay d-yeddan yid-s fran-d ayen ara d asent-yed'run i tmura tibaltiyin (baltiques) asmi ara yekker Wemgaru, dgha llant gher lmut-nsent ay llant a teddunt, yernu Litwanya tella gar-asent. Deg wass n 19 Ctember', yekcem Yigen (armťe) Azewwagh arusi gher Vilnius, sakin merr'a tama-nni n Litwanya ay tella tett'ef-itt Pulunya [deg wenz'ul-sud n Litwanya] teghli ger n yifassen n Rrus. Mi d-kecmen Yirusiyen, h'esben tama-ya amzun di telli d tama n we‚daw, dgha ukren yernu rz'an s kra n wayen umi zemren. At'as n yimezdaghen ay wwin gher tkurmut (lh'ebs) yernu llan a d-ssewjaden ad d-sbedden "tanemlit"  (socialisme) di tama-ya.

Amtawa (traitť) n 10 Tuber' 1939 i lmend n wem‚iwen ger n Litwanya akk d Tdukli Tasuvyatit (URSS), yerra-yas-d i Litwanya tamaneght-is Vilnius, am akken ara d as-d-yerra azal n tis reb‚a si tama-nni ay d as-tett'ef naqal Pulunya [yernu tughal imir-n n Tdukli Tasuvyatit]. Ma d ayen d-iqqimen si tama-ya, yerna-tt Stalin gher tegduda tanemlayt (socialiste) tasuvyatit n Byilurusya ay yellan d ah'ric si Tdukli Tasuvyatit.

Amtawa-yagi msefhament deg-s snat-agi n tmura akken ad tessers Tdukli Tasuvyatit Igen-yines Azewwagh (Armťe Rouge) deg wakal alitwani "si le‚d'il" : yugh lh'al, asmi ay teqbel aya Litwanya, tessekcem-d a‚daw s axxam ur te‚lim. Tama n Vilnius ay d as-d-yughalen i Litwanya ur tedjhid ara tdamsa-yines (ťconomie) akken tedjhed tin n tmiwa nnid'en n tmurt yernu yella yew‚er' ghef Litwanya ad terr tama-yagi am tmiwa merr'a n tmurt. Ixess'aren ay yexdem wezra‚ n tutlayt tapulunit di Litwanya bdan ttbanen-d imir-n. At'as si medden-nni ay yellan qqaren-d d akken d Ipuluniyen ay llan ughalen ddjan mad'i tutlayt-nsen tanes'lit, dgha ‚erd'en ad tt-lemden yernu bdan qqaren-tt deg yigherbazen ilitwaniyen d yigherbazen nnid'en. Ma d Ipuluniyen gan akk ayen umi zemren akken ad kemmlen azra‚ n tpulunit u ad yeqqim waya akken yella di tallit n tutt'fa (occupation) tapulunit.

At'as n tudrin tilitwaniyin ay yeddan deg weh'ric-nni n Litwanya ay yettunefken i Byilurusya. Anabad' abulcivi (bolchťvique) ir'eggem-asen i Yilitwaniyen-agi ad ten-yeddj ad ughalen gher Litwanya timziregt (indťpendante). Dgha, swejden iman-nsen yimezdaghen n tudrin-agi akken ad giddjen u ad ughalen gher tmurt-nsen, d acu kan, yeqqim unabad' yettseggir (reporter) ass i deg ara r'uh'en alammi d asmi ay tt'fen Yibulciviyen (bolchťviques) tamurt n Litwanya s timmad-is.

Ger waya d wayen nnid'en, imenghi yella izehher di Turr'uft tutrimt (tagherbit). Almaniyen llan sseghlayen timura ta sdeffir ta. Di tazwara n Yunyu 1940, yufa-ten-id lh'al qerrben yagi gher Paris. Mi ten-walan Yibulciviyen rebbh'en, ula d nitni bghan "ad gen kra". Dgha sbubben-asent i tmura tibaltiyin ayen ur xdiment, sakin uznen-asent Igen Azewwagh akken ad tent-yett'ef. S tin n yighil ay d asent-yettwakkes uzarug-nsent i tmura-yagi. D acu kan, akken ad fken Yisuvyatiyen lh'eq i yiman-nsen, gan-d tifranin n tkellax. Timenza, d tid n Weswir n Wegdud Abulcivi (CongrŤs du Peuple bolchťvique) -i deg ulac imazwaren n tenmegla (candidats d'opposition)-, tiyad' d tid n weqbal n unekcum n Liwanya s "lebghi-yines" gher Umenkud (Empire) n Stalin (deg wass n 3 Ghect 1940). Dgha asmi ay tughal Litwanya d ah'ric si Tdukli Tasuvyatit, ughalent-as-d snat n tmiwa timect'ah' si tid-nni ay yefka Stalin i Byilurusya. Tamenzut d tama ay d-yezzin ghef Druskininkai akk d Marcinkonys, ma d ti s snat, d tin d-yezzin ghef Svencionys, Mielagenai, Adutiskis akk d Tverecius (deg wegmud' -ccerq n tmurt). Yugh lh'al, di timiwa-yagi merr'a, tuget tameqqrant seg yimezdaghen d Ilitwaniyen.

Akken kan tekcem Litwanya gher Tdukli Tasuvyatit, teghli di tsertit n uh'ettem n yedles asuvyati ghef Yilitwaniyen. Tamurt-nni ay d-yettwabnan s lh'if di 20 n yiseggasen [1920-1940, tallit i deg tewwi Litwanya azarug-is] hudden-tt Yisuvatiyen deg yiwet n teswi‚t. Sakin yewwed'-d rrebrab (terreur) akk d wenfay n medden si rrif gher Sibirya, xas ini-as tewwed'-d tallit n ussenger n wegdud. Yugh lh'al, imir-n ay bdan leqdic-nsen yimalalen (im‚iwnen) n Stalin ay iz'ewren deg uhuddu n yegduden. Dgha hudden idles n tmurt yernu at'as n yedlisen ay sserghen, yernu imir-n kan, di 1940, ay d-yebda uhuddu n weghlan alitwani akk d tutlayt-is, d ahuddu ara yeqqimen 50 n yiseggasen. 

Tesr'uh' tutlayt talitwanit az'ayer (statut) ay tt-ih'erzen, dgha seg yimir-n ay d-tegra ger n yifassen n yiberr'aniyen ay werdjin bghan-tt ad tili. Yesskcem-d unabad' asuvyati asselmed icekd'en (enseignement accťlťrť) n trusit am wakken ay d-yessekcem awalen ibulciviyen di tutlayt talitwanit. Ghef umedya, awal alitwani "ponas" (Ms. Mas) ay yettuseqdacen i usiwel yettwakkes, u rran-d deg wemkan-is awal "draugas" (ameddakel-camarade) yernu ismawen n yeghsuren (ťtablissements), n tuddsiwin (organisations), n yizenqan akk d yeghmisen, atg. beddlen-ten akken ara d-azgin akk d umawal abulcivi.

Yugh lh'al, awalen ay d-yekkan si trusit nnernan s wat'as di tallit-nni.

Rrebrab i d-yeghlin ghef Yilitwaniyen yeh'bes asmi ay d-tesseghret (dťclarer) Lalman amgaru ghef Rusya, dgha ghilen medden d akken d anect-a ara ten-id-yessuffghen. Kar'uh ay ker'hen imennekcamen yessawed'-iten ad refden leslah' mgal-nsen. D acu kan, mi yettaxer yiwen n we‚daw, yusa-d wayed' deg wemkan-is : mi yeffegh wahes (djihennama) azewwagh, ikcem-d wahes aghewwal (brun) deg wemkan-is, yernu aneggaru-ya yeddja-d ledjruh' imaynuten deg wegdud alitwani am akken yessenger qrib akk Uwdayen n Litwanya. Di Litwanya, sbedden-d Walmaniyen Agezdu Amatu Alitwani (General-Bezirk Litauen) i deg sseddan igezda n Asmena (Osmyany) akk d Svyriai (Svir) ay yefka Stalin i Byilurusya, d acu kan, ur d-sseddan ara yid-s igezda n Druskininkai akk d Marcinkonys, ay d as-yettunefken i Prusya tagmud'ant (tacerqit).

D acu kan, xas akken ttwassnen Walmaniyen s lbat'el-nsen, ur d asen-gdilen ara i Yilitwaniyen ad ldin igherbazen-nsen di Litwanya tagmud'ant (tacerqit), d yiwet n tama ay yer'wan lh'if si zik seg unekcum n tutlayin tislaviyin ghur-s imi werdjin llin yigherbazen ilitwaniyen dinna, yernu imezdaghen n tama-ya llan ttuh'ettmen akken ad lemden ala kan tapulunit negh tarusit. D anect-nni ay yeddjan agdud alitwani ad d-yaki di tama-yagi i ghef "d-id'all lxir n R'ebbi". Kra n medden dindin kan mmektin-d talitwanit-nni ay llan ttmeslayen-tt yimawlan akk d lejdud-nsen, di lweqt i deg wiyad', ‚awden lemmden-tt si swadda. D acu kan, nesh'issif imi anect-a yakk cewwlen-t Yipuluniyen yernu ‚erd'en amek ara t-sh'ebsen. Yugh lh'al, ighallen n wezbu (rťsistance) n "Armija Krajowa" llan a ttnaghen am yizmawen mgal n yiserdasen n Hitler, d acu kan, di Litwanya tagmud'ant, bdan-d yiwet n lh'emla n rrebrab akk d tekrid't (violence) mgal n yimezdaghen ilitwaniyen n tama-nni ur nselleh' ara. D anect-a ay yesh'ebsen taneffut (rr'uh') n ussider alitwani deg wat'as n yimukan n tama-yagi, yernu di kra seg yimukan-a, ur tughal ara akk tlitwanit ad tettwahder'. Asmi ay ifuk wemgaru, d ixut'ay kan n medden ay yellan s‚an tabghest (courage)  di tama-nni akken ad d-inin d akken d Ilitwaniyen ay llan.

Asmi ay yejbed  iman-is yigen almani si Litwanya, ughalen-d Yibulciviyen tikkelt nnid'en gher tmurt, deg unebdu n 1944, dgha at'as n medden ay irewlen s Atram (Lgherb) imi ay ugaden lemmer ad ughalen "Yemzurgen-agi" (libťrateurs)  gher leqdic-nsen n rrebrab n zik-nni : ugaden lemmer ad d-yughal wenfay n medden gher Sibirya yernu ad tech'en fell-asen NKVD. Dgha, wid-n irewlen d'em‚en ad awd'en s ighallen s Marikan negh Brit'anya u ad d-ughalen dindin kan gher tmurt-nsen [imi ay ssarmen ad ten-‚iwnen Wutrimen-Igherbiyen- akken ad ssuffghen Isuvyatiyen si tmurt-nsen].

D acu kan, yughal rr'wah'-nsen i‚ett'el at'as yernu at'as seg-sen ur d-nughal ara gher tmurt-nsen, qqimen di lgherba alammi d asmi mmuten. Ssarmen Yilitwaniyen d akken asmi ara rnun Yemsisan (Alliťs) Lalman, ad asent-d-yughal uzarug-nsent i tmura tibaltiyin [timura ay d-yuzgan ghef yilel Abalti : Litwanya, Litt'unya akk d Ist'unya], akken ay d-yenna Werkawal Atlanti (Charte Atlantique) di 1941. D acu kan, Utrimen (Igherbiyen) isehh'er-iten Stalin u d anect-nni ay ten-yeddjan ad ssumlen kan (dťononcer) ayen xedmen Yinaziyen, wanag ayen xedmen Yibulciviyen qeblen-t u ddjan Stalin ad yesserwet ddunit akken yebgha.

Atan ihi wamek ay tufa tbulcivit -tasnakta-yagi tasedmart (rťactionnaire)- amek ara teqqim di ddunit u ad d-teghd'el rrebrab akk d lbat'el meqqren i wach'al n yiseggasen ghef tmura ay terra gher ddaw n tecd'ad't-is. Litwanya tella tteddu akken ad tes‚eddi yiwet n tallit d taberkant s ddaw n wanect-a yernu ayen yed'ran deg-s yew‚er' ad t-id-neh'ku. D igiman (milliers) n Yilitwaniyen ay yettu‚ettben di tkurmutin (leh'bas) akk d yigulagen, igriren-nni (camps) wughur llan snejma‚en imenfiyen, yernu at'as deg-sen ay yemmuten imeghrasen (martyrs) deg yimukan-a.

Tafellah't talitwanit ihudd-itt wesmezdi (collectivisation) ay d-yettuh'ettmen ghef Yilitwaniyen. Maca ayen yugaren aya netta d ahuddu n tneffut (rr'uh') n wegdud alitwani s tkerkas (lekdeb) ay llan sselmaden-tent Yibulciviyen, d ah'ettem n tiddjin n ddin d lefsad i yes d-igellu waya di tt'bi‚a n medden akk d we‚zal n Litwanya ghef tmura nnid'en n ddunit.

Tamurt tbedd deg wudem n umennekcam yernu yebda-d yimenghi iwe‚r'en. Irgazen imalayen (meilleurs) r'uh'en gher tz'egwa (leghwabi) dgha yebda-d wemgaru n yimughal (guerre des partisans). Xas akken txuss'-iten tallalt (lem‚awna) si lberr'ani, isemtaren (conseillers), tizudar tiserdasiyin (bases militaires) akk d yemrigen itraren (armes modernes), imnaghen (imjuhad) Ilitwaniyen ssawd'en ad nnaghen ugar n 8 yiseggasen mgal n Yigen Azewwagh, win akken umi qqaren "igen ur nettwerna". Sakin, uznen-asen-d Yisuvyatiyen Amatu (gťnťral) P. Vetrov, d amenghay ameqqran ay yettwassnen yagi s wenfay n Yitcitciniyen akk d Yenguciyen si Quqaz, akk d usuffegh n Yitatar'en si Krimya. Imnaghen Ilitwaniyen ay yettwatt'fen s ddaw n leh'kem-is, llan tekksen-asen ayla-nsen yernu tt‚elliqen-ten, tikwal mazal-iten d imuddiren, berr'a i temdint negh di tsenbert tazayezt (place publique) akken ad ssugden yis-sen medden. Tesr'uh' Litwanya seg wemgaru akk d tutt'fa taberr'anit tis tlata seg wegdud-is , di lweqt i deg Pulunya tesr'uh' kan tis setta. Agdud alitwani ay ineqsen, kecmen-t-id yigiman (milliers) n yiberr'aniyen ay d-yusan seg Wegmud' (Ccerq), yernu ughalen d nitni ay ih'ekmen deg yimezdaghen ines'liyen n tmurt. Yernu, iberr'aniyen-agi ur fkin ara akk azal i yedles akk d wansayen ilitwaniyen am akken llan ttcemmiten di tutlayt talitwanit.

Ters-d citt'ah' n l‚afya asmi ay yemmut Stalin, asmi ay d-tebda tallit-nni n "wefsay n wegris" n yiseggasen n 1950. D acu kan, ur t‚ett'el ara dde‚wa tesbek, asmi ay tennerna tezmert n wid yellan ghef uqerru n Ukabar Amezdukli (parti communiste). Wigad-agi ttwassnen s ucemmet-nsen i umezruy alitwani yernu ‚erd'en ad rren Ilitwaniyen h'eqren iman-nsen, ttseth'in s las'el-nsen akken ad ten-rren d Irusiyen. Ma d aghlan alitwani yeqdec dima akken ad asen-yessexreb i wigi ayen llan bghan ad as-t-xedmen, yernu tella Litwanya di tallit-nni tugar akk timura nnid'en n Tdukli Tasuvyatit deg wanect ay d-tessuffugh d idlisen akk d yeghmisen uffiren, yernu tugar timiwa nnid'en awwi tes‚a n yimez'layen (dissidents).

Tutt'fa taberr'anit th'uza at'as Litwanya tagmud'ant (tacerqit). Yugh lh'al, Ibulciviyen beddlen tilisa yellan ger n Byilurusya akk d Litwanya. Dgha ttunefken-as i Rusya, wasunen (districts) n Smolensk, Novel akk d Starodub d wiyad', ay yellan si zik d ah'ric si Byilurusya, ma d talast n Byilurusya telh'a-d gher Wetram (lgherb) u tettca-d seg wakal n wegdud alitwani. Asunen n Asmena (Osmyany) akk d Svyriai (Svir) ttwakksen-as i Litwanya di lweqt i deg ah'ric-nni n Druskininkai-Marcinkonys ay tt'fen Walmaniyen deg wemgaru, akk d tama n Klaipeda rran-ten-id i Litwanya. Amtawa (le‚qed) n 1944 ger n Tdukli Tasuvyatit akk d Pulunya, yeddja azal n 200.000 n yemdanen ad r'uh'en si Litwanya gher Pulunya, tuget deg-sen d Ipuluniyen ay yellan zedghen di tama n Vilnius. D acu kan, llan gar-asen digh wat'as n Yilitwaniyen ay yes‚eddan iman-nsen d Ipuluniyen akken ad rewlen si rrebrab n Stalin. Akken kan ffghen akk wigi, usan-d yiberr'aniyen akken ad awin imukan-nsen di Litwanya. Di lweqt i deg tuget n Yirusiyen llan ttr'uh'un ad zedghen di temdinin n Litwanya, tamurt llan keccmen-tt-id Yebyilurusiyen ay d-yekkan si tmiwa n Byilurusya ay iqerben gher Litwanya yernu nneghlen-d s wat'as ghef tama n Vilnius, anda ay ughalen semman i yiman-nsen "Ipuluniyen". Di tizi n 1950, ixemmem Stalin d akken azra‚ n yedles d tutlayt talitwanit di tama n Vilnius yezga-d mgal n yeyraten (intťrÍts) Isuvyatiyen, dgha yebda udabu yettara igherbazen ilitwaniyen (akk d yigherbazen irusiyen !) d igherbazen n tutlayt tapulunit.

Dgha imir-n ay d-yebda uh'ettem n tutlayt tapulunit di tama n Vilnius u yella-d d amekrad' (violent) ugar n wakken t-xedmen Yipuluniyen di tallit i deg tt'fen tama-ya i deg ay d as-fkan Yibulciviyen tiyita is'ehh'an i tneffut (rr'uh') talitwanit. Deg wat'as n yimukan i deg medden merr'a llan ttmeslayen, negh meqqar fehhmen talitwanit ughalen ala kan d imgharen ay yecfan ghef tutlayt-a. Ghef umedya, ghef leh'sab n tesnadent (statistiques) n 1933, azal n 90% seg yimezdaghen n tama n Paskonys ay yellan ttmeslayen talitwanit, di lweqt i deg di 1979, ur wwid'en ara 30% n medden ay d-yennan d akken d Ilitwaniyen ay llan, ma di tama n Dieveniskes, ay yellan d "talitwanit" ugar n tmezwarut-nni, ala kan 19% seg yimezdaghen-is ay d-yeqqimen ttmeslayen tutlayt-nsen. Takard'a (carte) n yegduden tella tettbeddil udem. D acu kan, xas deg yimukan i deg tenger tlitwanit, llan mazal medden tt'fen deg wansayen ilitwaniyen: yugh lh'al maza l llan Yilitwaniyen xeddmen imidagen (croix) rrif n yiberdan (u llan ttruz'un-tent Yibulciviyen deg wat'as n yemd'iqen), mazal-iten z'ett'en icett'id'en, tisefd'in (serviettes) akk d tfers'uday n tadud't s rrqem alitwani, mazal-iten tezz'un tibh'irin n yijeddjigen, ur ibeddel ara wamek xeddmen tafellah't am wakken ur beddlen ara wansayen-nsen, cfan ghef tmucuha-nsen, tineflusin-nsen (superstitions) akk d kra si tesneqqist-nsen (mythologie).

Anz'ul agmud'an (sud-est) n Litwanya yughal d tu‚bint (mosaÔque) n tutlayin. Yughal d awezghi ad tafed' din win yessnen kan yiwet n tutlayt yernu di tallit n tutt'fa taberr'anit r'eb‚a n tutlayin ay yellan ttuseqdacent di tama-ya. Gher tama n tutlayin timens'abin (officielles), talitwanit akk d trusit, tella tebyilurusit "ica‚en" (tin ssnen akk medden dinna) akk d tpulunit (polszczyzna litewska) mazal s‚ant ddur' meqqren di tama-ya. Yugh lh'al, tapulinit n tama-ya isker ay temgerrad ghef tin ay ttmeslayen di Pulunya, yernu ttmeslayen-tt ama di tmiwa n tutlayt talitwanit, ama di tid n tutlayt tabyilurusit. Ala kan d wid yeghran ay yellan ttmeslayen tapulunit tizeght (standard). Di tmiwa-yagi, at'as n medden ay yellan ttmeslayen tutlayt ur nelli d tutlayt-nsen tanes'lit. Ar ass-a, seg wakken tt'uqqtent tutlayin ay ttmeslayen di tama-yagi n Litwanya alammi ay yew‚er' ad neg tilisa gar-asent sufella n tkard'a tasnilsit (linguistique). Akken ad ssersen tilisa ger n tama akk d tayed', imassanen ttwalin gher tutlayt tanes'lit ay tesseqdac tuget di medden di yal tama. Ghef waya ur a d-teddu ara trusit di tkard'iwin tisnilsiyin, imi tutlayt-a d nettat ay d taneggarut ay d-yewwd'en gher Litwanya yernu ala kan mbe‚d n wemgaru ay tezre‚ di tmurt-a u tuget deg wid ay tt-yesseqdacen s‚an tutlayt nnid'en, tin yellan d tanes'lit-nsen. Yugh lh'al, ala kan d iminigen iberr'aniyen, ay d-yusan ad zedghen di Litwanya, ay yes‚an tarusit d tutlayt-nsen tanes'lit.

Mbe‚d n wemgaru, Ilitwaniyen ay yeddren di tama-nni ay yettunefken i Byilurusya s‚eddan lh'if yugaren win ay s‚eddan watmaten-nsen n Litwanya. Akken kan i‚edda wemgaru, ttwaghelqen akk yigherbazen ilitwaniyen. Ldin deg wemkan-nsen igherbazen ibyilurusiyen (ay yughalen sakin d irusiyen), yernu yella yegdel ghef yibalmuden ad mmeslayen talitwanit ula di tesgunfut, swaswa akken yella lh'al di tallit n tutt'fa tarusit, di lqern wis 19. Assuffegh n yedlisen akk d yeghmisen s tlitwanit yettwah'bes. Anermis (contact) akk d Litwanya yughal yew‚er' yernu yettwargel webrid i wembaddel adelsan ger n Yilitwaniyen n tama-ya akk d wid n Litwanya. Leqdic n Teklizt yettwah'bes mad'i yernu amrabed' n yir'umyen alitwani aneggaru di Byilurusya yettwabbez (arrÍter) akken kan ifuk wemgaru.

Ilitwaniyen n tama-ya llan tth'ettimen-ten ad ssiggzen (ad mmer'kin) iman-nsen d Ibyilurusiyen negh d Ipuluniyen negh d Irisiyen akken ad yizdig wemd'iq-agi seg wegdud alitwani. Ass-a, mi ara rzun yimesnilsiyen (linguistes) gher kra n tudrin n tama-ya (anda ay ttmeslayen kra n tduntalyin -sous-dialectes- tiqdimin ay yuklalen ad ttwassnent), ttafen tikwal d akken amdan aneggaru ay yellan mazal yessen talitwanit din yemmut azal kan n useggas negh sin.

Ilitwaniyen ay yeddren deg wasunen n Punsk, Sejny akk d yiwen n weh'ric n Suwalki -d timiwa ay yettunefken i Pulunya- ur ten-ih'uza yara lh'if ay ih'uzan wid n tmiwa nnid'en. Dgha, nemgal (contrairement) n watmaten-nsen ay yeddren di Tdukli Tasuvyatit, wigi ur ten-yennul rrebrab n Stalin wala asmedzi yettuh'ettmen am akken ur ttuh'ettmen ara akken ad qeblen ansayen ibulciviyen, tarasred't (athťisme) d wayen akk h'ettmen Yisuvyatiyen ghef wegdud alitwani di Litwanya. D acu kan, ula di Pulunya ur llin ara yigherbazen ilitwaniyen di tazwara. Alammi d iseggasen n 1950 ay ddjan talitwanit ad tettuselmed, yernu tella tettuselmad kan s yisem-is d tanga (matiŤre), sakin bdan kra n yigherbazen sselmaden tangiwin merr'a s tlitwanit u di 1956, teldi yiwet n tesnawit (lycťe) talitwanit di Punsk. Naqal llant lxet'bat akk n teklizt ttwaxdament s tpulunit sakin tughal-d tlitwanit gher kra n teklizin n tama-yagi. Si 1957 ay s‚an Yilitwaniyen n Pulunya tiddukla-nsen tadelsant yernu ssuff ughen-d aghmis-nsen umi qqaren Ausra (Tafejrit). D acu kan, ula d nitni ur mni‚en ara si tesmez'lit (discrimination) imi ay yella yettwagdel-asen ad mmeslayen s tlitwanit deg yimukan izuyaz (lieux publics) alammi 1950, am wakken ur ten-id-is'ah' ara ad mmeslayen s tutlayt-nsen deg usawal alammi d 1990. 

Tama n Klaipeda [ay d-yuzgan deg wetram-lgherb n Litwanya] tent'err mlih' seg wemgaru, imi tuget akk deg yimezdaghen-is wwin-ten Walmaniyen gher tmiwa ibe‚den n Lalman yernu at'as seg Yilitwaniyen-agi deg Wetram ay qqimen asmi ay yefra wemgaru. Ma wid ay d-yeqqimen di tama-ya, nfan-ten Yisuvyatiyen gher Sibirya. Dgha ala citt'ah' kan seg yimezdaghen ines'liyen n Klaipeda ay d-yeqqimen di tama-ya. ¬erd'en ad gen yimesnilsiyen (linguistes) tizrawin (ťtudes) ghef tutlayt-nsen am akken zerwen tiduntalyin n Litwanya tagmud'ant (tacerqit) imi ay s‚ant azal meqqren deg wezraw n tutlayt tahendur'ufit (indo-europťen).  

Ilitwaniyen n Prusya Tagmud'ant (tacerqit) ssarmen ad tettwaqqen tama-nsen gher Litwanya mi ara yefru wemgaru u ad ifak lh'if fell-asen, d acu kan, tin yexdem deg-sen Stalin ur txulef ara tin yexdem deg Walmaniyen, dgha yebda-d rrebrab. D Almaniyen negh Ilitwaniyen, llan ssuffughen-ten-id merr'a Yisuvyatiyen seg yexxamen-nsen akken ad ten-nghen di lbat'el. Yeghli-d laz' ghef tama-yagi merr'a yernu yebda-d ussenger n wegdud-is. Deg Usarag (confťrence) n Potsdam, tettwafreq Prusya Tagmud'ant (Tacerqit) ger n Tdukli Tasuvyatit akk d Pulunya. Dgha yefka Stalin ah'ric-nni asuvyati i Tfidir'alit Tarusit, xas akken ur tt-crikent ara tlisa akk d tama-yagi, yernu dindin kan wwd'en-d Yirusiyen akken ad zedghen deg-s. Yugh lh'al, asmi ay tettwaqqen tama-ya [umi qqaren ass-a Kaliningrad] gher Rrus, sr'uh'en Yilitwaniyen tilisa-nsen akk d Walmaniyen, mbe‚d ma llan d inaragen (ldjiran) ugar n 700 n yiseggasen, dgha ufan-d Yilitwaniyen iman-nsen zzin-asen-d Yeslaviyen si yal tama. ¬erd'en Yibulciviyen ad asen-skecmen i medden takti d akken Prusya Tagmud'ant tella d tama taslavit si zzman aqdim (d ayen yellan d azulal -absurde). Ttubeddlen yismawen n yemd'iqen n tama-ya akken ara cabin gher yismawen irusiyen am wakken ay d-kecmen yismawen irusiyen di yal amkan. Fkan Yisuvyatiyen ismawen irusiyen i yemd'iqen yellan s‚an ismawen icuban talmanit, am beddlen ismawen ilitwaniyen d yeprusiyen [ay d-yekkan si tutlayt taprusit taqdimt ay icuban talitwanit], ay d-yeqqimen si zzman aqdim yernu ula d ismawen n yisafen ttubeddlen u qlil kan sanda yed'ra waya deg umezruy n ddunit.

Ma d Ipuluniyen, ula d nitni d'efren tasertit-nni n Yisuvyatiyen deg "umur-nsen" n Prusya Tagmud'ant. Dgha at'as n yismawen n yemd'iqen ilitwaniyen ay kksen u rran deg wemkan-nsen ismawen ipuluniyen, yernu snegren talitwanit n Prusya Tagmud'ant, d tutlayt ay yes‚an ddur' meqqren di tlalit n tutlayt talitwanit tizeght (standard) n wass-a.

Ass-a, at'as n Yilitwaniyen ara yettidiren berr'a i tmiwa n wegdud alitwani: wigi d arraw n wid-n akken irewlen deg wemgaru, wid yettwanfan d wiyad'. Ger n 30.000 d 40.000 n Yilitwaniyen ara yettidiren di Litt'unya [d tamurt iqerben gher Litwanya], di Byilurusya nezmer ad naf ma cwit' 10.000 n Yilitwaniyen, ma di Rusya, ugar 100.000 n Yilitwaniyen ay yellan (tuget deg-sen n imenfiyen akk d warraw-nsen, d acu kan, at'as seg-sen ay d-yughalen gher Litwanya), u ad ilin ahat azal n 20.000 negh n 30.000 n Yilitwaniyen deg wayen d-yegran si tegdudyin [tiqburin] n Tdukli Tasuvyatit. Berr'a i Litwanya, ula d yiwen n ugherbaz alitwani ur yeldi di tmiwa nnid'en n Tdukli Tasuvyatit. D anect-nni ay yeddjan amd'an n wid yettmeslayen talitwanit ad yenqes s l‚ejlan.

Berr'a i tlisa n Tdukli Tasuvyatit, yerna wemd'an n yiminigen imi ay d-wwd'en yiminigen imaynuten, tuget deg-sen llan si tmegzi (intelligentsia) negh si tedghert (ťlite) talitwanit. Wigi m‚awanen wagar-asen u ttekkan deg wat'as n leqdicat idelsanen, ladgha wid-n akken yettidiren deg Yiwunak Yedduklen n Temrikt (USA). Dgha ssuffghen-d at'as n yedlisen akk d yeghmisen, yernu ger wigi akk, llan yedlisen d yeghmisen yerzan tutlayt talitwanit. Lemmer ad d-njemmel akk iminigen yellan ass-a deg Yiwunak Yedduklen, ama d iqburen negh d imaynuten, ad ten-naf wwd'en s amelyun, d acu kan, ala kan tis tlata deg-sen ahat ay d-mazal ssnen ad mmeslayen talitwanit. At'as n Yilitwaniyen ay yettidiren digh di Brizil (azal n 50.000), di Ter'jentint (azal n 35.000), di Kanada (azal n 30.000), di Ustr'alya (azal n 10.000) akk d wanda nnid'en. Deg yemd'iqen-agi merr'a, talitwanit kecment-tt-id tutlayin n tmura-ya, dgha tughal temxallaf citt' g hef tin ay ttmeslayen di Litwanya.

Asmi yefra wemgaru, tutlayt talitwanit s timmad-is tes‚edda tagnit n lh'if s ddaw n udabu asuvyati. Ah'ettem n unnejli, anfay si tmurt, igriren n wesnejme‚ (camps de concentrations) n yimeh'bas  akk d ussenger n wegdud ... anect-a yakk yessenqes s tis tlata amd'an n wid yettmeslayen s tlitwanit. Yugh lh'al, ula d inurar i deg tezmer tlitwanit ad tettuseqdec neqsen. Ur tettuseqdac di tghawsiwin n tesnassaght (diplomatie), wala deg yigen, yernu tella simmal ttaddjan-tt deg yinurar nnid'en n unabad' (gouvernement). Ula d asseqdec-yines azayez (usage public) yenqes s l‚ejlan. Tamenzut, tughal ur a tettuseqdac ara deg Ukabar Amezdukli (Parti Communiste) akk d tedbelt (administration), sakin, tughal maci d tutlayt n teywalt (communication) ger n yigezda (dťpartement), ddjan-tt yeghsuren imens'aben (ťtablissements officiels) yernu di tgara, teffegh ula seg yinurar n temguri (industrie) d leqdic, seg waddal akk d yimez'la n tghiwant (services communaux). Anda ma teddid', d tarusit ara yettawin amkan n tlitwanit. Tikwal, mi ara yebghu Ulitwani ad as-yaru i Ulitwani nnid'en ay iqeddcen di kra n weghsur, s trusit ara d as-yaru. At'as n yimesnarayen (bureaucrates) ilitwaniyen imeqqranen ay yettwakksen u rran-d deg yimukan-nsen Irusiyen. Xas ‚eddan ghef Yirusiyen-agi ugar n ‚ecrin n yiseggasen n leqdic, werdjin lemden ad mmeslayen talitwanit yernu ula d "azul" ur ssinen ara ad t-inin i wab‚ad' s tutlayt-a. Dgha yughal d awezghi ad yesseqdec wemdan talitwanit deg wat'as n yeghsuren.

Ddur' n tlitwanit yenqes di tghamsa, di rr'adyu akk d tilibizyu u yenqes ula deg ugherbaz yernu cwit', cwit' ara tettwakkas tlitwanit si tkadimit. Ah'ettem n tutlayt tarusit yughal yedjhed ugar n wakken yella di tallit n Utzar' (tsar). Ayen i gher ur yessawed' ara udabu atzar'i (tsariste) ad t-yexdem deg yiwen n lqern, ssawd'en Yibulciviyen ad t-xedmen di kra kan n tmerwatin (dťcades).

Ughalen Yilitwaniyen merr'a ssnen u sseqdacen snat n tutlayin. Maca nnig waya, ‚erd'en Yibulciviyen amek ara d-sseknen d akken azra‚ n tutlayt tarusit yes‚a lfayda tussnant (scientifique). Dgha snulfan-d tiz'ri (thťorie) n "wesdukel" n yegduden akk d tutlayin [akken ad ughalen yimezdaghen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit merr'a ad ttmeslayen s yiwet kan n tutlayt]. Di 1979, yettwaxdem usarag "amusnaw" [ghef tutlayt] di Tackent [tamaneght n Tadjikistan], u seg yimir-n ay yesnerna udabu asuvyati s kra n wayen ay izemren ad i‚iwen tutlayt tarusit akken ad tezre‚ di Litwanya. Yewwed' udabu alammi ay yessekcem tarusit s almaten n yigerdan (jardins d'enfants) n Litwanya yernu tughal tlitwanit tes‚a kan amkan n tutlayt "taz'iyant" (rťgionale), amkan n tutlayt tis snat u ir'uh'-as wazal-nni ay tella tes‚a-t di tmurt-is, ghur wegdud-is.

At'as n Yilitwaniyen ay yellan ttmeslayen tarusit xir n tlitwanit yernu teh'bes tanneflit tamagnut (dťveloppement normal) n tutlayt talitwanit. Llan wid i‚erd'en -yernu ‚emmden- amek ara sqerben talitwanit gher trusit, di lweqt i deg kra, nnan-d d akken werdjin tedder tlitwanit di tegnit n liser akken tella tettidir s ddaw n Yibulciviyen. Yugh lh'al, assekcem n tutlayt tarusit gher Litwanya yettwaxdem mebla taksent (contrŰle) yernu yegla-d s yixess'aren imeqqranen ghef tutlayt talitwanit deg yinurar merr'a i deg tella tettuseqdac. Wid-n akken ay tezrer (influencer) trusit s wat'as wwd'en alammi ara ttmeslayen talitwanit s weghdebbu (accent) arusi yernu tughal tlitwanit-agi n weghdebbu arusi nezmer ad tt-nsel ama di temliliyin negh tilibizyu akk d rr'adyu, yernu tikwal, llan sseqdacen-tt ula di tceqfatin n umezgun.

Amawal (lťxique) n tlitwanit ay ttmeslayen medden yughal yettcur' d

awalen n trusit. Medden bdan sseqdacen ula d awalen n trusit ur d-nemyezg ara akk d talghiwin (formes) n wawalen n tlitwanit, dgha akken d-ttwant'aqen wawalen-agi di trusit ara ten-ssexdamen Yilitwaniyen di tlitwanit. Yernu bdan digh medden sseqdacen awalen n tlitwanit akken ay ttuseqdacen wawalen n trusit, meh'sub, ughalen ttbeddilen-asen inumak (lem‚ani) i wawalen ilitwaniyen ay icuban awalen irusiyen, u ttaken-asen inumak-nni ay s‚an di trusit. Ghef umedya, awal alitwani "eile" yughal unamek-is "at'as", "kra" negh "tarba‚t", imi ay yettuseqdac di trusit wawal icuban wagi yernu yes‚a inumak-agi. Akken ad d-inin Yilitwaniyen "lghella tettwamger S wemger" (s usseqdec n tzelgha n wallal -particule d'instrument), "derliu nueme kombaino", ughalen rnan-d awal "pagalba", "s tallalt n" (s lma‚wana), xas ur t-sseqdacen ara zik di tutlayt-nsen, dgha ughalen qqaren-d s tutlayt-nsen akken d-qqaren s trusit "derliu nueme kombaino pagalba" - "lghella tettwamger S TALLALT n wemger".  

Tughal tlitwanit tesseqdac at'as n tghawsiwin yeqqnen gher tjerr'umt tarusit : tijr'utin (cas) n trusit, talghiwin-is tisendadin (formes rťflťchies), izwiren (prťfixes) akk d tenzagh (prťpositions) n trusit tt'uqqten di tlitwanit. Tughal ula d tafyirt (phrase) talitwanit tettwabna akken tettwabna tefyirt tarusit. (...)

Yettwakkes-d wed'ris-agi seg wedlis n Z. Zinkevicius
"History of the Lithuanian Language" (Amezruy n Tutlayt Talitwanit)
Tasuqilt sghur n : Omar MOUFFOK

Tzemrem ad terzum s asebter-agi (page) akken ad d-tafem ugar n yisallen :
http://www.elnet.lt/vartiklis/english.htm

 


D ACU-TT TLITWANIT ?

Seg wasmi ay tewwi Litwanya azarug-is, di 1990, tughal tlitwanit d nettat ay d tutlayt tamens'abt n tmurt-agi. Yugh lh'al, tutlayt-a a yes‚eddan azal n 400 n yiseggasen n lh'if akk d th'eqranit, yughal-itt-id wayen i deg tettalas u dindin kan teddjudjeg-d u teh'la si ledjruh' ay d-yeddja deg-s umezruy.

Tamurt-is :

Litwanya d yiwet si tmura yellan zik d ah'ric si Tdukli Tasuvyatit. Uqbel ma yekcem gher tdukli-yagi, tewwi azarug-is di 1920, d acu kan, Isuvyatiyen tt'fen tamurt-a xas ur yebghi wegdud-is di 1940, u h'ettmen-tt ad tili d ah'ric seg wemd'al amezdukli (monde communiste) alammi d 1990, asmi ay tt-id-tughal tlelli-yines i tikkelt tis snat. Tuzga-d Litwanya ghef yiri n yilel Abalti (mer Baltique), yernu nettat d yiwet si tlata-nni n tmura tibaltiyin (pays baltes), gher tama Litt'unya akk d Ist'unya, wukud tecrek at'as n tghawsiwin, ama deg yedles negh deg umezruy. Litwanya tes‚a tilisa akk d Litt'unya deg ugafa (nord), akk d Byilurusya deg wegmud' (ccerq), akk d yilel Abalti deg wetram u th'udd-itt-id Pulunya akk d wasun (territoire) arusi n Kaliningrad seg wetram akk d wenz'ul (sud). Tamaneght-is isem-is Vilnius, ma d Klaipeda, ay d-yuzgan deg wetram (lgherb) d yiwet si temdinin timeqqranin akk n tmurt-a.   

Aqeddem n tutlayt :

Talitwanit ttmeslayen-tt ass-a 3 n yimelyunen n medden di Litwanya (98 % seg yimezdaghen n Tegduda Talitwanit), ma nerna-yas-d i wemd'an-agi anect yettmeslayen talitwanit berr'a i Litwanya, ad d-naf d akken 3,5 n yimelyunen n yemdanen ara yettmeslayen talitwanit deg wemd'al. Si ger n 800.000 n Yilitwaniyen ay yettidiren di lberr'ani, ah'ric ameqqran deg-sen yettidir deg Yiwunak Yedduklen (650.000), maca digh nezmer ad naf at'as n Yilitwaniyen di Pulunya (anda 70.000 n yemdanen ay yettmeslayen talitwanit), di Brizil (40.000), di Ter'jentint (35.000), di Kanada (14.725), di Brit'anya Tameqqrant (12.000), akk d Uruguay (10.000) (Grimes 1992). D acu kan, akken d-iger tamawt Zinkuvicius deg wedlis-is, maci Ilitwaniyen merr'a ay izedghen di lberr'ani ssnen tutlayt-nsen.

Deg wennar n tesnilsit (linguistique), qqaren-d d akken d talitwanit i deg ay d-qqimen wat'as akk n yedrizen (traces) si tutlayt tahendur'ufit (indo-europťen) taqdimt, tin i seg d-yeffegh umur meqqren si tutlayin n Tur'uft n wass-a. Qqiment-d di tlitwanit at'as n tghawsiwin n tjerr'umt taqburt ay sr'uh'ent tutlayin tihendur'ifiyin nnid'en. D acu kan, am tutlayin merr'a n twacult tahendur'ufit, ula d talitwanit tbeddel akk d lweqt. Talgha (forme) taqburt akk n tlitwanit yettwassnen, qqaren-as "talitwanit taqburt", yiwen ur a tt-yettmeslay ass-a.

Tawacult-is :

Talitwanit tekcem di twacult tameqqrant n tutlayin tihendur'ufiyin (indo-europťenne), am tefr'ensist, taneglizit akk d weh'ric meqqren si ttulayin n Tur'uft (Europe). D acu kan, talitwanit ur tcuba ara at'as tafr'ensist negh taneglizit am akken tcuba tutlayin ay d-iqerben ghur-s, tid wukud tecrek az'ar iqerben. Tawacult n tutlayin tihendur'ufiyin tebd'a d ifurka, dgha talitwanit tekcem deg ufurk n tutlayin tibaltiyin, di lweqt i deg taneglizit akk d talmanit, ghef umedya, kecment deg ufurk n tutlayin tijirmaniyin. Afurk n tutlayin tibaltiyin yebd'a ghef snat n tegrawin (tirebba‚) : tutlayin tibaltiyin tigmud'anin (ticerqiyin) i deg tella tlitwanit akk d tlitt'unit (letton, d tutlayt icuban mlih' taliwanit u ttmeslayen-tt di Litt'unya), akk d terba‚t n tutlayin tibaltiyin tutrimin (tigherbiyin) i deg tella teprusit taqburt, d tutlayt ay inegren di tizi n 1700, u qqimen-d seg-s ala kan kra n yedrizen (traces) yuran. Ihi, t utlayt i gher teqreb kter' tlitwanit d talitt'unit. Yugh lh'al, tutlayin-agi di snat ugarent akk tutlayin tihendur'ufiyin deg wanect i d-yeqqimen deg-sent d idrizen iqburen di tejr'utin (cas) n thendur'ifit taqburt.

Tantalyin n tlitwanit :

Talitwanit tella tes‚a at'as n tentalyin, d acu kan, llant kra deg-sen ay yedduklen akk d tiyad', u ughalent d yiwet kan n tentala. Ma d imesilsiyen (linguistes), msefhamen s umata akken ad bd'un talitwanit ghef snat n tentalyin timeqqranin. Tamenzut, d tin umi qqaren "aukshtaichiai" negh tukctaytit, negh Talitwanit n Ufella. Ma d tis snat d tin umi qqaren "zemachiai" negh tasamugtit negh Talitwanit n Wadda. Yiwen n umassan, Grimes (deg wedlis-is n 1992), yerna-d tantala tis tlata, tadzukit, ay yeh'seb d yiwet si tentalyin timeqqranin n tlitwanit, di lweqt i deg tuget deg n yimassanen qqaren-d d akken tadzukit d tand'a kan (variante) n tukctaytit. Tutlayt talitwanit tatrat ay tesseqdac tmurt ass-a tekka-d seg yiwet n tduntala (sous-dialecte) n tukctaytit (talitwanit n ufella) ay ttmeslayen deg wenz'ul (sud) n Litwanya, d acu kan, id'risen iqburen akk n tlitwanit uran s tlitwanit n wadda.

Tira :

Talitwanit tesseqdac agemmay alatini ay yettubeddlen citt'ah'. Akken ad d-sbanen "ighdebba" (accents) n tutlayt talitwanit, Ilitwaniyen sseqdacen izmal n ussemgirred (signes diacritiques). Yugh lh'al, tesseqdec tlitwanit yiwen n lweqt agemmay asirili (arusi) si 1864 alammi d 1905, d acu kan, yughal-itt-id ugemmay alatini imi d netta kan ay isehlen i tira-yines.

Tasghent-is (ddur'-is) di tmetti :

Ass-a, talitwanit tes‚a az'ayer (statut) n tutlayt tamens'abt di Litwanya, yernu tettuseqac deg yinurar merr'a n leqdic akk d tudert n yal ass. Seg wasmi ay d-yebda lqern wis 20 ara tettuseqdac tlitwanit deg ugherbaz.

Ger n 1920 d 1940 (di tallit n uzarug amenzu n tmurt), tesbedd-d Litwanya anagraw (systŤme) ikemlen n usselmed ara yesseqdacen talitwanit d tutlayt n usselmed seg ugherbaz amenzu alamma d tasdawit. Yugh lh'al, agdud alitwani d win ih'emmlen ad igher at'as s tutlayt-is. Di tallit i deg tewwi Litwanya azarug-is amenzu, ugar n 7100 n yedlisen ay d-yeffghen s tlitwanit, yernu ass-a at'as n tghawsiwin yuran ara d-iteffghen s tlitwanit, gar-asent id'risen ussnanen (textes scientifiques) d wakniyen (techniques) akk d yeghmisen d tesghunin (revues). Di 1990, ffghen-d di Litwanya 240 n yeghmisen s 4,5 n yimelyunen n wudmawen (exemplaires) akk d 43 n tesghunin s 2,6 n yimelyunen n wudmawen.

Llant digh tregwa n rr'adyu akk d tilibizyu s tlitanit. Kra n wahilen (programmes) ay d-tgen i yiberr'aniyen, ttmeslayen s teglizit.

Mi akka ara d-yettqerrib uzemz (date) n unekcum n Litwanya gher Tdukli Tur'ufit (Union Europťenne), talitwanit ur tettghimi ara kan d tutlayt taghelnawt n yiwet kan n tmurt wanag ad tughal d yiwet si tutlayin timens'abin n Tur'uft u ad d-taf iman-is s waya tga ah'urif gher sdat akken ad tughal d tutlayt tagraghlant. Xas ma yella lqern wis 20 yeddja-d ledjruh' di tutlayt-a yernu qrib yegli yis-s akken ad tughal si tutlayin yemmuten, lqern wis 21 yeldi-d tiwwura timaynutin ghef tutlayt-a akken ad tennerni gher sdat.

[Ah'ric meqqren seg wed'ris-agi newwi-t-id seg wemd'iq n Tesdawit n Los Angeles. UCLA Language Profiles.]

Tasuqilt n Hamid OUBAGHA


Arut-agh-d, gret-d tamawin-nwen, neqqar l‚eslama i s kra n tebrat ara d agh-d-yawd'en sghur-wen. 

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
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E-mail : imedyazen89@yahoo.fr

Imagraden yeqqnen s asentel n wutt'un-a :

Tabrat n Yimedyazen : Utt'un 14 : Tasertiti n tutlayin di Ist'unya


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