Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

Utt'un 7
Asebter n umager | Imagraden | Isalan | Imenzayen | Taftilt | Imawalen | Idlisen-nnegh | Leqdicat-nnegh | Imazighen | Lmed tamazight | English | EspaŮol | FranÁais | Arabe | Anmager | Tabrat n Yimedyazen | Arum-agh-d | Imaslad'en | Tamesgida | Amezruy n Tiddukla

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad, 16006, Alger, Algťrie
imedyazen89@yahoo.fr

Tabrat n Yimedyazen

Taghmist n Tiddukla - Utt'un 7
(ddur't n 12 gher 19 Yulyu 2003)

Tigejdit :

Azul fell-awen ay atmaten d teysetmatin

Tanemmirt i watmaten-nnegh merr'a i d agh-yeqqaren akk d wid ay yebghan ad agh-d-fken afun n lem‚awna, d tanemmirt ghef wid ay yebdan yagi tt‚awanen-agh seg wul-nsen, mebla ma nenna-yasen, dgha wigi uklalen tajmilt meqqren. Nekni s Yimazighen nes‚a yiwet tghara (qualitť) ur nlaq area ad agh-tr'uh', d tin n tegmat d wem‚iwen wagar-anegh. Anda ma yella Umazigh, nekni s wid iqeddcen ghef yedles d tutlayt-nnegh nebgha ad t-nissin, nebgha ad t-nz'er u ad nemmeslay yid-s, nebgha ad nz'er d acu ay t-ixuss'en akken ad t-n‚iwen, nebgha ad d-nejme‚ akk atmaten-nnegh n yal tama, atmaten-nnegh ay d agh-d-yeddja umezruy, ay d agh-d-teddja tutlayt, ad neddukel yid-sen d tarba‚t i lmend n ussider n yedles akk d tutlayt-nnegh, yernu d taneffut-agi (rr'uh') n lem‚awna akk d tegmat ay yeddjan kra seg wid i gh-yeqqaren ad agh-d-ssumren (proposer) lem‚awna negh bitt ad agh-‚iwnen mebla ma nenna-yasen acemma. Ihi, taneffut-agi n tegmat d tin ! u r nlaq ara ad agh-tr'uh', wanag ilaq ad tt-nesnerni wagar-anegh, ladgha imi ay llan at'as deg-negh ass-a, mazal d'e‚fen, ur zmiren ara i yiman-nsen yernu h'wadjen atmaten-nsen ad ten-‚iwnen wa lukan s wawal. Rnu-yas s anect-a, tagmat d wem‚iwen d imrigen (leslah') idjehden ay nezmer ad ten-nes‚u, nekni s Yimazighen, ger n yifassen-nnegh, d ayen i yes nezmer ad nesnerni idles d tutlayt-nnegh mebla ma terra-yagh tmara gher wid ur tt-nebghi, gher wid yellan d icenga (i‚dawen) n tmazight. Tanemmirt i watmaten-nnegh merr'a i gh-d-yettarun d wid ara yesselh'ayen awal-nnegh deg uz'ett'a agraghlan (web), tajmilt meqqren i watmaten-nnegh merr'a i agh-yesnernayen ifadden, u ad yesdum R'ebbi tagmat-nnegh. 

Imedyazen 


TIBRATIN-NWEN

Bader si El-Kseur, Bgayet, Ldzayer
Ghas akka s "les erreurs" [tuccd'iwin], ur ssed'h'agh-ara, ur a ttsed'h'igh ara m[i] ara d-arugh tamazight n Massensen, Yugarten, negh Aksil ... i yettsed'h'in iyes-s ala wid [i‚ellen] [deg] webrid n Buxus. A tt'uqten yibuxusen n useggas [n] 2000. [...] nekk fkigh
lwe‚d i yiman-iw ad tt-slemdedgh i warraw-iw. Yiwen wass inna-d Lmulud Lounaouci : "Tamazight ilaq ad d-tettak aghrum i wakken ad lhun medden yid-s". Nudagh deg wallagh-iw, ufigh yezga-d. Ma d irgazen ara ih'erzen fell-as llan, tellam, lligh ghas akka ur ssinegh ara. Tanemmirt ghef "les corrections" [yiseghta]. Win yettruz'en asalu, iteddu akken yufa, maci akken yebgha. Win yebghan yenna-d amek? Win yugin yenna-d ulamek !!! Nekk bghigh.
Tanemmirt.

Tiririt : Azul fell-ak a gma, xas akka s tuccd'iwin ay tettarud', ulac ughilif, aru-tt kan u ad tt-naru jmi‚. Lemmer di ttxemmimen medden merr'a akken tettxemmimed', tili aql-agh nbeddel-as udem i tmazight, tili ad nili nerfed-itt d asawen at'as ayaka, d acu kan, akken s-yeqqar wanzi : Yett'ef-as yinijjel tacd'ad't, yufa-tt d ssebba i tghmit. Akken d-tennid', win yebghan yettnadi amek, win yugin yeqqar ulamek. Yugh lh'al win tt-yettarun, xas s tuccd'iwin, ad yughal ad yissin amek, adennit (labudd) ad yissin amek, wanag tawaghit d wid i tt-yessnen mlih' yernu [ur] a ttnadin ara ad tt-arun akk d WID YESSNEN AD TT-ARUN, YERNU UR TT-TTARUN ARA. Tella digh yiwet n tcer'ket (tifexxet), tin n tutlayt tafr'ensist ! Yugh lh'al, at'as n Yimazighen ay yesmenyafayen ad mmeslayen, ad sseqdacen u ad sselmaden i warraw-nsen tafr'ensist. Seg wakken sseqdacen tafr'ensist alammi ay sen-tughal d ah'ric seg-sen, ixuss' kan d tafr'ensist i ghef ara ! u ghalen ad ttnad'ah'en, ad tughal Tmurt n Leqbayel Tamazight d Quťbec amaynut. [...] Ihi ulaygher neddja tutlayt-nnegh tamazight akken ad nemmeslay ayen ur nelli nnegh. Di tallit-agi i deg nella, ILAQ tamazight ad tughal d tutlayt n weghrum. Tallit n wass-a tughal d tin n tepr'agmatit (pragmatisme), i deg medden merr'a ttnadin kan ghef nnfe‚-nsen, dgha nughal dima neqqar-as taggara-yagi : amek ara d-nejbed medden gher tmazight. Dda Muh'end Usma‚il Medjber', ad t-yebder R'ebbi s lxir, yewwet akken ara yefru ugur-agi s tesghunt-is ABC Amazigh, d acu kan, yufa-d iman-is meskin, deg yiseggasen-nni n 1999 d 2000 i yiman-is, maci at'as ay t-i‚awnen dgha s tidet yernu medden ur fhimen ara akk izen ay ye‚red' ad t-yes‚eddi. D acu kan, ass-a ILAQ ad as-d-nerr tar'wih't i takti-yagi, u ad nxeddem dima ghef wamek ara tt-id-nessuffegh gher tidet. Nekni, si tama-nnegh, nessefray "ad nefk ddh'is" deg wennar n tutlayt. [Nteg] timsirin n tmazigh s tebratin, yernu nett‚awan wid d tid yeqqaren ghur-! n egh akken ad issinen mlih' tamazight u ad ttarun yis-s. Wid iz'ewren di tira, nteg-asen ifadden akken ad d-ssuffghen idlisen, u tessefray tiddukla-nnegh ad tt‚iwen yal yiwen seg yimaslad'en-is (wid yettekkan deg-s) ara yebghun ad d-yessuffegh adlis s tmazight, dgha mi d-yeffegh wedlis-nni, am tiddukla, am bab n wedlis, ad awin akk lfayda, ma d tamazight, ad tawi lfayda meqqren. Yernu nettwali d akken llant at'as n tghawsiwin ara d-nelmed digh seg yegduden nnid'en ara yettnad'ah'en akken ad d-ssidren tutlayin-nsen. Ghef waya ara nessefray ad d-nesseddu at'as n yed'risen deg weghmis-nnegh ara d-yemmeslayen ghef termitin (expťriences) n yegduden nnid'en deg wennar-agi, u nessaram d akken anect-a ad t-ddmen ula d Imazighen, ma yebgha R'ebbi, u ad xedmen yis-s. Asselmed n tmazight i warraw-nnegh yughal ass-a d lwadjeb [ghef yal yiwen deg-negh] a gma. Mebla lmezga n ddewla ! Ama llan yigherbazen ama ulac, ama tughal tmazight d tutlayt tamens'abt (officielle) negh ala ! Tamazight tell! a , tella deg yexxamen-nnegh, [u ad tili] ma yebgha R'ebbi. Yiwen ur d i-ikkis ad slemdegh tamazight i mmi negh yelli deg wexxam-iw [...] Yiwen ur d i-ikkis ad arugh s tmazigh sdaxel n th'anut-iw. Yiwen ur d i-ikkis ad as-rregh tasfift n tmucuha n teqbaylit (s taghect n setti) i mmi akken ad tt-isel mi ara d-ih'der ad itt'es, deg yid'. At'as n lumur' ay nezmer ad tent-nexdem i yiman-nnegh. D lebghi kan ay ixuss'en medden. S leh'mala d tegmat meqqren Tanemmirt-ik a gma.
Imedyazen.


 Tutlayt takurdit di Tt'erk

sghur n Amir Hassanpour

[Aqeddem : ad'ris-agi ay d awen-d-nefren ass-a d win yerzan tagnit i deg tella tutlayt takurdit di tmurt n Tt'erk. Ikurdiyen ay yellan d agdud ameqqran ay yettidiren di tama n Kurdistan, yettwabd'a wakal-nsen ghef 4 n tmura, yernu ah'ric meqqren seg wegdud-agi yettidir di tmurt n Tt'erk. Tamurt-a ay yebghan ad tili d ddewla tatrart, d tin yes‚eddayen lbat'el d ameqqran deg yimezdaghen-is akk d yegduden yettidiren deg-s, yernu lbat'el ara tes‚edday deg Yikurdiyen d win ur nes‚i tamtilt deg umezruy. Yugh lh'al, adabu at'erki yekkes-asen i Yikurdiyen ad mmeslayen ula d awal tutlayt-nsen yernu anect-a yessbanay-d d akken yeh'r'ec u yessen d acu ixeddem imi ay iga aya i Yikurdiyen ... yez'ra d akken tutlayt d nettat ay tigejdit talemmast n tnettit (identitť) n wegdud yernu d tin umi yekker akken ad tt-yeqd'e‚ i wegdud akurdi. Yernu simmal itekkes-asen i Yikurdiyen tutlayt-nsen, yetth'ettim fell-asen tutlayt nnid'en, tat'erkit, a! k ken ad ten-yerr d It'erkiyen. D acu kan, Ikurdiyen atni ttnad'ah'en akken zemren, yernu yal tikkelt i deg ara tufrar tagut fell-asen ad d-ssuffghen aghmis negh adlis i yes ara d-gren tighri, i yes ara ddjen tutlayt-nsen ad d-terr nnefs. Ad'ris-agi yesskanay-d ihi azal meqqren ay tes‚a tutlayt di tudert n wegdud, dgha ma yesr'uh' wegdud tutlayt-is, xas h'seb-it yemmut. Afud igerrzen].

Tagertilt (carte) n Yikurdiyen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tasertit ay ted'fer tegduda tat'erkit seg wasmi ay d-tebded di 1923 ar ass-a, d tin umi nezmer ad nsemmi d tasertit n ussenger n tutlayt (linguicide, gťnocide linguistique). Tigduda tat'erkit, ay d-sbedden deg wemkan n Umenkud A‚etmani (Empire Ottoman), d tamurt tameslemmast talaykit (centraliste laÔc) ay yettd'afaren timura tigherbiyin yernu d aghlan (nation) yefkan kan azal i wegdud akk d tnettit (identitť) tat'erkit. Leqdic n ddewla tat'erkit akken ad tezre‚ asselmes (centralisation) akk d yedles d tutlayt tat'erkit di tmurt n Tt'erk d ayen ay yessawd'en Ikurdiyen ad kkren s imenghi ach'al d abrid (1925, 1927-31, 1930-38), d acu kan, yal tikkelt i deg ara gen tanekra (rťvolte), adabu at'erki yettak-asen tiyitiwin idjehden. D Ikurdiyen ay d tadersi (minoritť) tameqqrant akk di Tt'erk mbe‚d n Yit'erkiyen, d acu kan, texdem Tt'erk amek ara d-tessbedd tasertit i yes ara tettbeddil cwit', cwit' imezdaghen n tmiwa tikurdiyin s yemd! a nen nnid'en ay yellan d iberr'aniyen ghef tmiwa-ya i lmend n ussenger n tutlayt takurdit. Dgha, i lmend n waya, d tiwinas n yigiman (centaines de milliers) n Yikurdiyen ay yesguddj unabad' (gouvernement) at'erki si Kurdistan gher tmiwa i deg zedghen Yit'erkiyen, am wakken ay ttwanghan medden s trebba‚ yal tikkelt i deg ara d-kkren Yikurdiyen mgal n udabu, yernu ger n yiseggasen n 1920 akk d 1940, asmi ay llan ttughalen-d yeghriben It'erkiyen yellan di Turr'uft gher tmurt-nsen, di tmiwa tikurdiyin ay yella unabad' yettak-asen tanezdught. Di tgara n yiseggasen n 1930, timnad'in (provinces) tikurdiyin merr'a llan tt'fen-tent yiserdasen, yernu yal taddart tameqqrant di Kurdistan ssersen-as taghsart n temsulta (poste de police).

Iswi n tsertit n tutlayt (politique linguistique) n unabad' at'erki netta d ah'ettem n Yikurdiyen akken ad ddjen tutlayt-nsen u ad ughalen d wid yettmeslayen tat'erkit amzun yis-s ay d-kkren, dgha at'as n tghawsiwin ay tga Tt'erk di 70 n yiseggasen-agi ineggura akken ad tessenger tutlayt takurdit.

A. Agdal (interdiction) n ussiwel n tkurdit :

Agdal n ussiwel n tkurdit deg yimukan izuyaz (lieux publics), deg yimukan n unabad' akk d yigherbazen d ayen yellan yeshel ghef udabu ad t-ih'ettem ghef medden. Deg yiseggasen imenza i deg d-yebda waya, ttukellfen kra akken n yiqeddacen n unabad' akken ad h'ettmen anect-a ghef medden di temdinin. Ghef umedya, d ayen yettwassnen d akken ula d ifellah'en ay d-yettawin alzazen-nsen (ssel‚a) ad ten-zzenzen di ssuq n temdint, llan zemren ad xells'en tafgurt (amande) n xemsa n yepiastren (piastre) ghef yal awal n tkurdit ara d-inin yernu di tallit-nni, ikerri yella yeswa xemsin n yepiastren.

Tiyita akk d usseb‚ed n wab‚ad' ghef twacult-is d tarrayin (mťthodes) nnid'en ay llan sseqdacen-tent yigherbazen it'erkiyen akken ur ttaddjan ara anelmad ad yemmeslay takurdit. Llan ttweddiben (punir) inelmaden ula mi ara mmeslayen s tkurdit berr'a i tneghra (classes), di lweqt n tesgunfut (rťcrťation). Di 1964, ttusbedden-d di Tt'erk yigherbazen igensiyen (internats) akken ad qqimen yinelmaden amur meqqren deg useggas ttwa‚ezlen ghef twaculin-nsen, u ad asen-gen ifadden akken ad ttun tutlayt-nsen tayemmat.

Maca ayen ay sqedcen dgha s wat'as Yit'erkiyen mgal n Yikurdiyen akken ad ten-rren ttseth'in s tutlayt-nsen netta d "takrid't tazamalt" (violence symbolique). Ula d ismawen n "Akurdi" akk d "Kurdistan" yegdel-iten udabu at'erki, dgha yughal yessawal-asen i Yikurdiyen "Dagli Turkler" (it'erkiyen n wedrar), ma d tamurt-nsen isemma-yas udabu "Dogu", negh Agmud' (Ccerq). Rnu-yas s anect-a, at'as n yimagraden (articles), n yedlisen akk d yinawen (discours) ay d-uran negh nnan-ten-id Yit'erkiyen akken ad nekr'en d akken aghlan akurdi yella, di lweqt i deg agdud at'erki ssmeghren-as ccan-is deg umezruy amaynut n tmurt n Tt'erk, yernu h'esben-t d netta ay d agdud yifen akk igduden n wemd'al. Di 1935, tennulfa-d "Tez'ri (thťorie) n tutlayt n yit'ij" (Gunesh-Dil teorist) ay d-yeqqaren d akken Asya Talemmast, tamurt tanes'lit n Yit'erkiyen, d nettat ay d dduh' i deg d-tlul tgherma n yemdanen yernu tat'erkit d nettat ay d yemma-s n tutlayin! merr'a. Ma d Ikurdiyen, llan ttwalin-ten d taqbilt las'el-is d atur'ani (at'erki), maca tettu tutlayt-is tanes'lit imi ay tettwa‚zel deg yidurar ibe‚den yernu zerren-tt (influencer) ldjiran-is Ifarsiyen (Perses).

Dgha i lmend n wenkar' n tilin n weghlan akurdi, yettubeddel umezruy am wakken ay tettubeddel tutlayt takurdit. Dgha deg wayen yeqqnen s aya, anmahal (ambassadeur) a‚iraqi, di tmurt n Tt'erk, Talib Mushtaq (1958-1964), yura-d di tkuta-yines (mťmoires) d akken It'erkiyen llan qqaren-d d akken takurdit d tutlayt ur nes‚i ara ilugan n tjerr'umt yernu amawal-is (vocabulaire) yexled' u deg-s ala kan 8428 n wawalen :

Ghef leh'sab-nsen, 3080 seg wawalen n tkurdit kkan-d si tturkminit taqburt [tutlayt ay d-yefkan tat'erkit n wass-a], 2000 n wawalen kkan-d seg wawalen n ta‚r'abt ay sseqdacen di tt'erkit, 1240 n wawalen kkan-d si tutlayt tazandit, 1030 n wawalen kkan-d si tfarsit tatrart (perse moderne), 370 n wawalen kkan-d si tfehlawit taqburt (pahlavi), 300 n wawalen kkan-d si tkurdit tanes'lit, 200 n wawalen kkan-d si tar'minit (armťnien), 108 n wawalen kkan-d si tkaldit (chaldťen), 60 kkan-d si tserkasit (circassien), ma d 20 kkan-d si tejyur'jit (gťorgien).

Si tama nnid'en, tisuda (institution) n usselmed sselh'ant at'as n yir tikta (idťes) ghef Yikurdiyen u s waya ay ughalen Yikurdiyen ttwah'esben d "iri-ten", "umsen" yernu d "imdanen iqburen ur nefhim ara". Yir tamughli-yagi tufa amkan-is ula di tutlayt tat'erkit. Ghef umedya, di tez'rigt (ťdition) tis tlata n Umawal Tat'erkit-Taglizit n Oxford (1984), awal at'erki "Kurt" (Akurdi) yes‚a sin n yinumak : "1- (ethn.) Kurd; 2- (pej.) uncivilized person" [ab‚ad' ur nessin tagherma, ab‚ad' ay texd'a tgherma]. 

Akken digh ad gedlen i Yikurdiyen assiwel n tutlayt-nsen, yeqdec unabad' akken ad asen-yerrez' ifadden i Yikurdiyen, ur sellen ara tisgilin (ťmissions) tiberr'aniyin ay yettmeslayen s tkurdit. Dgha yesbedd-d udabu at'as n teghsarin (stations) n rr'adyu di temdinin tikurdiyin akken ad qeddcent gher tama n yimesgalen (ťmetteurs) imeqqranen ilemmasen ay yellan yagi, akken ad d-s‚eddayen s teghzi n wass tisgilin yettmeslayen s tt'erkit.

B. Agdal n tira n tkurdit

Agdal n tira n tkurdit d ayen ay yessawed' unabad' at'erki ad t-ih'ettem ghef medden ugar n wegdal n ussiwel n tutlayt-nsen imi ay yeshel ghef unabad' ad iqare‚ assuffegh n wayen yuran [idlisen, ighmisen, atg.] akk d wayen ay d-ttarun yemdanen negh tirebba‚ negh asselh'u n wayen yuran s tkurdit di temkerd'iyin (bibliothŤques). Maci ala kan d tira s tutlayt takurdit ay yettwagedlen, wanag tettwagdel ula d tira n wawalen n "Akurdi" akk d "Kurdistan" xas ma uran s tutlayt nnid'en (ala kan awal KurrtÁe -Akurdi s tt'erkit- ay sseqdacen deg yir'abulen n waddun -rapports de recensement).

D acu kan, di "talliyin-nni n weslellem" (libťralisation) (1967-71, 1975-80), tekker-d yiwet n tsuta (gťnťration) tamaynut n waggagen (intellectuels) akk d yimeghnasen isertiyen (militants politiques) ay d-yessuffghen tisghunin d yeghmisen isnutlayen (bilingues), sin n yimawalen n tkurdit akk d tt'erkit, yiwet n tjerr'umt akk d yiwen n wedlis s tkurdit, "Mem Ż ZÓn" ay d-yura Khani, yernu yekkes seg-s kra n tghawsiwin igedlen. Yugh lh'al, tuget si tsufagh-agi (publications) ttwagedlent akken kan d-ffghent yernu wid ay tent-id-yessuffghen ttwah'ebsen imi ay sen-sbabben d akken bghan ad bd'un tamurt. Akken kan ad d-nefk amedya, di 1968, yeffegh-d yiwen n ubacid (abťcťdaire), Alfabe, s tkurdit, d acu kan, sin wussan kan mbe‚d, gedlen-t yexxamen n ccr'e‚ n Istanbul akk d Diyarbakir, ma d bab-is h'ekmen-as s r'eb‚a n wagguren n tkurmut (lh'ebs) imi ay s-sbubben d akken yebgha ad yebd'u tamurt yernu ye‚red' ad d-yessebded tamurt t! a kurdit timziregt (indťpendante).

Maci ala kan sdaxel n tmurt n Tt'erk ay tettwaqd'e‚ tkurdit, wanag ula di tmura n berr'a, yernu yiwen kan n umedya ad iqam akken ad d-nessken aya. Citt'ah' kan uqbel ma ted'ra-d tuttya-nni taserdasit (coup d'Etat) n 1980 di Tt'erk, tebda tsebdad't tadelsant tanur'dit (fondation culturelle nordique) a tesselmad takurtdit di Danmar'k akken ad d-tessilegh (former) iselmaden n tutlayt takurdit ger n yeghriben Ikurdiyen ay yettidiren di tmura tiskandinaviyin. Iswi n wanect-a netta d asselmed n tira, n umawal akk d tjerr'umt takurdit i yiselmaden-agi, akken ad slemden ula d nitni takurdit i yigerdan ikurdiyen yettidiren di Skandinavya. D acu kan, "Tamahelt (ambassade) tat'erkit di Copenhagen te‚red' ad teh'bes timeghri-yagi (cours) u tger-d tamawt d akken wid yettekkan deg-s mazal-iten d ighermanen (citoyens) it'erkiyen, dgha ghef waya, ur ttalasen ara ad xalfen asad'uf (lqanun) at'erki, a tamurt yebghun ilin deg-s, rnu-yas s anect-a,! tutlayt takurdit tettwagdel deg usad'uf at'erki". [dgha s kra n leqdic ara yettwaxedmen ghef tutlayt-a yettusemma d tuffgha i usad'uf at'erki].

Anhil* n Tuttya Taserdasit n 1980 :

(*anhil = rťgime)

Yugh lh'al, anhil at'erki maci s tuffra ay yebgha ad yemh'u agdud akurdi si ddunit, yernu yegdel-as ula i unaray (bureau) n tkebbanit n Lufthansa di Istanbul akk d temkerd'it tamarikanit n Ankara ad sseqdacen tutlayt takurdit negh tagrigit akk d tar'minit. Di 1984, tessedda-d tesghunt n Rotary Club yiwet n tugna (photo) i deg yella yiwen n weblugh (globe), uran-d deg-s yismawen n "Kurdistan" akk d "Pontus", dgha yessawed' wanect-a alammi ay ttwah'ekmen tlata n yiseggasen n tkurmut i wem‚iwen n unemhal (directeur) n tkebbanit-a di Istanbul (London Guardian, 23 Meghres, 1984). Ma d tinmuhal (ambassades) tit'erkiyin di Turr'uft, ach'al d abrid ay h'er'sent timura tur'uffiyin seg yidis n tesnassaght (diplomatiquement) negh s wayen nnid'en, akken ur ttaddjant ara tirebba‚ tikurdiyin ad ttekkint deg wahilen (programmes) idelsanen ay d-sbeddayent tmura-ya. Tt'erk teh'r'es timura turr'ufiyin ula akken ad h'ebsent tisgilin-nni n rr'adyu ! n lgherba ay yettmeslayen s tkurdit. Ma di tmurt, ast'uqqet n yiserdasen it'erkiyen akk d ussedjhed n leh'kem at'erki di temnad'in tikurdiyin yegla-d s wahilen imaynuten i lmend n temsertit (assimilation) n wegdud akurdi dgha "tettusbedd-d yiwet n lh'emla i lmend n usselhu n usselmed n tt'erkit i wid ur nessin ad ghren wala ad arun, am wakken ay d-yessekcem udabu at'erki timeghra tinezz'awin (cours intensifs) n tt'erkit s igherbazen imenza. Ma imenzad'en (commandants) n temnad'in, yal yiwen deg-sen yes‚a ahil-is i yiman-is akken ad yeqd'e‚ i medden asseqdec n tutlayt takurdit, lxers'um di temdinin. Ma d icett'id'en imensayen (traditionnels) ikurdiyen, mbe‚d ma ddjan-ten ad d-banen deg yiseggasen n 1970, ‚awden gedlen-ten tikkelt nnid'en". 

Imenghi imselleh' ay d-yesbedd yiwen n ukabar azelmad' akurdi, Partiya KarkerÍn Kurdistan (Akabar n Yiqeddacen n Kurdistan) di tazwara n yiseggasen n 1980, yessawed' Tt'erk alammi ay tefreq at'as n yiserdasen di temnad'in tikurdiyin. Akken ur ttekkayen ara yimezdaghen n ugama (campagne) deg yimenghi-yagi, adabu at'erki a iqeddec akken ara d-yessbedd tudrin tisuddasin (villages stratťgiques) [akken ad yesgiddj udabu ifellah'en ikurdiyen seg wakal-nsen gher tudrin-agi, i deg tezmer ad ten-iqare‚]. Si tama nnid'en, Ikirgiziyen ay d-irewlen si Afghanistan yernu ttmeslayen tat'erkit, yesguddj-iten udabu at'erki gher Kurdistan anda ay sen-yefka tanezdught. Yeqqar-d unabad'  d akken yewwi Ikirgiziyen akken ad zedghen di tama-ya imi ay tcuba idurar-nni-nsen i deg llan ttidiren zik di Afghanistan, maca di tidet, ula di tmiwa i deg ttmeslayen tat'erkit ur xuss'en ara yidurar, yernu Tt'erk tewwi iruzagh-agi (rťfugiťs) gher Kurdistan a! k ken kan ad ternu ad tezre‚ deg-s tutlayt tat'erkit.

Inelkamen* n tsertit n tutlayt tat'erkit

*anelkam = consťquence

Leqdic ay txeddem Tt'erk akken ad temh'u yis-s Ikurdiyen akk d tutlayt-nsen yessawed' ad yessenqes seg yimezdaghen n Kurdistan ay yellan zik tt'uqqten, yernu yerra at'as n Yikurdiyen ttmeslayen tutlayt tat'erkit am wakken ay yessawed' idles aghelnaw akurdi gher yiri n nnger (tasekla tatlayt -littťrature orale- d tsekla yuran, lmuziga akk d yicett'id'en imensayen). Imi ay sen-terra Tt'erk takmamt i Yikerdiyen s yighil, yughal yew‚er' ghef yineggura-ya ad d-mmeslayen ghef tnettit n wegdud-nsen. Yiwen n unelmad utrim (agherbi) ay yeghran ghef "tedghar tisertiyin" (ťlites politiques) yufa-d d akken citt'ah' kan n yimazanen (dťputťs) Ikurdiyen "ay d-yeqqaren (negh ste‚r'ifen) d akken ssnen ad mmeslayen takurdit". Ma d yiwen n unawur (fonctionnaire) akurdi ay yettekkan deg waddun (recensement) n 1965, yenna-d d akken at'as n Yikurdiyen, xas ur ssinen ara tat'erkit, qqaren-d d akken d tat'erkit ay ttmeslayen akken ad sbe‚den uguren ghef yiman-nsen.

Inelkamen n lbat'el ay tes‚edda Tt'erk ghef Yikurdiyen nezmer ad asen-nger tamawt ula deg yezwal (chiffres) n waddunen. Ger n 1955 d 1960, nnernan wid yettmeslayen takurdit s 10 %, imi ay yessifess citt'ah' udabu at'erki si ccedda-s di tallit-nni. Ma di 1965, neqsen wid yettmeslayen takurdit deg yiwet n teswi‚t s 23 %, yernu ssebba n wanect-a ur telli d tamsertit (assimilation), wanag di tallit-nni d ccedda n lbat'el n udabu ay d-yughalen, yernu si tama nnid'en, tamsertit tett‚ett'il akken ad d-tili imi ay tetteh'widji yiwet n tsuta (ldjil)s lekmal-is u maci ala kan xemsa n yiseggasen. Ma d wid yettmeslayen takurdit d "tutlayt-nsen tis snat" nnernan ula d nitni, yernu anect-a yesskanay-d d akken azra‚ n tutlayt tat'erkit di Kurdistan yedda mlih'. Imi It'erkiyen ur lemmden ara takurdit, wid yettmeslayen takurdit d tutlayt-nsen tis snat d Ikurdiyen kan ay yughalen sseqdacen at'as tat'erkit di lweqt i deg mazal-iten cfan ghef tutla! y t-nsen tanes'lit.

D acu kan, llan at'as n Yikurdiyen ay d-ibedden mgal n uh'ettem n tutlayt tat'erkit, yernu ach'al d abrid ay d-iccetka udabu ghef taz'eyt i yes ara iteddu wezra‚ n tutlayt tat'erkit di Kurdistan. Deg weghmis at'erki n yal ass, Cumhuriyet, ay d-yeffghen deg wass n 31 Yulyu 1966, yenna-d umazan at'erki n temdint n Aydin d akken 91 % seg yimezdaghen n temnad't n Mardin ur ssinen ula d yiwen n wawal s tt'erkit; ma di temnad'in tikurdiyin timeqqranin nnid'en, wid ur nessin ara tat'erkit wwd'en gher 87 % di Siirt, 81 % di Hakkari , 67 % di temnad't n Diyarbakir, 68 % di Bingol akk d 66 % di Bitlis .

Xas ma yella wer‚ad tengir tutlayt takurdit di Tt'erk, maca ur yelli d lmuh'al akken ad tenger yiwwas. Tamattant n tutlayin ted'ra yagi yernu mazal a td'erru deg wat'as n yimukan deg wemd'al, u ssebbat ay tt-yettaddjan ad d-ted'ru maci d tid yeqqnen gher tutlayt s timmad-is wanag qqnen s uguren nnid'en. Di Tt'erk, agdud ar'mini akk d tutlayt-is s tmenghiwt n lghaci ay ten-yemh'a wenhil a‚etmani akk d tegduda tat'erkit. D ayen icuban aya ay yexdem digh udabu at'erki i Yikurdiyen, xas akken wigi tt'uqten ugar n War'miniyen. D acu kan, lemmer yettaf udabu at'erki abrid, d ayen akken ay iga i War'minyen ay yezmer ad i‚iwed ad t-yeg ula i Yikurdiyen. Di Yennayer n 1991, yekkes uselway n Tt'erk, Ozal, agdal-nni yellan ghef usiwel n tutlayt takurdit, maca anect-a ur yelli d abeddel di tesnakta (idťologie) negh di tsertit n ddewla tat'erkit, wanag ayen akka yexdem udabu d ane‚rud' kan akken ad d-isellek ddewla n Ataturk seg tlufa timeqq! r anin ay d-tettmagar deg yinurar n tdamsa (ťconomie), n tsertit, n yedles akk d tesnakta.

Tasuqilt sghur Omar MOUFFOK

Akken ad ternum ugar n yisallen, tzemrem ad terzum s asebter-agi :

http://www.cogsci.ed.ac.uk/~siamakr/Kurdish/Papers/hassanpour92/biblio.html


 
Tutlayt takurdit

Takurdit d isem ay ssexdamen i snat n tutlayin yettemcabin mlih', ttmeslayen-tent wazal n 13 n yimelyunen n yemdanen di tama-nni n Asya umi qqaren Kurdistan. Tamenzut d tutlayt takurmanjit (negh takurdit n ugafa-nord), ma d tis snat d tutlayt tasur'anit (negh takurdit n wenz'ul -sud), ay ttmeslayen wazal n 2.800.000 n yemdaben du L‚iraq akk d 3.000.000 n yemdanen di Ir'an.

Takurmanjit, tin ay ttmeslayen wat'as n medden, ad tt-naf dgha s wat'as di Tt'erk, anda ay llan 4 n yimelyunen n medden ay tt-yettmeslayen, deg ugafa n L‚iraq, di Surya tt-ttmeslayen 500.000 n medden, di Ar'minya (100.000 n yemsiwlen) akk d di Ir'an (100.000). Llan digh wid yettmeslayen takurdit takurmanjit di Jyur'jya akk d Azerbidjan, maca ur nez'ri ara ach'al, am wakken ay llant digh trebba‚ timect'ah' n Yikurdiyen ay izedghen di tmura tiberr'aniyen (azal n 70.000 s ujemmal), ladgha di Lubnan akk d Turr'uft, deg Yiwunak Yedduklen (USA) akk d Kanada.

Wid yettmeslayen takurdit tasur'anit wwd'en gher 6 n yimelyunen s ujemmal, ma d wid yettmeslayen takurdit takurmanjit wwd'en gher wazal n 7 n yimelyunen, xas ma yella llan kra ay d-yeqqaren d akken wwd'en alammi d 20 n yimelyunen. Yugh lh'al, maci merr'a Ikurdiyen yellan ass-a d wid ay yessnen ad mmeslayen tutlayt-nsen imi tamsertit (assimilation) tessawed' at'as seg-sen ad ddjen takurdit, yernu llan ula d imdanen yettmeslayen tutlayin nnid'en, am tgur'anit negh tadimlit (d tutlayin tihendur'ufiyin ay yettemcabin wagar-asent, maca mgerradent ghef tkurdit), yernu h'esben iman-nsen d Ikurdiyen, d aya ay yettaran tikwal leh'sabat we‚r'en. 


Tawacult-is

Takurdit d tutlayt tahendur'ufit (indo-europťenne) u tettekka deg ufurk n tutlayin tir'aniyin (langues iraniennes), yernu yiwet si ger n tutlayin ay tt-icuban s wat'as d tafarsit (perse) ay yellan d tutlayt taghelnawt n Ir'an, akk d tbalucit, tutlayt n Balucistan. 

Tantalyin-is

Tutlayt takurdit tettemxallaf ghef leh'sab n tmiwa i deg tt-ttmeslayen. Imesnilsiyen (linguistes) ttwalin, s umata, d akken tasur'anit akk d tkurmanjit d tutlayin, yal yiwet i yiman-is, dgha di lweqt i deg ttemcabint mlih' deg umawal, s‚nt at'as n wemgerrad (lxilaf) di tjerr'umt-nsent, yernu tikwal, yew‚er' ghef wid ay tent-yettmeslayen ad msefhamen wagar-asen. Ma d wiyad', ttwalin-tent d snat kan n tantalyin n yiwet n tutlayt. Am tsur'anit, am tkurmanjit, di snat yid-sent s‚ant tiduntalyin (sous-dialectes) ay ttmeslayen di tmiwa-nsent. Tantala n temdint n Sulaimaniya, di L‚iraq tughal d tutlayt tizeght (standard) n tsekla n Yikurdiyen n tmurt-a, di lweqt i deg di Ir'an, d tantala takurdit n Mukri (d yiwet si tentalyin n tsur'anit) ay yughalen d tutlayt n tsekla, yernu maci at'as ay temxallaf ghef tin n Sulaimaniya. Si tama nnid'en, ula di lgherba atni Yikurdiyen a d-sbeddayen tutlayt tizeght tamaynut, ladgha s leqdic-nsen di rr! ' adyu.

Tira-s

Di lweqt i deg Ikurdiyen n L‚iraq, Ir'an akk d Surya sseqdacen agemmay a‚r'ab ay yettubeddlen akken ad arun tutlayt-nsen, Ikurdiyen n Tt'erk d agemmay alatini ay sseqdacen. Di Ar'minya akk d tegdudyin yellan zik s ddaw n udabu asuvyati, d agemmay asirili (arusi) ay sseqdacen Yikurdiyen, ma yella zik-nni, uqbel n 1946, Ikurdiyen n tmiwa-ya llan sseqdacen agemmay alatini, ay d-mazal ar ass-a sseqdacen-t kra. 

Amkan n tkurdit di tmetti

Di Ir'an, 90% seg Yikurdiyen ttidiren di tudrin, ma d wiyad' d imeksawen iteddun seg wemkan gher wayed'. Mbe‚d ma s‚eddan ach'al n yiseggasen s ddaw n lbat'el n udabu ir'ani, ssawd'en Yikurdiyen ad d-sbedden tasekla yuran s tutlayt-nsen di tmurt-a, yernu si 1984, tenqes mlih' ccedda ghef tkurdit di Ir'an imi ay izemren Yikurdiyen ad ghren tutlayt-nsen di tmiwa-nsen, di tmurt-a. At'as n tsufagh (publications) ay d-yeffghen seg yimir-n, yernu Ikurdiyen n Ir'an s‚an ula d tisgilin n rr'adyu yettmeslayen s tutlayt-nsen di tmurt-a.

Di L‚iraq, seg useggas n 1919 ay tes‚a tutlayt takurdit az'ayer amens'ab (statut officiel) n tutlayt taz'iyant (langue rťagionale), yernu d nettat ay d tutlayt n usselmed deg yigherbazen n udabu di Kurdistan a‚iraqi. Ihi L‚iraq ad tili tes‚a lxers'um yiwen n weghmis s tutlayt takurdit akk d yiwen n wexxam n tez'rigin (ťditions) ay d-yessuffughen idlisen s tutlayt-a. D tantala takurdit n Sulaimaniya ay rran Yikurdiyen n L‚iraq d tutlayt-nsen n tsekla, yernu ‚erd'en ad tezzizedgen seg wawalen-nni n ta‚r'abt ay yett'uqqten deg-s.

Di Tt'erk, di 1938 ay tettwagdel tkurdit yernu s kra n win ara tt-yemmeslayen di berr'a yezmer ad ixelles' tafgurt (amende). Di tallit-a taberkant ay s‚eddan Yikurdiyen, tutlayt-nsen tesr'uh' at'as seg wennar-is, at'as n Yikurdiyen ay yughalen d isnutlayen (bilingues), yernu citt'ah' kan mad'i seg-sen ay ilemden ad ghren u ad arun tutlayt-nsen. Di 1961, asmi ay d-tesbedd Tt'erk tamend'awt (constitution) tamaynut, bdant a d-teffghent tsufagh (publications) tikurdiyin, tikwal s snat n tutlayin, maca at'as deg-sent ay yettwagedlen akken kan d-ffghent. Yernu si 1967 alammi d taggara n yiseggasen n 1980, adabu at'erki ikemmel kan yettzeggid di ccedda ghef tkurdit yernu yesbedd-d at'as n yisud'af (leqwanin) i yes ara sen-yerr takmamt i Yikurdiyen, ur ttmeslayen, ur ttarun tutlayt-nsen. D acu kan, di 1991, yekkes unabad' at'erki agdal-nni-yines ghef tkurdit, yernu xas ur d-qqimen ara at'as n Yikurdiyen ay yettmeslayen takurdit di Tt'er! k , maca ttwalin d akken  tutlayt-nsen d ah'ric yes‚an azal meqqren di tnettit-nsen.

Ma Ikurdiyen n Ar'minya, at'as n leqdicat ay d-uran s tkurdit takurmanjit di tallit tasuvyatit.

Agdud-is

Llan deg wemd'al wazal n 25 n yimelyunen n Yikurdiyen. Ger n 40 akk d 50% seg-sen ttidiren di Tt'erk, 25% seg-sen ttidiren di Ir'an, 20 % di L‚iraq, llan digh di Surya, di tmura n wenz'ul n Quqaz akk d Lubnan. Tuget tameqqrant deg Yikurdiyen d inselmen isunniyen, d acu kan, llan gar-asen digh kra n yici‚iyen, n yiyazidiyen akk d yemsih'iyen. Si lqern wis 10 d asawen, bdan Yikurdiyen a d-sbeddayan tigeldiyin (royaumes) tinselmin tisunniyin, gar-asent tageldit tayyubit (ayyubides) ay d-yesbedd Salah al-Din (Saladin), d tin yennughen mgal n Yenmudag (Croisťs) ger n tgara n lqern wis 12 d lqern wis 13. Di 1920, we‚dent tmura tutrimin (tigherbiyin) Ikurdiyen, s wemtawa (traitť) n SŤvres d akken ad ten-‚iwnent akken ad d-sbedden tamurt timziregt (indťpendante) i yiman-nsen, d acu kan, di 1923, ttwaxed‚en Yikurdiyen deg wemtawa n Lausanne, yernu ur ten-id-is'ag' wacemma si tmurt-nsen. D aya ay ten-yeddjan ad bdun imenghi mgal n ddewla ! n Mustafa Kemal, di lweqt i deg Tt'erk tefka-yasen tiyitiwin idjehden, yernu tenfa at'as seg-sen seg wakal-nsen. Di 1945-46, sbedden-d Yikurdiyen n L‚iraq akk d Ir'an di Mahabad Tigduda tamagdayt takurdit ay yellan s ddaw n le‚naya tasuvyatit, d acu kan, dindin kan sseghlin-tt Yi‚iraqiyen akk d Yir'aniyen s lem‚awna n Brit'anya Tameqqrant. Imenghi i lmend b uzarug ikemmel ladgha di L‚iraq, anda ay d-yessker Barazani imenghi mgal n udabu alemmas ger n 1961 d 1970. Di 1974, tettunefk-as tfulmant (autonomie) i tama n Kurdistan a‚iraqi, yernu tughal Sulaimaniya d tamaneght-is. Deg wemgaru n Ir'an akk d L‚iraq (1980-1988), yal yiwet si tmura-ya te‚red' ad tesseqdec Ikurdiyen n tmurt-nni nnid'en di les'lah'-is. Di 1988, tanekra n Yikurdiyen di L‚iraq tessawed' adabu a‚iraqi ad asen-yefk tiyita ur nes‚i tamtilt, imi ay yesseqdec imrigen ikruranen (chimiques) mgal-nsen. Ma di 1991, akken kan i‚edda wemgaru n Wekriz' (guerre du Golfe), yewwet digh udabu a‚iraqi Ikurdiyen n tmurt-is, dgha tger! - d iman-is tmetti tagraghlant (communautť internationale) akken ad th'udd fell-asen. Ikurdiyen n L‚iraq assawd'en ad tt'fen ah'ric meqqren seg tmiwa-nsen yernu sbedden-d di tmurt-nsen, di 1992, yiwet n "ddewla takurdit". Ma di Tt'erk, yettak udabu tiytiwin idjehden mgal n Yikurdiyen ay d-yebdan imenghi imselleh' ara yesselh'ay Ukabar n Yiqeddacen n Kurdistan negh PKK. Di 1999, yettwatt'ef ughella (imd'ebber) n PKK, maca anect-a ur d-yerri ara lehna gher tmurt. Yugh lh'al, Tt'erk attan a tettwali iman-is terra-tt tmara ad asen-tefk izerfan-nsen i Yikurdiyen, ladgha imi ara tessaram ad tekcem gher Tdukli Tur'ufit (Union Europťenne).

Amezruy-is n tutlayt takurdit

Di 1934, ‚erd'en Yikurdiyen n Ar'minya ad rren takurdit takurmanjit d nettat ay d tutlayt ara yesduklen akk Ikurdiyen, maca ur ssawd'en ara. Llan digh yesdawanen (universitaires) ay i‚erd'en ad kksen imgerraden (lxilafat) yellan ger n tkurmanjit akk d tsur'anit i lmend n wesdukel-nsent, maca ula d nitni ur ssawd'en ara. Yugh lh'al, takurdit takurmanjit tes‚a tasekla yuran d taqburt, tebda-d si tgara n lqern wis 16 akk d wis 17, u teh'bes di lqern wis 18 d wis 19, yernu d tin ay d-ssidren Yikurdiyen n Surya akk d wid yellan di Tur'uft, di tallit i deg tella Surya s ddaw n le‚naya n Fr'ansa. D Ikurdiyen n Surya ay d-issuffghen aghlis akurdi amenzu, s tkurdit takurmanjit, di 1932, sakin, d'efrent-t-id at'as n tsufagh (publicaitons) nnid'en ay d-yeffghen di lgherba.

Ma di L‚iraq, d tamedyazt (poťsie) takurdit n lqern wis 18, ay yuran s tentala n Sulaimaniya ay ile‚ben ddur' deg usebded n tutlayt takurdit tizeght di tmurt-a. Di tazwara n yiseggasen n 1920, bdan a d-teffghen yeghlisen s tkurdit di Sulaimaniya, ma di 1931, yeste‚r'ef udabu a‚iraqi s tkurdit tasur'anit, yernu bdan a tt-sselmaden deg yigherbazen imenza, d ayen yeddjan tutlayt-a ad tennerni mlih' di L‚iraq, u ad taf iman-is.

Yugh lh'al, yemxallaf wamek tella tkurdit si tmurt gher tayed'. Di lweqt i deg nezmer ad d-nini d akken tutlayt-a yegra-yas-d liser di L‚iraq akk d Ir'an, di Tt'erk, i deg yettidir wazal n wezgen seg Yikurdiyen, mazal takurdit tettidir deg wuguren meqqren, yernu attan a tteddu akken ad tenger.

Ah'ric ameqqran seg wedris-agi yettwakkes-d seg wemd'iq n tesdawit n Kalifur'nya, UCLA :

http://www.lmp.ucla.edu/lmpweb/proflng.htm

Tasuqilt sghur H'afid' Mes'bah' d Hamid Oubagha


Arut-agh-d, gret-d tamawin-nwen, neqqar l‚eslama i s kra n tebrat ara d agh-d-yawd'en sghur-wen. 

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad
16006, Alger, Algťrie

E-mail : imedyazen89@yahoo.fr


<<< Qqel γer Ụṭ̣̣ṭ̣un 6                                                Ddu γer Ụṭ̣̣ṭ̣un 8 >>>


 Akk ụṭ̣̣ṭ̣unen


Qqel γer usebter n umager

Qqel d asawen

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
Association culturelle Imedyazen
BP 129 Poste Didouche Mourad
16006- Alger - Algťrie
Tel. (+213) (0) 64 77 07 37