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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

Utt'un 6
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Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
BP 129, Poste Didouche Mourad, 16006, Alger, Algťrie
imedyazen89@yahoo.fr

Tabrat n Yimedyazen

Taghmist n Tiddukla - Utt'un 6
(ddur't n 5 gher 11 Yulyu 2003)

Tigejdit :

Azul fell-awen ay atmaten d teysetmatin

Ass-a yughal qrib d lmuh'al ad naf Amazigh ur nefki ara kra si ter'wih't-is, seg weksum-is seg wayen yes‚a i lmend n tmazight, akken ad d-tidir ... llan ula d wid-n yefkan ah'ric meqqren seg tudet-nsen, llan ula d wid-n yefkan fell-as idammen d wid-n yefkan fell-as tudert-nsen. D anect-a ay d-yessebganen d akken tutlayt-a d yedlse-ines d ayen yellan ghlayen ghur-negh. Tamazight h'emmlen-tt wulawen-nnegh, ttergignt fell-as taswin, yernu llan at'as deg-negh ara yefken fell-as akk ayen s‚an akken ad terbeh'. D acu kan, deg wayen yerzan asseqdec-ines deg wennar, tidet ad tt-id-nini kan, ur nexdim ara lh'adja tameqqrant. Akken i s-yenna yiwen, xas nessawed' ad nefk fell-as ler'wah', llan at'as deg-negh ayen i tt-yerran di rrif, amzun di maci fell-as ay ttcan tiyita negh maci fell-as ay sr'uh'en atmaten-nsen. Ass-a, ad ken-id-nesteqsi kan s yiwen westeqsi, ad awen-nini : yella wi izemren ad isemmeh' deg wayen yettwaxedmen si 1949 ar ass-a ? Yella wi izemren ad isemmeh' deg ay! e n yettwaxedmen si 80 ar ass-a ? Yella wi izemren ad isemmeh', ad yenker' negh ad yettu igerdan-nni yefkan ASEGGAS si le‚mer'-nsen ghef tutlayt-nnegh ger n 94 d 95 ? Yella win izemren ad yenker' ayen i ghef mmuten warrac d tullas-nnegh, irgazen d tilawin-nnegh, imgharen d temgharin-nnegh deg Tefsut Taberkant d wayen akk ay d-id'efren ? Ur ilaq ad nilit seg wid itettun, wala seg wid inekkr'en lxir. Ur ilaq ad nilit seg wid yettxemmimen kan ghef yiman-nsen, wanag ilaq ad nessitt‚et ulawen-nnegh u ad nh'ulfu i lqerh' n wigad yemmuten d ldjerh' n wigad yettewten, u mazal-iten ttrun ar ass-a. D acu-tt tutlayt-agi tamaynut ay d agh-d-ikecmen ? Seg wansi ay d-tekka yernu deg wacu ay tif tamazight ? Yella kra n lxir i gh-tettalas alammi ara tt-nerr d nettat ay d tutlayt i yes nettmeslay ss'beh', tameddit ? negh bitt, fell-as ay mmuten negh ttewten watmaten d teysetmatin-nnegh ? Mmektit-d mlih' ayen i‚eddan, tmeyyzem ghef wamek llant lumur' ass-a ... ma llan wid izemren ad semmh'en deg! wayen i‚eddan, akken ad fken cci‚a i wayen ur tt-nuklal ... nekni ad awen-nin "Ulac ssmah', ulac". 

Imedyazen 


 

TIBRATIN-NWEN

YUBA ACAWI
Azul fell-awen akken ma tellam s weqcic s teqcict, s wergaz s tmett'ut. Di tazwara, ad awen-d-inigh tanemmirt [d] tameqrant i terba‚t n tiddukla tadelsant Imedyazen i iqeddcen ghef temsalt n tmazight i ye‚nan Tafriqt Ugafa d wegdud-is, maca llan at'as n wawalen i tesseqdacem s ta‚r'abt, llan di tentalyin timazighin nnid'en, amedya(lekdeb=tikerkas) di tcawit (mazal=wer‚d) di tcawit d temzabit, yehdar=yutlay di tcawit, dgha anect-agi yeqqar-d d akken tamazight maci d taqbaylit kan. Ssaramegh ad iligh d ameltagh di tiddukla-yagi,acku akken ma nella nessaram ad d-tufrar tutlayt-nnegh, ad tt-id-nezdi, ad tughal am tutlayin n umad'al s umata. Tanemmirt  d tamuqrant sgher umatwen Youba Acawi seg Wawras.

Tiririt:

... Maci seg wass ar azekka (jour au lendemain) ay nezmer ad nughal ad nesseqdac tamazight "tazedgant 100%", imi at'as n medden ur tt-nessin ara ass-a, at'as n medden ur nfehhem ara awalen-agi. Ghef waya, nekni nesmenyaf (nextar) ad ten-id-nessekcam cwit', cwit' deg yed'risen-nnegh yernu ilaq ad asen-nefk i medden at'as n ttawilat i yes ara lemden digh nitni i yiman-nsen awalen-agi, ayen d-qesdegh netta d imawalen n tmazight tatrart. D tidet, maci ala kan d taqbaylit ay d tamazight, d acu kan a gma, nekni d tagi kan ay nessen. Nebgha lemmer ad nwali Imazighen nnid'en a d-ttarun ula d nitni "iqent'aren" n yed'risen (textes) s tentalyin-nsen, dgha yal yiwen deg-negh ad yes‚u d acu ara igher s wawal n wiyad' yernu ad yelmed awal-nsen, nebgha ad d-yawed' wakud (lweqt) i deg ara tebdu tmazight teddukul, ad d-tbanent deg-s talghiwin (formes) yedduklen, ad d-tbanen deg-s wawalen ara icerken Imazighen merr'a, d acu kan, anect-a wer‚ad d-yebdi negh xas ma yebda-d, mazal ghezzif ! w ebrid akken ad nawed' s ayen nessaram ...    


Singapur : at'as n tutlayin, at'as n yegduden

Sghur n Amy J. Moyer

[Aqeddem : Singapur, ay yellan d tamurt tamect'uh't ay d-yuzgan di Asya n wenz'ul agmud'an (sud-est), d tamurt i deg ttidiren wat'as n yegduden, u ttmeslayen deg-s at'as n tutlayin. Anabad' (gouvernement) n tmurt-agi yesbedd-d tasertit (politique) i yes ara yerr taglizit d tutlayt i yes tteddu tmurt, am wakken ara tttwah'erzent tutlayin nnid'en, tid umi semman n "yegduden", akken yis-sent ara lemden yelmez'yen idelsan d wansayen-nsen. D acu kan, tagnit deg wennar tew‚er' ugar n wakken i tt-yettmuqul unabad'. Yugh lh'al, xas anabad' asingapuri iqeddec ghef wamek ara yeh'rez tutlayin n yegduden-is, maca maci merr'a tutlayin ay ssawalen di Singapur ttwah'erzent, yernu kra seg Yisingapuriyen ttawd'en bitt alamma sr'uh'en tutlayt d yedles-nsen ghef idra n tsertit-agi. Yugh lh'al, di tmurt am Singapur, i deg tt'uqqten yegduden, adennit (labudd) ad tili tutlayt, xas d taberr'anit, ara fehhmen merr'a yegduden-is yernu yis-s ay tez! m er ad d-tili teywalt (communication) wagar-asen. D acu kan, si tama nnid'en, tasertit n Singapur akken ad teh'rez tutlayin n yegduden-is ur telli d tin i‚edlen ger n tutlayin merr'a n tmurt-a. Di lweqt i deg Icinwaten a xeddmen ayen umi zemren akken ula d nitni ad s‚un tutlayt-nsen tedjhed di tmurt-a (xas ma yella atni a ttsemmih'en di tentalyin-nsen tines'liyin), igduden nnid'en n Singapur, i sen-d-yeqqimen kan ad qeblen tasertit-agi n unabad' ara iteddun akken ad temh'u at'as n tutlayin si tmurt-a. Amagrad-agi yettqeddimagh-d amek ay llant tutlayin di tmurt n Singapur, amek ara ixeddem unabad' akken ad yessemsawi lumur' di tmurt i deg tt'uqtent tutlayin am ta, d wamek ara yekkat akken ad ilin Yisingapuriyen d wid ara yissinen tutlayin i yes ara nef‚en tamurt-nsen. D acu kan, si tama nnid'en, nezmer digh ad naf deg-s tagnit is'e‚ben i deg ttidirent tutlayin timect'ah' sdat n tutlayin "umi meqqer ccan", di tmurt-a, i deg taglizit d nettat ay d tutlayt "tagraghlant" yekksen akk cc! i ‚a i tiyad', ma d tacinwat d nettat digh ay d tutlayt n tuget deg yimezdaghen n tmurt. Afud igerrzen]

Singapur

 

Tazzwart

Mi ara yerzu kra umerray (touriste) yettmeslayen taglizit ghef Singapur, ad yaf iman-is mlih' dinna mi ara d-yers seg usafag (avion). Igalisen n unafag (panneaux de l'aťroport) merr'a uran s teglizit, igalisen n webrid kifkif, yernu tuget akk di medden zemren ad fehmen taglizit ay yettmeslay, imi ah'ric meqqren di Singapur s teglizit ay ilehh'u. D acu kan, ayen ara iwe‚r'en ghef umerray ara d-yerzun ghef Singapur netta d afham n wawal-nni ay ttmeslayen wat'as n Yisingapuriyen s uh'ar'ef, d awal icuban taglizit, maca ur yezmir ara uberr'ani ad t-yefhem. Tutlayt-a ay yettmeslay wegdud qqaren-as tasinglict (singlish). Yugh lh'al, tasinglict d talgha (forme) n teglizit-nni ay llan sseqdacen-tt di Singapur di tallit n tehrest (colonisation), u llan wid i s-yeqqaren d ajeggeh' kan n tutlayt taglizit. Tajerr'umt (grammaire) akk d umawal n tutlayt-a, ay yebnan di las'el ghef wid n teglizit, kecmen-ten-id at'as n yilugan (rŤgles) akk d wawalen n tutlayt tamalizit (n Malizya) akk! d thokkient yellan d yiwet si tentalyin n Ccinwa. Dgha, maci ala kan deg weghdebbu (accent) d went'aq akk d wawalen ay temxallaf tsinglict ghef teglizit. Rnu-yas s aya, tutlayt-a ur telli d tigellilt, wanag d tutlayt ay ttmeslayen wat'as n medden deg wat'as n tegnatin di Singapur, yernu at'as seg wid ur tt-nessin ara, ur ttazmaren ara ad tt-fehmen, xas ssnen taglizit.

Di tsinglict, mi ara d ak-yini wab‚ad' "Where got?", ad tghiled' d asteqsi ay k-id-yesteqsa, maca netta yeqsed-d ad ak-yini d akken ur yumin ara kra n tghawsa negh yebgha ad tt-yeskiddeb [am mi ara d-nini s tmazight : "maci d ss'eh'"]. Ma iwala-k kra n bab n th'anut a tettmuquled' gher ssel‚a-s, ad ak-yini ‘Kairh ai hep choo?’,  d ayen ara d-nini s teglizit ay nnum "Can I help you?" [dgha yella wemgerrad meqqren deg went'aq ger n snat-agi n tutlayin]. Ma yenna-yak-d win yettmeslayen tasinglict "dirty" ghef kra n waxxam, ur d-yeqsid ara d akken axxam-nni "yumes", akken ad ara tt-yefhem wemdan yesnen taglizit tamagnut (commune), wanag yeqsed-d d akken axxam-nni yettwamlek. "Is it?" d tanfalit (expression) ay sseqdacen wid yettmeslayen tutlayt-a i lmend n wesmesxer negh ma ur ten-yetta‚djab ara kra, mi ara ten-yessewhem kra [akken d-neqqar "d le‚djeb !"], mi ara yilin ur th'iqqen ara ghef kra [akken d-neqqar nekni "wissen"], negh mi ara d ak-inin d akken ur uminen ara! ayen d asen-tennid'. Tanfalit-agi n "Is it?" zemren ad tt-sqedcen i yiman-is negh rennun-tt-id tikwal gher tgara n tefyirt (phrase). Ma d tafyirt "You can drop here", iqsed-d yis-s bab-is d akken "tzemred' ad teffghed' sya". Yugh lh'al, anabad' (gouvernement) asingapuri ur yefki ara akk azal i tsinglict yernu d taglizit tizeght (standart) ara yesnernay di tmurt-is. Deg yiwet n tdiwennit ay d-yeffghen si melmi kan deg weghmis n The Strait Times, yemmeslay-d uneghlaf ameqqran, Lee Kaun Yew, ghef tsiglict, yenna-d fell-as : "tettkemmil kan deg ujeggeh' n tutlayt yernu anect-a ur d agh-d-yettawi ara akk lfayda. Anect-a yezmer ad yes‚u azal i yimassanen n tutlayt maca ur yes‚i ara akk azal i tmetti". (The Strait Times Interactive, 12 Yunyu, 2000).  

Yugh lh'al, maci d ayen yessewhamen ma nenna-d d akken tasinglict tughal d yiwet si tutlayin timeqqranin akk n Singapur. Tigduda n Singapur d yiwet n tmurt tamuct'uh't i deg ttidiren wat'as n yegduden yernu ttmeslayen at'as n tutlayin. Tuzga-d tmurt-agi deg wenz'ul (sud) n Malizya, yernu tella deg-s yiwet n tegzirt tameqqrant akk d wazal n xemsin n tegzirin timect'ah' ay d-iqerben ghur-s. Di 20 n yiseggasen-agi i‚eddan, tughal Singapur d tamurt tatrart (moderne) yuz'an mlih' gher sdat, yernu terbeh' mlih' tdamsa-yines (ťconomie). Asseqdec n teglizit di Singapur yettekka mlih' deg wesnerni n tmurt-a akk d rrbeh'-yines. D taglizit ay d tutlayt n leqdic di Singapur, yernu d nettat ay d tutlayt ay fehhmen akk medden di tmurt-a. Imi si zik ara d-ttasen yiminigen gher Singapur, ass-a, tamurt-a tes‚a at'as n yegduden ay yettidiren deg-s. Imezdaghen-agi ixeld'en n tmurt-a simmal ara ttaddjan tutlayin-nsen akken ad mmeslayen taglizit, yernu anect-a id'erru-d s l‚ejlan si tsuta (! l djil) gher tayed'. Xas ma yella Singapur tes‚a r'eb‚a n tutlayin timens'abin (officielles), d taneglizit ay d tutlayt ay smenyafayen medden, yernu simmal ara ttnernin wid ara tt-yettmeslayen ama di berr'a, ama deg wexxam.

Kra seg umezruy n Singapur akk d wawwad' n yiminigen imezwura ghur-s

Xas ma yella amezruy n Singapur d aqdim at'as, ayen yes‚an azal meqqren akk deg-s netta d asmi ay yewwed' ghur-s Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles deg waggur n Yennayer n 1819. Mi akken ay yewwed' Raffles gher tegzirt-agi, yufa-n deg-s yiwet n taddart tamect'uh't n 150 n yimezdaghen dgha yugh tigizrt-agi ghef yiwen n ukerwa n yilel (maÓtre de la mer) isem-is Abdul Rahman yernu yerra-tt d ayla n Tkebbanit Tabrit'anit n Lhend Tagmud'ant (Tacerqit). Dindin kan tughal Singapur d asagen (port) irebh'en. Di 1826, tughal Singapur d ah'ric si Thersin n Yekriz'en (Colonies des Dťtroits), am nettat am Penang d Malacca [di Malizya]. Ma di 1867, tughal Singapur, akk d Thersin-nni n Yekriz'en d Tahrest seg Uqacuc Abrit'ani.

Iminigen n Ccinwa, n Lhend, n Malizya akk d tegzirin n Indunisya llan-d si ger n yimezwura ay d-yewwd'en gher Singapur, akken kan d-sbedden asagen-ines. Leh'kem abrit'ani akk d tewwura yeldin ghef tnezzawt (commerce) di Singapur d ayen ay yeddjan at'as n medden ad d-inigen ghur-s si Ccinwa. At'as seg Yicinwaten-nni ay d-yewwd'en gher din d wid yellan ttwalasen tt'laba dgha llan ssexdamen-ten di tmurt-a. Ma d iminigen Ihendiyen, bdan ttasen-d gher din seg wasmi ay d-yewwi Raffles kra seg-sen deg yiserdasen-is. Imi ay zemren ad xedmen di Singapur di inawaren (forctionnaires) n unabad', d imestekniyen (techniciens), d iselmaden negh d imzenza (commerÁants), at'as n Yihendiyen ay d-yinigen gher din si Penang, Lhend akk d Sri Lanka. Di 1823, tughal Singapur d amd'iq i gher d-ttawin imeh'bas, dgha ughalen ttusexdamen yimeh'bas ihendiyen di lebni n yizudagh (b‚timents), n yiberdan akk d tqent'yar.

Uqbel n 1860, imezdaghen n Singapur llan h'essben-ten s uqerru, yernu d tamsulta (police) ay d-ilehhun d wanect-a. Di 1860, yettwaxdem wuddun (recensement) amens'ab amenzu, yernu ufan-d d akken llan imir-n 80.792 n yemdanen di tmurt-a. Zik-nni, ala kan d Imaliziyen ay yellan zedghen di Singapur, d acu kan, ur ‚ett'len ara ughalen Yicinwaten d nitni ay yett'uqqten dinna.

Di 1824, llan 10.683 n yimezdaghen di Singapur, gar-asen 60 % d Imaliziyen, 31 % d Icinwaten akk d 7 % d Ihendiyen. Ma di 1830, ughalen Yicinwaten d nitni ay yett'uqqten akk ger n yimezdaghen n tmurt-a, yernu mazal-iten ara ass-a d nitni ay tigti (majoritť). Di 1867, wwd'en Yicinwaten gher 65 % (55.000) seg yimezdaghen n Singapur, yernu anect ay yellan a d-yettawed' d iminigen icinwaten yettnadin leqdic yella yettbeddil seg useggas gher wayed'. Ghef umedya, di 1880, wwd'en-d 50.000 n yiminigen si Ccinwa, di lweqt i deg di 1912, wwd'en-d 250.000. Ihokkienen (Hokkien), Iteochewen (Teochew), Ikant'uniyen akk d Yihakkaten si trebba‚ timeqqranin akk ay yellan ttawd'ent-d si Ccinwa. Seg wasmi ay d-yebda yinig gher Singapur, d Ihokkienen akk d Yiteochewen ay yett'fen tanezzawt (commerce), ma d Ikant'uniyen qeddcen s umata di tfellah't, maca kra deg-sen qeddcen digh di yined' (artisanat), bennun ixxamen n wesghar, ttxid'in negh qeddcen d ih'eddaden.

Tamharsa* Tabrit'anit

(*colonialisme)

D asnulfu n yigherruba ay iteddun s yiraggen akk d tullya n terga n Suez di 1869 ay yeddjan tadamsa n Sigapur ad tennerni. Tughal Asya n Wenz'ul agmud'an (sud-est) d tama yettwassnen s ussuffegh (exportation) n kawatcu akk d uhellun (ťtain), yernu tughal Singapur d yiwen seg yisugan imeqqranen akk deg wemd'al. Di 1921, bnan Yebrit'aniyen di tmurt-a yiwen n wabud' awlal (base navale) meqqren, d win ay tt'fen Yijapuniyen deg Wemgaru Amad'lan (Guerre mondiale) wis sin asmi ay ttf'en Singapur si Fur'ar' n 1942 alamma d Ctember' n 1945.

Di 1946, tughal Singapur d tahrest i yiman-is di Tqacuct Tabrit'anit, asmi ay ttwakksent Thersin n Yekriz'en. Di 1959, tettunefk-as tfulmant (autonomie) i Singapur xas ma yella Brit'anya tella mazal-itt d nettat ay d-yelhan d laman akk d lumur' n berr'a n tmurt-a. Ma di 1963, tekcem Singapur gher Tfidir'alit n Malizya, am nettat am tmiwa n Malaya, Sabah d Sarawak. D acu kan, di Ghect n 1965, temsebd'a-d Singapur ghef Malizya yernu tughal d tigduda timziregt (indťpendante) i yiman-is. Xas ma yella ass n uzarug n Singapur d ass n 9 Ghect 1965, kemmlen yiserdasen Ibrit'aniyen ttilin dinna alammi d taggara n 1971.

Tasertit n tutlayin di tallit n u‚eddi s azarug

Adabu abrit'ani n tallit n tehrest ur yefki ara azal meqqren i tsertit n tutlayin (politique linguisitque) di Singapur, menghir asselmed n tmalizit i Yimaliziyen deg ugherbaz amenzu, dgha alammi ay tewwed' Singapur gher tallit n u‚eddi s azarug (pťriode de transition) i d wakken ay d-yed'ra ubeddel di tsertit n usselmed n tutlayin. Di 1946, yerra udabu asselmed bat'el yernu s r'eb‚a n tutlayin timeqqranin n tmurt, tacinwat, tamalizit, tatamilt (tamil) [d tutlayt ay ttmeslayen di kra n tmiwa n Lhend akk d Sri Lanka], akk d teglizit. Di 1955, yerra unabad' tutlayin-agi merr'a kifkif-itent di tmurt. Di 1956, yughal usselmed deg yigherbazen imenza d win ay d-yettilin s snat n tutlayin, s teglizit akk d kra n tutlayt tayemmat, yernu asselmed deg ugherbaz wis sin (secondaire) d win ay d-yettilin s 3 n tutlayin, dgha ughalen yinelmaden a lemmden tutlayt-nsen tanes'lit, u rennun lemmden taglizit akk d tmalizit. "Tughal teglizit d nettat ay d tutlayt yes‚an azal di tdamsa yernu ! d nettat ay d tutlayt timserreh't ay fehhmen medden s umata. Ma d asselmed n tutlayt tacinwat, n tmalizit akk d ttamilt d ayen ttwalin yes‚a azal i lmend n weh'raz n "wazalen imensayen" (valeurs traditionnelles)". ( J. Tan, - deg umagrad-is n Yunyu, 1997 : Education and colonial transition in Singapore and Hong Kong: comparisons and contrasts. Comparative Education, 33).

Ass-a, tuget deg yinelmaden n Singapur qqaren deg ugherbaz n unabad' ay yesseqdacen taglizit d tutlayt n usselmed. Ma igherbazen usligen n Singapur, d wid i deg qqaren kan yiberr'aniyen negh wid ay ixes'ren tizrawin-nsen deg ugherbaz n unabad'. Deg yigherbazen yesseqdacen taglizit, ilaq ghef yinelmaden ad lemden tutlayt nnid'en, tin yettusemman d tutlayt n wegdud-nsen, am nettat am tnegwa (matiŤres) nnid'en. S waya, Icinwaten qqaren tamandarint (mandarin), Imaliziyen qqaren tamalizit, ma d Ihendiyen qqaren tatamilt xas ma yella tutlayin-a ur llint ara d tutlayin tiyemmatin n kra n yinelmaden [imi di tmura akka am Ccinwa negh Lhend, maci akk imezdaghen-nsent ttmeslayen tamandarint negh tatamilt]. Rnu-yas s anect-a, citt'ah' kan mad'i n yinelmaden isingapuriyen umi d-yetts'ah' ad lemden tutlayt tis tlata (am talmanit, tafr'ensist negh tajapunit) negh ad lemden yiwet si tutlayin-nni "tiyemmatin" nnid'en ay sselmaden deg ugherbaz asingapuri, tid ur nettusemma ara d tutlayt-! n sen tayemmat [dgha, ghef umedya, yew‚er'-as i unelmad yes‚an las'el-is d ahendi yernu sselmaden-as tatamilt deg ugherbaz, ad yernu ad yelmed tacinwat negh tamalizit, xas ma yella tutlayin-a ttuselmadent deg ugherbaz n Singapur]. Deg umagrad-is ay d-yessuffegh di 1997, deg tesghunt n "Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, yenna-d A. F. Gupta d akken tasertit n usselmed n tutlayt tayemmat di Singapur "d tin ay nezmer ad tt-nwali d ah'err'em seg welmad n tutlayin yes‚an azal". D acu kan, at'as n yimawlan ay iqeblen asselmed akka am wagi, imi nitni aghulif-nsen awh'id netta d rrbeh' n warraw-nsen di tezrawin (ťtudes). Ma d anabad' yettwali d akken tutlayin yes‚an azal d tid ay yettaldin tiwwura ghef rrbeh' n wemdan yernu snernayent timetti gher sdat.

Tagnit i deg llant tutlayin ass-a di tmetti n Singapur

Ghef leh'sab n Ugezdu n Tesnaddant (dťpartement de statistiques) n Singapur, di 1990 llan 3.016.400 n yimezdaghen di tmurt-a, di lweqt i deg di 1998, yewwed' wuddun (recensement) gher 3.865.600 n yemdanen. Di 1998, Icinwaten wwd'en gher 77 % seg yimezdaghen n Sigapur, u llan digh 14 % n Yimaliziyen, 7,6 % n Yihendiyen akk d 1,4 % seg yedguden nnid'en. Ula d yiwet si trebba‚-agi ur teddukel d yiwen kan n wegdud yettmeslayen yiwet kan n tutlayt. Tin n Yicinwaten tefreq ghef 10 n trebba‚, yal yiwet tes‚a tantala-yines, yernu tirebba‚ timeqqranin deg-s d tid n Yihokkienen, Iteochewen, Ikant'uniyen, Ihainaniyen akk d Yihakkaten. Imaliziyen, si tama-nsen, dduklen ugar n Yicinwaten, maca ula d nitni llan deg-sen wid ay yettmeslayen tantala tajavanit (malais javanais) akk d tboyanit (boyanais). Ma d Ihendiyen, llan gar-asen wid yettmeslayen tatamilt am wakken ay llan wid yettmeslayen tamalayalamt, tapenjabit, tahendustanit, tabengalit akk d tgujeratit. Yugh lh'al, 26 n tutlayin! ay ttmeslayen s ujemmal di Singapur.

Mi akken ay tewwi Singapur azarug-ines, r'eb‚a n tutlayin ay yerra unabad' n tmurt-a d tutlayin timens'abin : taneglizit, tacinwat tamandarint, tatamilt akk d tmalizit, yernu yesse‚del-itent merr'a deg uz'ayer (statut). "Tlata-nni n tutlayin n yegduden [tamandarint, tatamilt akk d tmalizit] ttwafernent-d akken ad d-sseknent tand'a (diversitť) n Singapur, ma d taneglizit tettwafren-d imi ay tella d tutlayt tagraghlant yernu d tutlayt n tnezzawt (commerce), n tussna akk d teknussna (technologie)". Tamandarint, tatamilt akk d tmalizit ttusemmant d "tutlayin tiyemmatin" timens'abin, di lweqt i deg taneglizit tettusemma d "tutlayt tamenzut". D acu kan, maci akken d-yeqqar unabad' ay llant lumur' di tidet. Xas ma yella tamandarint akk d ttamilt ttwafernent-d akken ad d-genssent (reprťsenter) Icinwaten akk d Yihendiyen n Singapur, maca ula d yiwet deg-sent ur telli d tutlayt ay d-lemmden yigerdan icinwaten akk d yihendiyen di twaculin-nsen. Ama ghur Yicinwaten negh ghur Yihend! i yen, tutlayt tayemmat n tidet ay d-ilemmed wegrud d yiwet si tentalyin-nni yett'uqten ay tmeslayen di Ccinwa negh di Lhend. Ala kan d tamalizit ay nezmer ad nwali d tutlayt tayemmat n yigerdan Imaliziyen n Singapur, imi tuget deg-sen d tin ay d-lemmden d tamezwarut. Ma d taglizit, ttafxir ad d-nini fell-as d tutlayt tamenzut n ugherbaz wala ad as-nsemmi kan "tutlayt tamenzut". Ghef leh'sab n Cheah (An overview of language and literacy issues in Singapore), taglizit d nettat ay d tutlayt yes‚an az'ayer, d tin umi meqqer ccan yernu tettuseqdac d tutlayt tamenzut; dgha tettuseqdac deg wat'as n yinurar : d nettat ay d tutlayt tamens'abt, d nettat ay d tutlayt n leqdic, d tutlayt ay fehhmen akk medden di tmurt, d tin n ussenfali (expression) n tnettit (identitť) taghelnawt, d tutlayt tagraghlant yernu digh, d tutlayt n ddin amsih'i.

Di 20 n yiseggasen-agi i‚eddan, nnernan wid yessnen ad ghren di Singapur. Di lweqt i deg di 1980, 84% deg Yisingapuriyen ay yellan ssnen ad ghren u ad arun, di 1990, wwd'en alammi d 90%. Ma di 1998, wwd'en wid yeghran di Singapur gher 93,1%. At'as seg wid izedghen di Singapur ay yessnen ad mmeslayen at'as n tutlayin. Di 1980, llan kan 34%  seg wid yessnen ad ghren s snat n tutlayin negh ugar, ma di 1990, wwd'en gher 47% seg yimezdaghen n Singapur. 

Tamusni n tutlayt tayemmat akk d teglizit

D Ibrit'aniyen ay d imenza ay d-iskecmen taneglizit gher Singapur, d acu kan, d anabad' asingapuri ay yerran tutlayt-agi n tallit n tehrest d tutlayt taghelnawt yettwafhamen di tmurt-a.

Ger n tezwara n yiseggasen n 1970 akk d tgara n yiseggasen n 1980, tughal teglizit d assagh (lien) ger n yegduden merr'a n tmurt, yernu "d myall n tmusni akk d teknussna ara yesnernin tadamsa". Dgha yughal unabad' yessebghas medden akken ad sseqdacen kan taglizit deg wemkan n tentalyin-nsen ama di berr'a negh deg yimukan n leqdic, yernu iqenne‚ unabad' imezdaghen n tmurt d akken d taglzit ara sen-yeldin tiwwura s ulzuzen igraghlanen (marchťs internationaux) yernu ad ten-teddj ad ughalen d inesbughar. Annerni ay tennerna tdamsa tasingapurit si 1980 d asawen, d ayen ay d-yessknen d akken tamusni n teglizit d ayen ay yeldin tiwwura n unnerni ama i yemdanen, ama i tmurt s lekmal-is.

Tamusni-yagi ay tettwassen teglizit di Singapur d ayen yeddjan kra ad asen-semmin i wat'as n  Yisingapuriyen d "isnutlayen -bilingues- yessnen taglizit". Yenna-d Parkir deg yiwen n umagrad-is d akken tasnutlayt (bilinguisme) am ta d tin yettaddjan medden ad issinen tutlayt tagraghlant akk d tutlayt ay ttmeslayen di Singapur (Two tongue tied: bilingualism in Singapore. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 14, 1993). Dgha, win yellan d asnutlay ass-a di Singapur, d win yessnen taglizit akk d kra n tutlayt taghelnawt nnid'en n tmurt-a. Deg yiwet n tezrawt (ťtude) ay iga ghef yinelmaden n tesdawit, yufa-d Parkir d akken at'as n yinelmaden icinwaten ay yettissinen taneglizit, tamandarint, akk d tentala-nsen tacinwat tanes'lit. Tikwal, zemren ad issinen ula d kra n tentala tacinwat nnid'en akk d kra n tutlayt taberr'anit (tafr'ensist, talmanit, tajapunit) negh tamalizit.

Lh'emla n Ussiwel n Tmandarint

[Tamandarint d tantala n tcinwat ay fehhmen wazal n 70 % seg yimezdaghen n Ccinwa, yernu fell-as ay tebna tcinwat tizeght -standard- n wass-a]. Am teglizit, ula d tamandarint ttettusemma d yiwet si tutlayin umi meqqer ccan di Singapur, yernu yiwet si tghawsiwin ay tt-yeddjan ad tili akka nettat d Lh'emla n Ussiwel n Tmandarint (The Speak Mandarin Campaign) ay d-yesbedd uneghlaf amezwaru aqbur n Singapur, Mass Lee Kaun Yew. Lh'emla-yagi ay d-yebdan di 1979, tettwaxdem-d ghef snat n ssebbat : yiwet teqqen s asselmed ma d tayed' teqqen gher tmetti. Seg yidis n usselmed, lh'emla-yagi tella-d d akemmel i tsertit tasnutlayt n Singapur, imi ay teste‚r'ef d akken taglizit d tutlayt yes‚an azal imi d nettat ay d tutlayt n tmurt s umata, di lweqt i deg tamandarint "tessishil asselmed n wazalen idelsanen (valeurs culturelles) akk d wansayen (traditions) i Yicinwayen" [yettidiren di Singapur]. Ma seg yidis n tmetti, tezmer digh ad tessishel tmandarint amsefham ger n Yicinwaten n Si! n gapur, ay yettmeslayen tintalyin yemxallafen, imi ay llan wat'as n Yicinwaten ay yesseqdacen tamandarint, yernu nettat d tutlayt yettarun. Dgha Lh'emla n Ussiwel n Tmandarint d tin ay d-yettilin yal aseggas yernu tgen deg-s ifadden i Yicinwaten akken ad ttmmeslayen ugar tamandarint, dgha yesseqdac unabad' i lmend n waya at'as n ttawilat, gar-asen ilghagduden (mass media), timsirin, asselmed n tmandarint s tilifun akk d tfaskiwin n yisura yettmeslayen s tmandarint.

Yugh lh'al, Lh'emla-yagi tewwi-d lfayda-s di Singapur imi di 1990, 30 % seg Yicinwaten n tmurt-a ay yughalen sseqdacen tamandarint deg wexxam, di lweqt i deg di 1980, llan kan 13% deg-sen ay yettgen aya. Ma d asseqdec n tentalyin ticinwatin deg wexxam yenqes si 76% gher 48% ger n 1980 d 1990. Tughal digh tmandarint tettuseqdac ugar ula deg yimukan n leqdic. D acu kan, mi yettnerni useqdec n tmandarint ghur n Yicinwaten, ula d asseqdec n teglizit deg wexxam yettnerni ghur-sen. Dgha di lweqt i deg llant kan 10% si twaculin ticinwatin yesseqdacen taglizit d tutlayt n wexxam di 1980, wwd'ent di 1990 gher 21%. Yugh lh'al, tamsalt-a n unnerni n wid yesseqdacen taglizit ghur n Yicinwaten n Singapur d ayen iceghben aneghlaf ameqqran Lee Kaun Yew, yernu yenna-d d akken ass-a, mbe‚d ma ‚eddan ‚ecrin n yiseggasen fell-as, Lh'emla-yagi tewwed' kan gher wezgen n webrid, yernu mazal akken ad tawed' s iswi-yines. Deg yiwet n tdiwennit ay d-yeffghen si melmi kan deg weghmis n The Strai! t Times, yenna-d Yew :

"Ilaq ad as-nergel abrid i wanect-a [asseqdec n teglizit deg yexxamen n Yicinwaten] yernu ad nexdem akken ara teqqim tmandarint d ah'ric si tudert n tmetti tacinwat, am wakken ara nexdem digh akken ur sr'uhu'yen ara medden tamandarint-nsen mi ara ‚eddin seg welmud wis sin (secondaire) gher welmud a‚layan. Anect-a d ugur meqqren. Ayen yessawad'en medden ad ddjen tutlayt u ad ddmen tayed' netta d tazzla sdeffir n leqdic yelhan akk d unadi n rrbeh' di tudert-is. Ma yella ur d as-nettabdad ara i Lh'emla-yagi n Ussiwel n Tmandarint sya ar sdat, tezmer ad temmet, wanag ma nebded-as, tezmer ad tettnerni tghara-s cwit', cwit'". 

Abeddel n tutlayt akk d waddud* n medden

(*addud = attitude)

Akken d-nenna sufella-yagi, imezdaghen n Singapur simmal ara ttbeddilen tutlayin-nsen s teglizit, yernu anect-a id'erru-d s l‚ejlan ghur yal agdud yettidiren di tmurt-a. Di lweqt i deg tirebba‚ n Yicinwaten akk d Yihendiyen d nitenti i deg ara d-ttilin wat'as n wid yettaddjan tutlayin-nsen akken ad mmeslayen taglizit, ghur n Yimaliziyen, qlilit wid ixeddmen aya. Di lweqt i deg di 1980, llan kan 11,6 % seg Yisingapuriyen yesseqdacen taglizit deg wexxam, di 1990 wwd'en gher 20,3%. Ma d tamandarint, wwd'en wid i tt-yesseqdacen deg wexxam gher 26% seg yimezdaghen n Singapur di 1990, mbe‚d ma llan kan 10,2 di 1980. Asseqdec n tentalyin ticinwatin yenqes-d gher 36,7 % di 1990, mbe‚d ma llan 59,5 % seg Yisingapuriyen sseqdacen tintalyin-agi di 1980. Di tezrawt (ťtude) ay gan ghef Yicinwaten Iteochewen di 1997, Wei, Saravanan akk d Hoon ufan-d d akken tarba‚t-a s lekmal-is teddja tutlayt-is tanes'lit akken ad temmeslay yiwet si tutlayin timens'abin nnid'en n Singapur. Imassanen! - agi ttwalin d akken ghur n Yiteochewen  "tamandarint akk d teglizit simmal ara yettnerni useqdec-nsent di twacult, di lweqt i deg zik-nni d tateochewt kan ay llan sseqdacen-tt". (Language shift in the Teochew community in Singapore: A family domain analysis. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 18. 1997). Ssebbat yessawd'en s anect-a nitenti d tisertiyin n unabad', d az'ayer n tutlayin [imi tamandarint akk d teglizit s‚ant az'ayer di lweqt i deg tateochewt ur t-tes‚i ara], d attekki n yelghaduden [deg uselh'u n tmandarint akk d teglizit], amgerrad (lxilaf) yellan ger n tsuta (ledjyal), iswiren n welmad, addaden (attitudes) n medden akk d wemkan ay tes‚a tutlayt di tmetti akk d tdamsa n tmurt. Gupta akk d Yeok nnan-d d akken "abeddel n tutlayt di Singapur yella-d s l‚ejlan meqqren, imi deg wat'as n twaculin, ala kan yiwet n tsuta (ldjil) ay yettissinen at'as n tutlayin yernu mazal tessen tutlayt tanes'lit [di lweqt i deg tisutyin timeqqranin ttissinent kan! tutlayt tanes'lit, ma d tisutyin timez'yanin, xas lemmdent-d at'as n tutlayin seg ugherbaz negh si berr'a, ur ttisinent ara tutlayt tanes'lit]. Anect-a yessawed' alammi ughalen lejdud akk d warraw n warraw-nsen ur ttmeslayen ara s yiwet n tutlayt [dgha ur ttazmaren ara ad msefhamen u d anect-a ara yerren imez'yanen ur ttazmaren ara ad d-lemden kra seg yemgharen]".  (Language shift in a Singaporean family. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 16. 1995 ). Yernu sin-agi n yimassanen ttwalin d akken ayen yessawed'en s anect-a netta d assebghes (encouragement) ay yessebghas unabad' medden akken ad sseqdacen tamandarint akk d teglizit. Ma d Imaliziyen, si tama-nsen, dduklen ugar n trebba‚ nnid'en yettidiren di Singapur yernu mazal-iten ttkemmilen sseqdacen tamalizit deg wexxam, xas ulamma ula d nitni nnernan ghur-sen citt'ah' wid yesseqdacen taglizit di twacult.

Taglizit akk d tmandarint ttwah'esbent d tutlayin umi meqqren ccan di Singapur, yernu tamandarint meqqren ccan-is ugar n tmalizit akk d ttamilt imi amur meqqren di medden d tin ay yettmeslay yernu tett‚awan-itt digh Lh'emla n Ussiwel n Tmandarint ay d-yettilin yal aseggas. Saravanan yufa-d d akken tiwaculin ticinwatin smenyafayent ad sqedcent taglizit deg wakk leqdicat-nsent sdaxel n twacult [taghuri, tira, timesliwt n rr'adyu negh assiked tilibizyu]. Ma d Imaliziyen, xas smenyafayen ula d nitni digh taglizit deg wanect-a, maca d tamalizit ay sseqdacen mi ara ttmeslayen wagar-asen. Itamilen, si tama-nsen, sseqdacen tatamilt ala kan i we‚bad, di lweqt i deg sseqdacen taglizit di merr'a leqdicat-nsen nnid'en sdaxel n twacult.


Ilaq ad d-nger tamawt d akken xas medden ttah'qaren tantalyin di Singapur, maca ur a ttah'qaren ara igduden ay tent-yettmeslayen. Wei, Saravanan akk d Hoon ufan-d di tezrawt-nsen ghef tcinwat tateochewt d akken tuget deg Yiteochewen ttwalin d akken tamusni n tteochewt ur tes‚i ara azal meqqren di tnettit (identitť) n wegdud-nsen. Dgha at'as seg Yiteochewen ay steqsan yimannanen-agi ghef wanect-a, nnan-asen-d : "Ur d-cli‚egh ara ma yella tr'uh' tutlayt tateochewt"; "Akken yebghu yili, maci at'as n tegnatin ara d iyi-d-yetts'ah'en akken ad mmeslayegh tateochewt"; "Ttwaligh d akken ma tessned' ad temmeslayed' tamandarint akk d teglizit, ber'ka-k"; "Nekk d Ateochew, d tidet. Lulegh-d d Ateochew, ur zmiregh ara ad beddlegh aya. Ur ttmeslayegh ara tutlayt-iw, maca mazal-iyi d Ateochew." "Asseqdec n tteochewt ur yes‚i ara azal meqqren di tmetti, ihi aygher ara d'egg‚egh lweqt-iw akken ad tt-lemdegh?".

Wei, Saravanan akk d Hoon ufan-d digh d akken wid ur nessin ara taglizit ttwah'qare s wat'as di Singapur. Asingapuri ay d-ilulen mbe‚d n Wemgaru (Guerre), yernu ur yessin ara ad yemmeslay taglizit d win ay ttwalin Yisingapuriyen d "an‚aybu di tmetti" (handicapť social) yernu attekki-yines di lebni n tmurt ur meqqer ara at'as. Ma Icinwaten n Singapur ur nettmeslay ara tamandarint, ttwalin-ten digh d inekkar'en n tjaddit, yernu ur s‚in ara idles. Simmal ara ttnernint teglizit akk d tmandaritn deg yinurar n tudert n tmurt, simmal ara tth'ulfun medden d akken ur h'wadjen ara ad tt'fen di tentalyin-nsen. Tewwed' teglizit alammi ay tughal d tutlayt n wat'as n twaculin. Ghef wakken nezemer ad nwali, Isingapuriyen ddan d tsertit n unabad' ay yettwalin d akken taglizit d nettat ay d tasarut n rrbeh' n yemdanen akk d win n tmurt s lekmal-is.

Icqaren* n Uzekka

(*acqar = dťfis)

Akken ay d-nenna sufella-yagi, taglizit n Singapur, tin umi qqaren "tasinglict", attan a tettnerni ghef wakken nezmer ad nwali, imi simmal ara ttnernin Yisingapuriyen yesseqdacen taglizit. Yernu xas ma yella tutlayt-a ur telli deg wahilen (programmes) wala deg yeswan n unabad', simmal ara tettughal mechur'et ghur medden. Deg yiwet n tmurt i deg medden tissinen at'as n tutlayin, ayen ilaqen ghef unabad' akk d yiselmaden netta d leqdic akken ara rren medden-agi d isnutlayen (bilingues) ara inef‚en iman-nsen u ad rnun tamurt. Yugh lh'al, Singapur teh'wadj isnutlayen ara izemren ad mselghun (communiquer) wagar-asen yernu zemren ad mselghun akk d yimezdaghen nnid'en n wemd'al. Dgha yeqqar-d Parkir "ur tettazmar ara ad tsemmeh' Singapur di tmetti-yines tasnutlayt (bilinguisme social)". Ihi, di tmetti i deg tt'uqtent tutlayin akk d yegduden, amek ara nwali taglizit ? D tutlayt ay d-yellan d tiqent'ert ger yegduden negh d tin yellan d amihi (danger) ghef tentalyin-nsen tines'li! y in? Ula d Cheah d anect-a ay t-iceghben deg umagrad-is n 1997 (An overview of language and literacy issues in Singapore), i deg i d-yesteqsay ghef wamek ay yezmer ad yili welmad s teglizit d amihi ghef yidelsan akk d wazalen n yegduden. Ma d anabad' asingapuri, si zik ay yettwali d akken d taglizit ay d tutlayt n leqdic yernu d nettat ay yeqqnen Singapur gher wemd'al di lweqt i deg azalen akk d tnettit tadelsant n Singapur ad ttuslemden i tsutyin timez'yanin s tmandarint, s tmalizit negh s ttamilt. D acu kan, amek ay zemren yelmez'yen ad d-wer'ten azalen-nsen idelsanen mi ara yilin lejdud ur zmiren ara ad mmeslayen akk d warraw n warraw-nsen [imi ay mxallafent tutlayin ay ttmeslayen] ?

Tagrayt

Asseqdec n tgelizit di berr'a negh deg wexxam simmal ara yettnerni di Singapur. Mi akka ara yettali wazal n teglizit, Isingapuriyen ttwalin d akken tutlayt-a d nettat ay d tutlayt tawh'idt i yes zemren ad tt-sellken di ddunit-nsen, yernu leqdicat ay d-yessuturen tamusni n teglizit d wid yes‚an ccan di tmurt-a. Isingapuriyen qeblen tasertit n tutlayin n unabad' akk d tsertit-is n usselmed asnutlay (ťducation bilingue), imi ara ttwalin lfayda ara d-yettawi usseqdec n tutlayt tagraghlant. Ayen i s-yelhan i wemdan yelha-yas digh s wat'as ula i tmurt s umata. Tamurt-agi tamect'uh't tes‚a amkan yelhan deg wulzuz (marchť) n wemd'al yernu s usseqdec n teglizit ay tessawed' Singapur ad tesserbeh' tadamsa-yines. Akken ad tkemmel Singapur annerni-yines di tdamsa u ad tidir dima di rrbeh' akk d lehna di lqern-agi wis 21, ilaq ad tkemmel teglizit ad teqqim d nettat ay d tutlayt idjehden di tmetti tasingapurit.

Tasuqilt sghur Omar MOUFFOK d H'afid' MESBAH

Taghbalut :

http://www.emu.edu/courses/eddt582/eddt582.html


Arut-agh-d, gret-d tamawin-nwen, neqqar l‚eslama i s kra n tebrat ara d agh-d-yawd'en sghur-wen. 

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