Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

Asebter n umager | Imagraden | Isalan | Imenzayen | Taftilt | Imawalen | Idlisen-nnegh | Leqdicat-nnegh | Imazighen | Lmed tamazight | English | Español | Français | Arabe | Anmager | Tabrat n Yimedyazen | Arum-agh-d | Imaslad'en | Tamesgida | Amezruy n Tiddukla

 

Iḍ n umezwaru n Nwembeṛ

Idzayriyen yettwattfen

 

Tafukt yessuffγen ḍḍlam n yiḍ-nni ay deg tella Fṛansa deg tmurt-nneγ γer-s tura 53 n yiseggasen ay-a seg wasmi ay d-tenqer. Wid ay d-yeswejden i yimenγi akk-n ad yekker u ad ssuffγen Fṛansa, qedcen s tuffra akk-n ad d-heyyin leqdic d ameqran yerna msefhamen γef yiḍ n Umezwaru n Nwembeṛ [1954] akk-n ad yebdu yimenγi. Wid ay tt-id-yessekren d kra seg warraw γlayen akk ay tesεa tmurt-a, yerna  ggullen ar ad nnaγen alama d asmi ara tawey Ldzayer tilelli-ines ed uzarug-ines (indépendance) u ad teqqel d ljens am lejnas akk n ddunit. Tamurt n Leqbayel llan qqaren-asen naqal, deg tezwara n Tegrawla (révolution) ”asun [zone] n Tmurt n Leqbayel” sakk-in qqlen γγaren-as Tawilayt Tis III. Deg tama-a, dindin tuγ tmes n yimenγi yerna yekker ṭṭrad d ameqran. Yagi, seg 1947 ay ulin medden s adrar deg tama-a, u bdan la d-ssewjaden i ṭṭrad n uzarug, maca asmi ay d-teṭṭreḍeq Tegrawla n tidet, dindin kecmen γer trebbaε ay tt-id-yessekren akk-n ad ttekkin deg-s.

 

Akk-n kan d-tekker Tegrawla (Révolution) bdan la d-ttbanen yismawen n kra seg yimeqranen-ines am Krim Belkacem ed Ouamrane. Ali Zamoum, ad t-yeṛḥem Ṛebbi, yella d agenses (lieutenant) n Krim Belkacem, yerna yeḥka-d γef wasmi ay mlalen yimeγnasen (militants) ed yiwen n uneγmas (amesjeṛnan) adzayri deg taddart-nsen, deg Yiγil Yimula [Tizi Wezzu] akk-n ad d-arun s tuffra taseγrut (proclamation) n Nwembeṛ.

 

Taseγrut-nni (proclamation) uran-tt-id s yiwet n troneot, yerna tamacint-a mazal-itt ar ass-a deg taddart n Yiγil Yimula. Win ara yerzun γef usalay (musée) n taddart-a, yezmer ad tt-iẓer. Asalay-a yezga-d deg wexxam-nni ay deg llan ffren yemjuhad deg yiḍ-nni n Umezwaru n Nwembeṛ. Deg yiḍ-nni, imjuhad yegget-d fell-asen ccγel. Gan tummγiwin (attaques) deg yal amkan i wakk-n ad as-d-sseknen i Fṛansa ed ddunit belli lawan ay deg ara d-taki Ldzayer yuweḍ-d.

 

Deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, imjuhad gan aṭas n lecγal : sserγen lemxazen n yiferki, mmγen γef tneggiwin (agences) n Société indigène de prévoyance, sserγen yiwen n umesni (car) n yiwen n udzayri yerna ukren-as memmi-s. Lecγal-a akk ssersen-ten-id deg yeγmisen (ijeṛnanen) ifṛensisen n uzekka-nni : L’Echo d’Alger n De Sérigny, Le Journal d’Alger; d aγmis iqerben γer yilellamen (libéraux) n Jacques Chevalier, ed La Dépêche n Schiaffino ssawlen-d akk, i tikkelt tamezwarut γef lecγal-a n ccwal deg Ldzayer. Imir-nni, wid Ifṛensisen yeṭṭfen Ldzayer tebda la ten-tkeccem tugdi. Ldzayer tekker, tebded γef yiḍarren-ines yerna tebda tikli, tuγ abrid n tissas. 

 

Iḍ n ussehres* yuweḍ-d γer tgara-ines

 

*colonisation

 

Medden bdan, cwiṭ, cwiṭ, la ttnamen imenγi i lmend n weslelli (libération) n tmurt. Deg tuddar n yidurar, imjuhad imezwura bdan cwiṭ, cwiṭ, la ttqerriben γer weγref (cceεb) u seεεun id-s anermis (contact). Ma d imsulta (ibulisen) ed yimestulen (ijadeṛmiyen) ḥaren amek ara gen. Fṛansa dindin txemmem belli d imeγnasen n Ukabar n Weγref Adzayri (PPA – Parti du Peuple Algérien) yeqqnen γer Umussu n Trennawt n Tlellyin Timagdayin (MTLD – Mouvement du triomphe des libertés démocratiques) ay d-yessekren lecγal-nni n ccwal. D acu kan, qqlen ẓran belli tarbaεt-a ur tettekka deg wacemma. Ma d imjuhad ay d-yessekren Tagrawla, seg tama-nsen, sfehmen-asen i medden iswi n yimenγi-a.

 

Alama ay iεedda kra n lweqt ay yeqqel yisem n Tirni n Weslelli Aγelnaw (FLN – Front de Libération Nationale) yettwassen γer medden, yerna imir-nni qqlen la ttgen amgerrad (lxilaf) gar terbaεt-a ed tin n MTLD n Messali. Deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, ur εeṭṭlen ara bdan-d yimenγiyen imeqranen gar wid yeddan ed Messali (u gan-d tarbaεt n MNA) ed yemjuhad n Yigen n Weslelli Aγelnaw (iγallen imsellḥen n FLN). Yiwen seg yimenγiyen imeqranen akk ay d-yellan gar yimessaliyen ed yemjuhad n FLN d win yeḍran deg yidurar n Jeṛjeṛ.

 

D acu kan, d FLN ay yessawḍen ad yernu imessaliyen, yerna ay-a yejja tarbaεt-a ad tkemmel ad d-tessakay medden ula deg lγerba, yerna tebda la tettṣ̣eggim iγallen-ines deg tuddar n tmurt akk-n ad ttekkin akk-n iwata deg Tegrawla. Tirni n Weslelli Aγelnaw (FLN) tebda la tettajhad, yerna Igen n Weslelli Aγelnaw (ALN – Armée de Libération Nationale) yebda la iseεεu ttawil yelhan ay yes ara ikemmel imenγi. Deg tlemmast n 1955, FLN tessaweḍ ad d-yawey Tamurt n Leqbayel s lekmal-is γer yidis-is. Ma d Fṛansa, seg tama-ines, nnig n yimestulen (ijadeṛmiyen) ed yemsulta (ibulisen) ay tesεa deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, teqqim la trennu tettazen iserdasen-ines γer tama-a yerna tuzen daγen imεiwnen n yiγallen n laman, wid umi qqaren GMPR (Groupes mobiles de police rurale – Tirebbaε tizirazin n temsulta n ugama).

 

Imenγi la yettimγur yerna imjuhad yellan la sseqdacen titekniyin n temgarut (techniques de guérilla) bdan la zemmren i yiman-nsen deg wenrar, yerna la ttgen ikminen (embuscades) ay as-ttγimin i weεdaw yerna neγγen-as aṭas n yiserdasen. S tebγest (lkuṛaj) n yergazen-nni ay εewwlen ad nnaγen war (bla) tugdi, iḍ-nni aberkan n tallit n ussehres (colonisation) yuweḍ-d γer tgara-ines, yerna yebda wass la d-yettaley γef Ldzayer.

 

Tadbelt (administration) n Fṛansa tebda la tt-yettagad ljehd n lebγi n yergazen-nni ed uεewwel ay εewwlen akk-n ad as-d-rren tilelli-ines i weγref-nsen (cceεb) γas ma fkan tudert-nsen d asfel i lmend n way-a. Tirebbaε n Yigen n Weslelli Aγelnaw (ALN) bdant la ttgent lecγal iweεṛen ugar yerna war (bla) tugdi, ma d medden bdan la ttgen ugar n laman deg yemjuhad. Deg tuddar, nnulfant-d trebbaε yettεawanen imenγi imselleḥ. Wid yettekkan deg trebbaε-a γγaren-asen imsebblen, yerna qqlen d nitni ay d llsas n tudert n yiγallen n Yigen n Weslelli Aγelnaw.

 

Imir-n, ifuk yiwen n tallit u tebda-d tallit niḍen. Ta, d tallit ay deg asrew (indigène) yeddem tudert-ines gar yifassen-is. Lqayed, lamin ed ubacaγa tettwakkes-asen ddula, bdan la teqqlen d ay-n iεeddan. Maca, seg tama niḍen, Fṛansa la trennu tettcax deg wemḥaq ara tmeḥḥeq wid ay d-yekkren γer-s ad tt-ssuffγen. Iγallen ifṛensisen llan ttaṭṭafen Idzayriyen yerna tikkwal ttawyen-ten γer yegriren (camps) ay deg ten-ttεettiben, yerna aṭas seg wid ay ten-ikecmen, mmuten. Ma deg tuddar, ay deg llant trebbaε n yemsebblen, tebda daγen la tettbeddil tegnit.

 

Medden qqlen ur ttemcaṛaεen ara deg wexxam n ccṛeε afṛensis, wanag qqlen ferrun uguren-nsen deg taddart. Talalit n yigerdan, leεqud n jjwaj ed wid n lmut qqlen la ten-id-ttgen γer yifesyanen (officiers) n Yigen n Weslelli Aγelnaw (ALN) ay d-yelhan ed leḥbas (habous), yerna qqlen medden ur la ttxelliṣ̣en ara tiwsi (impôt). Asmi ay teqfel Tegrawla aseggas seg wasmi ay d-tekker, tasertit (politique) n tmurt akk tbeddel. Idzayriyen bdan la ttaεraḍen cwiṭ, cwiṭ, lbenna n tlelli.

 

Ayt tuddar ay ibedden akk γer tama n FLN ed ALN qqlen d imdanen niḍen. Imsebblen kemmlen la sfatayen (saboter) ttawilat ay zemren ad ten-sqedcen yeεdawen-nsen deg ad rebḥen imenγi. S way-a, qrib yal ass, iberdan yettajjan iγallen n yeεdawen ad εeddin seg wemkan γer wayeḍ qqlen la ttwagzamen, yerna qqlen yemjuhad la gezzmen daγen tinelwa (lexyuḍ) n tilifun ed trisiti ay llan sseqdacen-ten ladγa Ifṛensisen yeddren deg Ldzayer.

 

Ifṛensisen n Ldzayer ssnen, i tikkelt tamezwarut, d acu-t ccwal ed tugdi, d acu-ten wurfan n ”wayt ubeṛnus”. Aγref (cceεb) yeqqel d netta ay d-yelhan ed yiman-is, s ttawil yellan gar yifassen-is, akk-n ad yeslelli (libérer) tamurt-ines ! Ifṛensisen εerḍen ad sseddun takti (lfekra) belli wid ay d-yessekren ccwal deg Ldzayer d ibeṛṛaniyen, yerna bdan la ferrqen lekwaγeḍ u la ttarun deg yiγerban ay-a deg wakk timiwa n tmurt akk-n ad sqenεen medden s tmuγli-nni, yerna Ifṛensisen llan la d-qqaren belli ”tagrawla-a (révolution) d Lqahira ara yettḍebbiren deg-s”. Ifṛensisen, ladγa wid n Ldzayer, llan keṛhen Idzayriyen akṛah ameqran, yerna deg lqella-nsen n tmussni tejja-ten ad xemmen belli ”iserwen (indigènes) ur uwiḍen ara ad ilin d imdanen, yerna ur zmiren ara ad ssuddsen (organiser) iman-nsen akk-n ad gen tagrawla”.

 

François Mitterand yellan d aneγlaf (lewzir) n tγawsiwin n daxel, yerza-d deg tallit-nni γef Ldzayer, yerna deg tirzi-ines yenna-d belli netta ed unabaḍ-ines (lḥukuma) εewwlen akk-n ur ttarran ara akk aḍar γer deffir sdat Yidzayriyen. Mitterant yenna-d belli ”Ldzayer d Fṛansa !”. Maca simal imenγi n Fṛansa mgal (contre) Idzayriyen irennu, simal Idzayriyen la rennun ssuddusen (organiser) iman-nsen akk-n ad kemmlen tagrawla (révolution). Iγallen n Yigen n Weslelli Aγelnaw (ALN) qqlen ttqadaren aneḍfar (discipline) ugar yerna qqlen ssnen ad nnaγen xir. Tiytiwin ijehden ay yettafk Yigen n Weslelli Aγelnaw i Fṛansa qqlen ”ttawyen-d lfayada” ugar.

 

Tiγri n weγref*

 

*cceεb

 

Tagrawla n Nwembeṛ tella tettkemmil abrid-ines, yerna imḍebbren-ines ttekkan deg temlilit n Bandung (deg Indunisya) u sseknen-d i lejnas belli Tirni n Weslelli Aγelnaw (FLN) d amussu (mouvement) ay d-yettusbedden i lmend n weslelli (libération) n tmurt. Assiweḍ ay tessaweḍ Tirni n Weslelli Aγelnaw akk-n ad d-ssuffeγ tamsalt n Ldzayer γer ddunit d ay-n ay as-yesεerqen lecγal i Christian Pineau, agensas (représentant) n Fṛansa deg Tuddsa n Yeγlanen Yeddukklen (ONU). Aγref-nni (cceεb) yettwaḍelmen ugar n lqern iger-d tiγri-ines yerna slan-as-d akk lejnas !

 

Sdaxel n tmurt, Fṛansa tessejhed amḥaq n weγref (cceεb), d acu kan, amḥaq-nni ur as-yerẓi ifadden i Tegrawla (Révolution), wanag d aεiwen ay tt-iεawen. Aγref yeqqel d llsas n Yigen n Weslelli Aγelnaw (ALN) ed Tirni n Weslelli Aγelnaw (FLN, yerna d netta ay t-yettεawanen. Deg tuddar, medden qrib la ttnaγen akk-n ad ttekkin deg yiγallen n yemsebblen, yerna attekki deg Yigen n Weslelli Aγelnaw (ALN) d iseγ ameqran.

 

Ma Fṛansa tkemmel la tneffu ugar n medden seg tmurt-nsen u la tettaṭṭaf wiyaḍ u tettarra-ten deg way-n umi semman igriren n ussezdeγ (camps d’hébergement) ay deg la yettεeddi fell-asen lbaṭel d aberkan. Tagrawla-nni (Révolution) tejja Idzayriyen ad ḥulfun i yiman-nsen llan u ad ssnen tudert n yemdanen ilelliyen, dγa d ay-a ay ten-yejjan ad εewwlen ad kemmlen imenγi yerna ur ttarran ara akk aḍar γer deffur, γas ma xeṣ̣ren tudert-nsen γef way-a.

 

Fṛansa, akk-n ad tessens times, tesnulfa-d SAS. Ti, d ajiniṛal Parlange ay tent-id-yesnulfan yerna yella yettxemmim belli Idzayriyen kkren-d s imenγi imi kan ay ḥulfan i yiman-nsen ttwaḥeqren deg leḥkem-nni n zik n lqeyyad ed yibacaγaten. Imir-nni, ihi, Fṛansa teqbel ad yettekkay Udzayri deg tefranin (lbuṭ) u ad yeqqel yiwen wemdan d yiwet n taγect. D acu kan, ifut lḥal, aγref (cceεb) yeqqel yesεa iswi (but) niḍen : tamurt yessefk ad teqqel d timziregt (indépendante).

 

Deg tuddar ibeεden, anda iγallen n Yigen n Weslelli Aγelnaw (ALN) llan d nitni ay iḥekmen u gan ddula-nsen dinna, medden ssulin takbabt (taεellamt) niḍen, d tin n Ldzayer. Initen-nni (llwan) icebḥen n tekbabt-nni qqimen ffren acḥal n yiseggasen, maca qqlent ffγent-d. Deg yiseggasen-nni imezwura n Tegrawla (Révolution), Tirni n Weslelli Aγelnaw (FLN) tga aṭas n lecγal i medden, teldi iγerbazen (llakulat), tdiwa imuḍinen yerna telha-d ed usseddi n tudert n tmetti (société). Sakk-in, deg wass n 5 Yulyu 1962, temlal yiwet n terbaεt n yifesyanen (officiers) iεlayanen ALN ed yikataren (cadres) n FLN deg Sidi Frej, u yella gar-asen weknaner (colonel) Mohand U Lḥaj, u ssulin takbabt n Ldzayer. Ass-nni, wid d-yekkren ssawḍen γer lebγi-nsen, tamurt n Ldzayer tεawed tlul-d s wudem unṣ̣ib (officiel) !

 

Seg L’Expression, 1 Nwembeṛ 2007

 

Sγur A. Saïd.

Tasuqilt sγur Omar Mouffok
 
 

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
Association culturelle Imedyazen
BP 129 Poste Didouche Mourad
16006- Alger - Algérie
Tel. (+213) (0) 64 77 07 37