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1980 : Abeddel ameqran
 
 
"Tafsut n Yimaziγen" n 1980 d yiwet seg tedyanin tisertiyin (politiques) timeqranin akk deg Ldzayer timziregt (indépendante).
 
Uqbel, tamsalt n tmaziγt tella tenkeṛ-itt ddula yernu imassanen (savants) llan qqnen fell-as allen, neγ ur ttwalin-tt d tamsalt ur nesεi azal meγγren, d tin yeqqnen s afulkluṛ. D acu kan, asmi ay d-ḍrant tedyanin n 1980, tamsalt-a deg yiwen webrid kan tban-d u yegget fell-as wawal.
 
Timeskanin (timesbaniyin) akk d yimenγiyen ay d-yellan gar medden d yiγallen n ddula deg wakk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel akk d Ldzayer tamaneγt gar Meγres n 1980 d Mayyu n 1981 sseknen-d dakk-n wid yessutturen tamaziγt ur llin d aggagen (intellectuels) imeεzulen, wanag d ay-n yerzan u bγan-tt akk wid yessawalen tamaziγt deg Ldzayer.
 
"Tafsut n Yimaziγen" d tin ay d-yemlan dakk-n medden ukin-d u bdan la ttxemmimen ad d-neṭqen, ad d-ssiwlen i yiman-nsen γef way-n bγan deg yiwet n tmurt anda ddula tella tebγa ad d-tessken dakk-n kullec deg-s yeddukkel. Uqbel, tasertit (politique), tasnakta (idéologie) d yedles llan s ddaw n umunupul n ddula yernu d tamenḍawt (consitution) ay as-iḍemnen ay-a. U deg way-n yerzan iles, ulac kra n tlelli deg tmurt imi seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-ines (indépendance), akk timenḍawin n tmurt qqarent-d dakk-n d "taεṛabt ay d iles aγelnaw unṣ̣ib (national et officiel) n tmurt".
 
Iḍrisen n llsas (textes fondamentaux) n tmurt d nitni sskanayen-d s lejheṛ dakk-n d ddula kan ay yettalasen ad teṭṭef asselγu (information) u ad t-tesseddu s yiles ay as-yehwan. Tiγawsiwin banent ugar mi ara nγer tizzwariyin (préambules) ay d-uran i tmenḍawin (constitutions), d tid-nni umi qqaren "irkawalen iγelnawen" (chartes nationales).
 
D acu kan, seg wasmi ay tεedda Tefsut n 1980, lejyal n yelmeẓyen bdan la d-sskanayen dakk-n ugin ineḍfaren-nni (dogmes) ay yettwaḥettmen fell-asen.
 
D ljil s lekmal-is n yelmeẓyen, d imezdaγen akk n Tmurt n Leqbayel ay d-yekkren u ssuttren "asteεṛef s yiles amaziγ" d u ad asen-tettunefk "tlelli n wawal".
 
D tadyant yesεan iẓuran lqayit
 
Assutter n tmaziγt yesεa iẓuran ijehden deg wegdud, d ay-n ara idumen yernu ur yezmir ad yettussusem. Amnaε n usarag (conférence) n Mouloud Mammeri deg wass n 10 Meγres 1980 d ifeṭṭiwej ay d-yessaγen urfan yellan ffren seg zik-nni. Yagi, deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, medden llan wwan u rran urfan-nsen γer daxel seg tezwara n yiseggasen n 1970.  
 
Tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu, yettwaldin deg 1979, tejbed-d aṭas n waggagen, teqqel d amkan anda ay ttemlilin akk wid yeγran deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Ay-a yurar dduṛ deg ussenker n tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin). Maca γas ma yella d tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu ay yeqqimen acḥal n ledwaṛ la tessedday deg tmeskanin-nni, ay-n ay d-yesnekren medden ur yeqqin ara kan γer temsal taggagin (intellectuelles). Amur ameqran deg yimezdaγen n Tmurt n Leqbayel ḥulfan dakk-n terza-ten temsalt n ussutter n tmaziγt yernu ttekkan deg tedyanin-nni. Yuγ lḥal, seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-is (indépendance), ula d yiwen wass ur d-llint tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) timeqranin am tid ay d-yellan deg wussan-nni n tefsut. Ama deg Tizi Wezzu, ama deg Bgayet, d ledwaṛ ay qqimen medden la ttgen timeskanin (timesbaniyin). Ula deg temdinin timecṭuḥin, ffγen-d medden akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara tikli n ddula (Σin Lḥemmam, Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, Dreε Lmizan, Buγni, Iεeẓẓugen, Amizur, Sidi Σic, Aqbu, atg.), ula deg tuddar.
 
Γas ma yella kra n yimanayen (observateurs) ifṛensisen nnan dakk-n ala deg Tizi Wezzu d tama-ines ay d-llant tedyanin, Tamurt n Leqbayel akk tewlawel, s "tmeqrant", s "tmecṭuḥt". Bitt, tikkwal, kra seg yimenγiyen ay d-yellan deg "tmecṭuḥt" (Bgayet d yeγzer n Ṣṣ̣umam) ugaren wid ay d-yellan deg Tizi Wezzu. Aqmaḍ (répression) ur yezgil ula d yiwet n tama. Tubiret d Bgayet, γas ma llan kra ay yettwalin dakk-n txuṣ̣ṣ̣ timmuzγa-nsent, uγent tiytiwin ijehden ugar n tid ay tuγ Tizi Wezzu. Akk-n yebγu yili, γas ma yella kulci yebda-d seg Tizi Wezzu, ddula ur twit ara medden deg-s akk-n ay ten-twet anda niḍen yernu seg 1980 d asawen, teqqel tettḥadar tamdint-a d tmura ay d-iqerben γer-s.  
 
Tamsalt n tmaziγt dindin kan tefreq u tennul aṭas n tmiwa n tmurt n Ldzayer. Yernu d ilmeẓyen s umata ay tt-yettnaγen fell-as, dγa d ay-n ay aγ-yejjan ad d-nini dakk-n amussu-a (mouvement) d win ara idumen u ad yesεu azal meγγren deg uzekka n tmurt. Ddula teεreḍ ad tesseddu awal dakk-n wid ay d-yesnekren tamsalt n tmaziγt d kra n yemdanen ur nemεin, ur nesεi azal yernu "jjmen tallit n Fṛansa", maca ay-a ur yelli d tidet, wanag wid yennuγen γef temsalt n tmaziγt ggten u meẓẓiyit.
 
Amur ameqran deg wid irefden tamsalt-a dima llan sεan s ddaw n 25 n yiseggasen deg leεmeṛ-nsen. Wid yerγan fell-as aṭas, amur meγγren deg-sen d inelmaden n tesnawit (lycée), yernu ur ttεeddin ara i εecrin n yiseggasen deg leεmeṛ. Akk-a ay yella lḥal ama deg tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) n 1980, ama deg wakk tid ay tent-id-iḍefren. Akk-a daγen ay yella lḥal deg tmeskanin-nni ay d-yellan deg Nwembeṛ n 1985 : ixxamen n ccṛeε n Tmurt n Leqbayel ḥekmen s lḥebs γef wazal n meyya n yelmeẓyen γef ljal n "ccwal" ay snekren deg yiberdan, akk-n ma llan d inelmaden n tesnawit (lycée). Ljil-a n yelmeẓyen d Ldzayer ay ten-yesseγren akk yernu ur ssinen ara Fṛansa ... Γas ma yella nga-as dakk-n wid ay d-yesnekren timeskanin-a (timesbaniyin) d imdanen yeγran s tefṛensist yernu ahat jjmen kra n zzman iεeddan, amek ara d-nessefhem dakk-n ilmeẓyen n Tmurt n Leqbayel ay tessγer ddula n Ldzayer ad ddun d wid yebγan ad rren Ldzayer γer deffir ?
 
Yuγ lḥal, tasertit-nni (politique) n usseεṛeb ur tessaweḍ ara ad d-teqleε "ay-n ay d-yeqqimen" seg temsalt n tmaziγt seg Tmurt n Leqbayel wanag d assejhed ay tt-tessejhed. Takti (lfekra) n tmaziγt tuγ akk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel deg lweqt ay deg ddula tella tugi-tt u la tt-tettḥaṛab seg lqaεa. D ti ay d tiγawsiwin ay wuγur yessefk ad d-rren lwelha-nsen wid yesseddayen lumuṛ n ddula.
 
Amussu (mouvement) n tmaziγt ur yelli ara daγen yezmer ad yettwarnu, imi ay d-yenker deg yiwet n tallit ay t-iεawnen γef way-nni, d tallit ay deg ikabaren (partis) uffiren (gar-asen FFS n Aït Ahmed d kra n trebbaε timecṭuḥin n uzelmaḍ) gren-d iman-nsen, d acu kan, medden maci d ikabaren-nni ay ḍefren wanag ay-n ay ten-yessewlawlen yugar ay-a.
Yuγ lḥal, ikabaren n tenmegla (opposition) deg Ldzayer qqimen d uffiren alama ay d tagara n 1988, yernu ula d yiwen wass ur ssawḍen ad rṣ̣un iman-nsen deg wegdud u ad yaγ uẓar-nsen deg-s u ad idum, yernu ula d yiwen wass ur gin kra n tigawt (action) ara idumen akk-n ad qablen tasertit (politique) n ddula.
 
Akk iγallen isertiyen (politiques) ay temneε ddula llan d uffiren, ur zmiren ara ad gen kra ara d-yawin lfayda ibanen, ur llin ara sεan isenfaren (projects) ibanen, llan ttwaqemḍen (réprimer) dima neγ sya γer da, dγa ula d yiwet seg trebbaε-a ur tessaweḍ ad d-tban, ad tif tiyaḍ neγ ad temneε seg uqareε d weqmaḍ (répression) n yibulisen.
 
Amussu (mouvement) adelsan amaziγ yefhem seg tazwara dakk-n ur yessefk ara ad d-yeγli deg snat n tfexxtin : tamezwaurt, ur yessefk ara ad yeqqel d uffir, tis snat, ur yessefk ara ad yeqqim s ddaw tecḍaḍt n yikabaren (partis). Dγa, wid ay t-id-yesnekren deg yiseggasen n 1980, ssawlen-d s lejheṛ, ẓran-ten medden. Yuγ lḥal, mi ara nwali γer ussirem-nsen, γer tmuγliwin d uxemmem-nsen, ad nẓer dakk-n wid yennuγen γef tmaziγt glan-d s ubeddel ameqran deg tmurt n Ldzayer, snekren-d tagrawla (révolution) n tidet : medden qqlen zemren ad ssiwlen s lejheṛ, deg webrid, yernu yettwakcef-d weqmaḍ-nni (répression) ay tqemmeḍ ddula n Ldzayer s kra n win ara d-yessiwlen. D ay-a ay yejjan ad d-yekker yiwen n ljil n yimeγnasen (militants) ur nettagad, d wid iwejden ad nnaγen akk d weqmaḍ n ddula u ad bedden γef wawal-nsen alama d ṭṭerf. Zik, akk-n ad tessens urfan n medden, ddula tella tettaṭṭaf wid ay d-yessenkaren timeskanin (timesbaniyin) neγ tḥebbes medden yettekkan deg trebbaε ur nelli, neγ deg trebbaε, seg wasmi ay tent-id-sbedden llan yagi deg-sent yemdanen iqeddcen d yiγallen n laman, maca, asmi ay d-yekker ljil-a amaynut n yelmeẓyen, tiγawsiwin qqlent ur la tteddunt ara am wakk-a. Tiεeqqayin n tmaziγt γlint u mγint-d deg yal tama, d ay-n ay d-yesnekren aṭas n medden, mi tensa tmes da, ad d-tekker anda niḍen. Yeqqel yimenγi iban, yettili-d s lejheṛ, d imenγi s ljehd n yiγil ay yekksen tugdi akk d tsusmi seg wulawen n medden. Yekkes lweḥc-nni izedγen medden zik-nni, deg tallit n Boumediene, asmi ay llan ttxemmimen dakk-n iγallen n ddula llan deg yal amkan.  
 
D acu kan, yessefk daγen ad nẓer dakk-n deg 1980, ddula n Ldzayer tella la tettbeddil : tamettant (lmut) n Boumediene tessewlawel akk ddula d werkad ay tella terked-it zik-nni, yernu adabu (autorité) n Chadli Bendjedid ur yejhid ara akk. D ay-a ay yejjan ddula amzun temmehmeh, ur teẓri ara d acu n tikli ara d-tawi akk d tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin) n 1980, ladγa imi ula d yiwen wass ur d-llint tedyanin timeqranin am tid-nni yernu tella ddula ur tebni ara fell-asent ad d-ilint. Tlata n wayyuren ay teqqim ddula εerqent-as, tikkelt ad tesseqdec iγil (dγa tiyita ijehden akk d tin n 20 Yebrir, asmi ay mmγen yibulisen γef tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu), tikkelt, tεerreḍ ad tessens times, am wasmi ay d-bran i 24-nni n warrac "ay d-yesnekren ccwal" sdeffir ma εeddan deg ccṛeε n laman n ddula). Taggara, ddula tefren ad teqbel tamsalt n tmaziγt, ad tt-teddem u ad d-telhu id-s akk-n ad tezmer ad tt-teḥkem, yili uqbel tella teffeγ-as akk afus. D acu kan, deg tallit-nni n ukukru n ddula, wid ay d-yesnekren amussu (mouvement) amaziγ ssawḍen ad d-sseknen dakk-n tamsalt n tmaziγt tesεa iẓuran lqayen deg wegdud : medden gan sin n yisudiden imuta (grèves générales), llant-d aṭas n tmeskanin, llan-d aṭas n yimenγiyen u qqlen yimenγiyen-nni weεṛen u meγγrit ugar sdeffir n 20 Yebrir. Seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-ines (indépendance), d tikkelt tamezwarut ay deg ara d-kkren yimezdaγen n yiwet n tama s lekmal-is u ssawḍen ad bedden acḥal n ledwaṛ deg wudem n ddula.
 
S way-a, d imeγnasen (militants) n yedles, amur ameqran deg-sen meẓẓiyit, yernu deg tallit-nni tella texḍa-ten tsertit (politique) neγ akk-n kan ay bdan keccmen deg-s, ssawḍen ad gen ay-n ur igi ula d yiwen n ukabar aserti (parti politique) n menwala ar imir-n : bedden s lejheṛ deg wudem n ddula yernu idum webdad-nsen alama ay ḥettmen ddula ad testeεṛef s temsalt-nsen yernu ad tessenqes seg teqseḥ n weqmaḍ-ines (répression).
 
1980 : Tadukli n waggagen* d wegdud
 
*intellectuels
 
"Tafsut n Yimaziγen" n 1980 tella-d deg yiwet n tallit ay tt-iεawnen akk-n ad d-tili : imeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt qqimen la qeddcen azal xmesṭac n yiseggasen deg yedles, γas s tuffra, imeγnasen yerγan aṭas γef temsal-a bdan la keccmen tasertit (politique) yernu tebda la tettwabnay cwiṭ, cwiṭ yiwen n uẓeḍḍa (réseau) n "yimeγnasen imesmaziγen" (amazighistes). Gar way-a d way-n niḍen, Tizi Wezzu tella la tettnerni s tγawla, dγa, sdeffir ma tella d tamdint yeqquren, teqqel d tamdint meγγren deg tama-nni. Deg 1979, tettwaldi tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu, dγa d nettat ay d ssebba ay yejjan Tafsut n 1980 ad d-taγ. Γas ma yella timeskanin (timesbaniyin) n 1980 maci d aggagen (intellectuels) d yesdawanen (universitaires) kan i yiman-nsen ay tent-igan, maca tildin n tesdawit deg Tizi Wezzu d ay-n yuraren dduṛ meγγren deg tmeskanin-a yernu d nettat ay yejjan amussu (mouvement) ad yimγur.
 
Amussu (mouvement) amaziγ, asmi ay d-yeṭṭerḍeq, yelfa-d d ameqran, xelḍen deg-s akk medden yernu ur iṣ̣eggem ara aṣ̣eggem ay ijehden, dγa d tasdawit ay yuraren dduṛ deg usseqεed d usseddu n lecγal n umussu-nni.
 
Γef way-a, maci deg lbaṭel ara tεerreḍ ddula n Ldzayer ad tessenqes seg ljehd n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu (imi ur tezmir ara ad tt-tekkes) : akk isenfaren (projets) n wesnerni n tesdawit-a llan ttuwexxaren, sneqsen seg-s inelmaden alama ay d ay-n kan, ttwakksen seg-s yinurar n usselmed s lekmal-nsen yernu iban dakk-n ddula tebγa ad terr tasdawit-a d tarbaεt kan n yiγerbazen (llakulat) n yisuda (insituts) n usselmed aεlayan, ay deg ur ttilin ara waṭas n yinelmaden u ad ifsusen i weḥkam.
 
Tafsut n 1980 tessken-d daγen dakk-n tella-d tdukli gar waggagen imeγnasen (intellectuels militants) d wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Ay-a yesskanay-d ay-n gant trebbaε deg lγerba seg 1965 alama ay d imir-n d ay-n yeddan d way-n yebγa wegdud, yernu leqdic-nsen yegla-d s lateṛ d ameqran deg tmetti (société) n Tmurt n Leqbayel.
 
Werjin yewlawel wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel u deg Ldzayer akk akk-n yewlawel asmi ay sdukklen waggagen (intellectuels) iγallen-nsen akk d wegdud, u d ay-a ay yejjan amussu (mouvement) amaziγ ad d-iban s lejheṛ u ad yimγur akk-n ad yaγ akk Tamurt n Leqbayel akk d Ldzayer tamaneγt u ad yeqqim akk-n ugar n useggas (seg 10 Meγres 1980 ar 19 Meγres 1981).
 
1980 : d tiyita ay d-yejjan lateṛ 
 
Deg yiseggasen ay d-iḍefren tafsut n 1980, nezmer ad nger tamawt dakk-n amussu (mouvement) amaziγ yekka γef snat n talliyin yemgerraden (yemxallafen). Talliyin-a mgerradent ama deg tegnit ay deg d-llant, ama deg tsudist-nsent (stratégie).
 
Tallit n Meγres 1980 ar Ctembeṛ 1981, nezmer ad as-nsemmi "tallit yeḥman", d tin ay deg yella waṭas n leqdic akk d tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) timeqranin deg webrid (ama deg Tmurt n Leqbayel neγ deg Ldzayer tamaneγt), timliliyin, inejmuyaε yemgerraden, timsirin (dduṛus) n tmaziγt (ama deg Ldzayer neγ deg Tmurt). Yuγ lḥal, imir-n, wid ay d-yesnekren u sseddan amussu (mouvement) amaziγ dindin kan ukin dakk-n timsal n tmagit (identité) tamaziγt d tid wuγur d-rran medden lwelha-nsen yernu aṭas n medden ay yewlawlen fell-asent. Akukru n ddula akk d beddu n weskasi (débat) γef yedles deg tmurt n Ldzayer d ay-n ay yejjan imeγnasen (militants) ad faṛsen tagnit u ad sdumen lḥeṛs γef ddula. Yuγ lḥal, imeγnasen ssarmen ad teg ddula kra n tγawsa ibanen i tmaziγt, ad teldi tiwwura u lxerṣ̣um ad teqbel ad tettusselmed tmaziγt u ad yili unadi fell-as deg tesdawiyin n Tizi Wezzu akk d Ldzayer tamaneγt. D ay-a ay yes d-yewεed uneγlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aεlayan n tallit-nni, A. Bererhi.
 
D acu kan, dindin kan teqqel ddula γer weqmaḍ-ines. Tebda la tferren wid ara teṭṭef u ad ten-tawey γer lḥebs (maci d imeγnasen n menwala) i wakk-n ad tesseεreq tikli i umussu (mouvement) amaziγ.
 
Asmi ay ifuk useqqamu alemmas n FLN askasi-ines (débat) γef yedles aγelnaw ay d-yellan gar Yunyu d Yunyuz n 1981, iga-d timeγtusin (résolutions) γef yedles, dγa tebda tikli n ddula la d-tettban. Ddula tεawed yefren ad tkemmel deg timuγliwin-ines tiquranin imi askasi-a yefra-tt-id dakk-n tamagit (identité) tadzayrit d taεṛabt-tineslemt. Llan kra n yemdanen seg wid yettekkan deg weskasi-nni, nnan-d dakk-n mazal zemrent ad ilint lemcawṛat γef temsalt-a (γas ma yella timuγliwin n yemdanen-a llant beεdent s waṭas γef tid n yimeγnasen [militants] imaziγen), d acu kan, d wid yettnaγen γef tesnakta (idéologie) taεṛabt ay yernan deg weskasi-a. Yagi, aṭas n yiseggasen seg wasmi ay bdan yemsaεṛaben (arabistes) d yemsaεṛaben-isenselmen (arabo-islamistes) la keccmen u la ttaṭṭafen akk tisuda (institutions) n tesnakta n ddula, ladγa deg yedles, deg usselmed u deg ukabar (parti) n FLN.
 
Imeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt εerḍen tikkelt taneggarut "ad ḥeṛsen ddula swadda", dγa gren-d tiγri i medden, deg wass n 26 Ctembeṛ, akk-n ad gen asunded amatu (grève générale) u ad γanzun (boycotter) aγerbaz (llakul), d acu kan, tikkelt-nni, medden ur ten-ḍfiren ara akk-n yessefk acku, mebla ccek, ur yeffiγ ara fell-asen way-nni deg tegnit-nni. Dγa, iban-asen-d i yimeγnasen n tmaziγt dakk-n ulac d acu ara asen-d-tefk ddula, wanag taneggarut-a la tqeddec akk-n ad yeqqim kullec akk-n yella zik, bitt, tebda la tqeddec akk-n ad tessejhed asseεṛeb. Ay-a iban-d deg tuqqla (rentrée) γer tesdawit deg 1981, imi ay teεzem ddula ad tesseεṛeb akk ifurkawen (branches) n tussniwin talsanin (sciences humaines) deg tesdawit. Dγa iban dakk-n ddula tebγa d nettat kan ara iḥekmen tasnakta (idéologie) sdaxel n tesdawit.
 
Seg yimir-nni, imeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt εawden ṣ̣eggmen iman-nsen akk-n ad d-awin tikli ara idumen, yernu d ay-n kan ara yeffγen fell-asen. Dγa bdan la d-ssuffuγen tisufaγ (publications), γas sεint ara ttesriḥ, maca ddula ur tgi acemma akk-n ad teḥbes afraq-nsent, yernu tisufaγ-a llant d ttawil ay yes sseddan yimeγnasen isalan (lexbarat) ilelliyen akk d weskasi-nsen (débat) γef tekta (lfekrat) deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Daγen, sbedden-d yimeγnasen tirebbaε n leqdic γef yinurar yerzan iles d yedles : dγa bdant trebbaε-a la qeddcent γef usseqεed n yiles amaziγ (la d-bennun awalen itekniyen [techniques]), u ssawḍen ad d-ssuffγen iqeddicen yemmuzzgen (spécialisés), werjin ttwagan-d uqbel deg tmaziγt, am "Tmawalt n Tusnakt" (Léxique de mathématiques). Daγen, bdan yimeγnasen la ttgen timsirin (dduṛus) i usselmed n (tira) tmaziγt s tuffra. S way-a, qqlen yimeγnasen ur la ttnadin ara ad asen-d-tefk ddula kra, wanag llan la qeddcen yal ass akk-n ad d-bnun amussu (mouvement) ijehden ugar yernu d win ur nezmir ad yens : d idles amaziγ ay izemren i yiman-is yernu yettuwehha γer yimal (avenir). D ay-a ay yejjan imeγnasen ad d-sbedden tasγunt (revue) Tafsut, ay yettwagan i lmend n tezrawin d weskasi (études et débats). Tafsut teqqel d ttawil ay deg aggagen (intellectuels) imaziγen qqlen la d-ttarun ay-n ttxemmimen γef temsal n yedles.
 
Daγen, yella mazal la d-yettili wembaddel gar waggagen (intellectuels) d wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel; llant aṭas n tegnatin ay deg ttemlilin am yibarazen (galas) d leqdicat ay d-yettilin ladγa deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. Yuγ lḥal, deg yiseggasen ay d-iḍefren tafsut n 1980, tkemmel teddert tdukli-nni yellan gar waggagen d yegdud, u ay-a yettban-d s tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin) ay d-yellan deg yiseggasen n 1980, u ay deg tikkwal llan-d yimenγiyen meγγren gar yelmeẓyen d yibulisen deg wakk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel. Γef umedya (lemtel), asmi ay ttwaṭṭfen sebεa n yimeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt deg Fuṛaṛ n 1985, dindin kan kkren-d akk medden n Tmurt n Leqbayel (llant-d tmeskanin deg Tizi Wezzu, deg Bgayet, deg Yiεeẓẓugen, ...). Deg umezwaru n Nwembeṛ, ttwaṭṭfen medden deg temsalt-nni n Temγunt tadzayrit n yizerfan n wemdan (Ligue algérienne des droits de l'homme), yili tamγunt-a llan la ttekkan deg-s yimeγnasen n tmaziγt s waṭas. D ay-n ay yessekren ccwal d ameqran u deg tgara, ixxamen n ccṛeε n tmiwa ay deg tekker ḥekmen-d lḥebs i wazal n meyya n medden γef ljal n ccwal.
 
Seg 1980 [γer 1990], nezmer ad d-nini dakk-n azal n 300 n medden ay yettucaṛεen yernu yettwaḥkem fell-asen lḥebs γef ljal n yimenγi γef tmaziγt ama deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, ama deg Ldzayer tamaneγt (attekki deg tmeskanin [timesbaniyin], afraq n tewriqin, attekki deg leqdicat d lecγal yeqqnen γer ussutter n tmaziγt). Ma d wid ay yettwaṭṭfen sakk-in bran-asen-d mebla ma εeddan deg ccṛeε, wid yettwaṭṭfen deg yexxamen n yibulisen, wid yettwaḥebsen tallit γezzifen mebla ssebba, wid ay d-γerrqen seg yiγerbazen (llakulat), wid umi kksen ipaspuṛen-nsen u menεen-ten ad ffγen seg tmurt, wigi akk ur nezmir ad ten-id-neḥseb : tiγawsiwin-a llant ḍerrunt-d yal ass, qqlent d tarutint ay nnummen akk yimeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt. Dγa, ay-a akk yessnakay-aγ-d amek ay tefka temsalt n tmaziγt iẓuran deg wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, medden qqlen sskanayen-d s lejheṛ tamagit-nsen (identité) tamaziγt deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Γas ma tessukk ddula acḥal n yiseggasen n lḥeṛs d weqmaḍ γef wegdud, maca ay-a ur yessaweḍ ara ad yeqḍeε ay-n izedγen deg wulawen n medden. Ccwal yekkren deg 1985-1986 deg Tmurt n Leqbayel yella d win iweεṛen ugar n win n 1980, u yessken-d dakk-n medden ukin-d deg tama-a, yernu amussu (mouvement) amaziγ yessaweḍ ad d-yessuffeγ urfan n medden γer lejheṛ u qqlen medden, ama deg tmurt n Ldzayer, ama deg umaḍal (ddunit) slan s temsalt-a n tmaziγt u ttḍafaren-tt.

Lejnas steεṛfen s ljehd n umussu* amaziγ

*mouvement

D ay-n ibanen dakk-n amussu (mouvement) amaziγ εawnen-t-id s waṭas yiminigen (iγriben) imaziγen. Iminigen-a yekkan acḥal n yiseggasen deg lbeṛṛani yernu sεan ttejṛiba deg temsal n tsertit, d nitni ay iεawnen amussu ay yekkren deg tmurt n Leqbayel akk-n ad yemmager u ad yeṣ̣ber i weqmaḍ (répression) n ddula. Amussu amaziγ yeqqel yesεa ineṭṭaqen (porte-paroles) deg lγerba, d wid ay yellan la ttxebbiren lejnas γef way-n la iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel : seg 1980 d asawen, teqqel tγamsa (presse) la d-tessawaḍ isalan (lexbarat) n way-n iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel ugar n zik. D ay-a ay yejjan ddula ur tesseqdac ara aqmaḍ (répression) ameqran deg Tmurt n Leqbayel u tuwey-d tikli ay deg tḥuder imezdaγen n tama-a. D ay-a daγen ay yejjan medden ad qqlen ad ttarun neγ ad ssawalen mebla akukru, mebla ma sneqsen ay-n ay ugaden ur as-iεejjeb ara i ddula, u d ay-a ay d-ikecfen aqmaḍ n ddula, u teqqel tneggarut-a ur tezmir ara ad teqmeḍ medden s tsusmi, ur isell yiwen, am zik-nni. Azal n εecrin n yiseggasen ay teqqim ddula, yinabaḍen-ines (lḥukumat) yemxallafen, la tqemmeḍ, la tettakel γef yizerfan (lḥuquq) d tellyin, u tuweḍ alama ay d asseqdec n uεetteb d tmenγiwt ! Akk-n ad tefk lḥeqq i yiman-is u ad teg lecγal-a akk, ddula tettḥaṛab akk wid ay d-yekkren γer-s s yisem n Tegrawla (Révolution) yessuffγen Fṛansa u s yisem n yimenγi mgal (contre) n temnukda (imprérialisme). Deg tallit-nni, llan medden yettwakren, ttwaṭṭfen mebla lqanun, ttuεettben mebla ma yewlawel yiwen u mebla ma faqent trebbaε tibeṛṛaniyin yettnaγen γef yizerfan (lḥuquq) n wemdan u ad d-lhunt s temsal-a.

Seg 1980 d asawen, ttuwehhant akk teftilin γef Ldzayer, ladγa γef Tmurt n Leqbayel : ay-n yebγu teg-it ddula akk-n ad teḥbes tikli n yisalan (lexbarat), ur tessaweḍ ara, medden akk ẓran. Seg yimir-n, ddula teqqel teẓra dakk-n ur tezmir ara ad tkemmel aqmaḍ (répression) s tuffra.

Deg lweqt ay deg llant la d-ḍerrunt tedyanin deg tmurt, deg lγerba, imeγnasen bdan-d leqdic n wesḥulfu (sensibilisation) d ussaki n medden, alama ay yeqqel umussu (mouvement) amaziγ la d-ijebbed u la yettqenniε Idzayriyen yellan deg lγerba ugar n Tdukli n Yidzayriyen deg Tuṛuft (Amicale des Algériens en Europe), yellan, deg tidet, d tarbaεt itebεen γer FLN deg lbeṛṛani.

Daγen, deg tallit-nni, bdan wid yessawalen tamaziγt deg lγerba s timmad-nsen la d-ttarun idlisen ussnanen (scientifiques) γef tmaziγt, dγa d ay-a ay yekkan ibeṛṛaniyen ad d-rren ugar lwelha-nsen γer way-n iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Asmi ay bdan Yimazγanen (Maghrébins) la d-lehhun nitni s timmad-nsen s tezrawin (études) γef tmaziγt, tebda la tettebεad takti-nni (lfekra) dakk-n d timura « listiεmeṛ » ara ijebbden lexyuḍ. Ay-n d-ttinin neγ ttarun-t-id yimassanen-a (savants) imazγanen d ay-n zemren ad t-amnen medden, d nitni ara d-yessawalen γef yiman-nsen, maci d wiyaḍ ara d-ineṭṭqen deg umur-nsen. Imi ay d-lhan id-s yimazγanen (maghrébins) n tmura yemgerraden n Tefriqt n Ugafa, tebda « tmesmaziγt » (berbérisme) la tetteqqel d amussu (mouvement) n uxemmem iḥuzan akk tama-a, ur yeqqim ara kan deg yiwet n tmurt.

 
Timmuzγa* akk d tugdut

*amazighité

Γas ma yella imussa isnaktanen (mouvement idéologiques) deg tmura n Tmazγa (Maghreb) mgerraden, maca tella yiwet n tγawsa ay ten-yesdukklen : Tamazγa d taεṛabt yernu s kra n leqdic ara yettwagan γef yedles, yessefk ad yeqqim kan deg tlisa-a. Ma d timmuzγa (amazighité), ya tettwankeṛ maḍi, ya tettwaḥqer alama ay d ay-n kan. Win yessawalen tamaziγt, imi ay yettwankeṛ am wakk-a, ur yessefk ara ad newhem mi ara t-nwali yettsuγu-d : « Ala ! Lliγ yernu mazal bγiγ ad iliγ azekka ! ». D ay-n ibanen ad d-yini ay-a, d lḥeqq-is.

D ay-n ibanen dakk-n ankaṛ akk d tririt-agi deg rrif d ay-n ara iḍurren Amaziγ s timmad-is, maca ay-a yezmer ad yili daγen d amihi (danger) i tmetti (société) s lekmal-is, imi, mi ara tessers ddula tilisa am tigi i yedles, ad teqqel tmuγli n yedles d tamuγli tuḥṛist, d tin ur nettaẓ γer sdat, d tin ur nqebbel wiyaḍ, d tin wesdukkel n bessif n wakk medden s ddaw n yiwet n tecḍaḍt, d tin ay deg ay-n ur tebγi ara ddula ad t-tekkes, γas yella deg yedles, u d tin ay deg ttin ledwaṛ gar ddula d wegdud : deg lweqt ay deg idles d agdud ay t-id-yettgen, ad teqqel d ddula d nettat ara t-id-yettgen i wegdud. Skud ur werεad ur steεṛfen ara yimezdaγen n Tmazγa (Maghreb) s wakk ay-n yellan deg tgemmi-nsen (patrimoine), werjin ad d-ffγen seg ḍḍeεfan d tiggunẓit tadelsant (sous-développement culturel). Ur yezmir ad d-yili wesnulfu wala tudert tadelsant n tidet mi ara tqeddec ddula akk-n ad ttun medden amezruy (ttarix) d yedles-nsen, mi ara d-tḥettem fell-asen (u γef yiman-is) lḥeqq d umezruy n tkellax, mi ara tbennu azekka n tmetti (société) γef tmucuha werjin nelli deg lweqt ay deg tejja ay-n yellan.

Ḍḍeεfan ay yeḍεef yedles deg tmura n Tmazγa (Maghreb) u ladγa deg Ldzayer d ay-n ay d-yurew wemnaε ay ttwamenεent waṭas n tγawsiwin seg seg wasmi ay uwyent tmura-a izurag-nsent (indépendances) : tamaziγt teqqel deg rrif, maca daγen, tettuḥaṛeb tefṛensist yellan, ama nebγa neγ negguma, d ttawil yuγen aẓar deg Tmazγa u d yiwen seg yilsawen igan leqran i yedles d ccfawat-nneγ. Ay-a yerra idles n tmura n Tmazγa d igellil, yernu qrib ulac akk tudert taggagt (intellectuelle) deg yimukan ay teṭṭef ddula. Axemmem yeddren, idles yeqqnen γer tidet ttafen kan iman-nsen beṛṛa i tsuda (institutions) n ddula, ttilin-d kan deg yimukan idergen i wallen n ddula, ladγa deg lbeṛṛani. Yagi, maci deg lbaṭel ara naf dakk-n amur ameqran deg way-n d-itteffγen deg yedles d tudert taggagt (intellectuelle), itteffeγ-d s tmaziγt neγ s tefṛensist. Ay-a ur yebγi ara ad d-yini dakk-n taεṛabt ur tezmir ara ad tesseddu idles amuddir, wanag ssebba nettat iles-a, deg tegnit ay deg nella, ata-n gar yifassen n d wid yeṭṭfen tasertit (politique) d tesnakta (idéologie) n ddula.

Akk Imazγanen (Maghrébins), ama d wid yessawalen s tmaziγt neγ d wid yessawalen s taεṛabt, ala d rrbeḥ kan ara rebḥen lemmer ad ḥesben timmuzγa d aḥric seg wayla-nsen. Asmi ara mṣ̣alaḥen Yimazγanen wagar-asen u ad qeblen tikkersit (complexité) d tenḍa (diversité) n tmagit (identité) d yedles-nsen, ass-nni, tezmer ad teqqel Tmazγa d tamurt n wesnulfu d unnerni. Tukci n wazal i tmaziγt d ay-n ara yesqeεden assaγen (relations) gar uγerman (citoyen) d ddula ay t-iḥekmen. Amussu (mouvement) n tmaziγt d win ay d-yeglan yid-s s ussutter n tuggta (pluralisme), n weqbal n wiyaḍ, n tenḍa (diversité) akk d tlelli (liberté), ama d tin n wemdan, ama d tin n terbaεt. Amussu-a yugi ad ttuḥettmen medden ad ddren s ddaw n yiwet kan n tecḍaḍt, tin ara tḥettem fell-asen ddula u d tin ay izemren ad tγurr kra akk-n ad sbedden leḥkem amesbaṭli. Tabṛat n umussu-a tban, ladγa deg Tmurt n Leqbayel : maci d ddula ara d-yesnulfun neγ ara d-yebnun « idles » i wegdud, yernu ay-nni ur yelli d idles wanag d timucuha tunṣ̣ibin (officielles) ara qebleγ mebla ma nniγ-d acemma. S yisem-iw d aγerman ilelli, ttalaseγ ad d-iniγ d acu ay lliγ, d acu ay bγiγ ad qqleγ u ad bnuγ ay-a. Tamagit-inu (identité), idles-inu ur llin ara, akk-n ay d-yenna Kateb Yacine, d akaram (dossier) n lekwaγeḍ ay d-tga ddula, d win ay tettbeddil akk-n ay as-yehwa, ma d nekk ad qebleγ ay-n s tsusmi. Idles d ay-n ay d-tesnulfuy yal ass tmetti (société) tilellit.

Γef way-a, amussu (mouvement) amaziγ ur yelli d win ay yes bγan Yimaziγen ad γelqen γef yiman-nsen, d amussu uḥṛis yerzan kan kra n wegdud, neγ d taγelnaẓri (nationalisme) tamaynut am tid-n akk yekkan : wanag, assutter amaziγ d win ay d-yuwyen taγawsa tamaynut, d tin ay yugaren iεeddan i tlisa n tmaziγt-nni s timmad-is, d assirem i lebni n tmetti (société) ay deg tella tenḍa (diversité), ay deg medden mṣ̣alaḥen wagar-asen yernu maci d amnaε, aḥqar d wenkaṛ ara yesseddayen tiγawsiwin n tmurt. Ad tili tlelli tadelsant (culturelle) d tlelli i yiles amaziγ, maca daγen ad tili tlelli i wakk medden, acku wid yessawalen tamaziγt fehmen dakk-n ur zmiren ara ad ttwaḍemnen yizerfan-nsen (lḥuquq) s tidet u ad dumen deg yiwet tmetti (société) ala ma yella d aγerman (citoyen) ara yeṭṭfen leḥkem yernu amdan ur itteqqel ara ittedder u itteddu akk-n ay as-yehwa i ddula neγ i kra n terbaεt yerran leḥkem d ayla-s.

Yettwakkes-d seg « Imazighen ass-a », n Salem Chaker (tiẓrigin Bouchène, Ldzayer, 1990).

Tasuqilt sγur Omar MOUFFOK
 

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
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