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Asseqεed n yiles amaziγ : amkan n wawalen imaynuten*
 
 
Tadiwennit d Ramdane Achab (iga-as-tt Saïd Chemakh u teffeγ-d deg tesγunt n Imazighen Ass-a deg Meγres 1995, Fṛansa)
 
*ijdiden
 
Achab Ramdane d ameγnas (militant) ara yettnaγen γef tmaziγt qrib 25 n yiseggasen ay-a, yernu seg melmi kan ay d-yessuffeγ ajdel-ines (thèse) n uduktuṛa γef wawalen imaynuten (ijdiden) deg tmaziγt, d anadi ay iga γer INALCO (Institut National des langues et civilisations orientales - Asudu aγelnaw n yilsawen d tγermiwin ticerqiyin, Paris).
 
Menγir yiwen n wedlis ay d-yessuffeγ s yisem-is (Tira n tmaziγt (Taqbaylit), tiẓrigin Tafsut, 1990, 110 n yisebtar), Ramdane Achab dima yeqdec γef tmaziγt s tsusmi, mebεid γef teftilin n cciεa. Γas ma yella asmi ay tella tugdi, yella ur d-yettsedday ara isem-is deg way-n ay d-yettaru (am deg wussan anda ay llan qeddcen γef tesγunt Tafsut), maca tikkwal daγen, d netta s timmad-is ay ittekksen isem-is seg way-n ay d-yettsuffuγ.
 
Akk-n ad nessen ugar abrid ay seg d-yekka d way-n iga, Mass Achab yeqbel ad d-yerr γef tuttriwin-nneγ (isteqsiyen).
 
Tebdiḍ-d s tusnakt (mathématiques), tuwḍeḍ γer tmaziγt, tzemreḍ ad aγ-d-teḥkuḍ γef umecwaṛ ay γef d-tekkiḍ ?
 
R. Achab : Tamenzut, xseγ (bγiγ) ad d-iniγ dakk-n yeγli-d wuṭṭun (numéro) amezwaru n tesγunt-nwen gar yifassen-iw, γriγ-t yernu yeεjeb-iyi way-n d-yeddan deg-s, dγa xseγ ad faṛseγ tagnit akk-n ad ken-henniγ u ad awen-ssirmeγ ad trebḥem deg lecγal-nwen.
 
Asmi ay lliγ la qqareγ tusnakt (mathématiques), bdiγ la ttarraγ ddehn-iw γer tjeṛṛumt n tmaziγt seg 1970 d asawen, asmi ay bdiγ la ḥeddṛeγ i temsirin (dduṛus) ay itteg Mouloud Mammeri deg Tesdawit n Ldzayer. Deg 1972 neγ deg 1973, nekk d kra n yinelmaden nebda la d-nettsuffuγ tisγunin (revues) tidelsanin umi nsemma Taftilt d Itri, d acu kan, ur εeḍḍlent ara ḥebsent. Sakk-in, gar 1974 d 1979 ttekkaγ deg leqdicat n Waggay n Tezrawin Timaziγin (Groupes d'Etudes Berbères) n Tesdawit n Paris VIII, anda ay lliγ la ssγarayeγ tira n tmaziγt akk d Mbarek Redjala, ad t-yeṛḥem Ṛebbi. Timsirin-nni ffγent-d deg yiwen n wedlis (taktabt) n Tenmiregt (coopérative) n Imedyazen s yisem n "Iles Amaziγ (taqbaylit : actal γer tira". Deg Paris, tṣ̣aḥ-iyi-d tegnit ad ḥedṛeγ i temliliyin n Lionel Galand (deg EPHE) d Salem Chaker (deg INALCO).
 
Deg 1979, bdiγ la qeddceγ d aselmad n tusnakt deg Tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. Inelmaden ssuttren-iyi ad slemdeγ tajeṛṛumt d tira n tmaziγt (γas mebla ttesriḥ). Tamsirt (ddeṛs) amezwaru yella-d deg wass n 16 Yebrir 1980, deg wussan-nni anda ay ṭṭfen yinelmaden tasdawit. Sakk-in, teqqel temsirt-nni n tmaziγt amzun d lεadda : iseqquma n tnezduγin n tesdawiyin llan ttsefrayen ad gen timsirin-a yal aseggas, mi ara qqlen yiselmaden γer tezrawin (leqraya), ama deg Oued Aïssi, ama deg Yiḥesnawen, u llan ula d iselmaden niḍen ay d-yettekkan deg temsirin-a. Tṣ̣aḥ-iyi-d daγen tegnit ad slemdeγ tamaziγt deg kra n tesnawiyin (lycées) n Tmurt n Leqbayel (deg Dreε Lmizan, Tizi Wezzu, atg.), am wakk-n sseγreγ tamaziγt deg Tesdawit n Bab-Ezzouar, deg Ldzayer tamaneγt anda Amazday (collectif) n Imedyazen yella la iqeddec γef yedles amaziγ.
 
Nnig n usselmed-nni n tmaziγt, ttekkaγ daγen deg ussebded d ussuffeγ n tesγunt Tafsut ay deg d-uriγ kra n tgejda (éditoriaux) s teqbaylit, am wakk-n ttekkaγ daγen deg ussebded n umazrar (série) n usselmed n tesγunt-a. Deg 1985, ma ur cciḍeγ ara, neεreḍ daγen ad nesselmed tamaziγt s tebṛatin deg Tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. D acu kan, ttejṛiba-a ur tεeḍḍel ara γef ljal n lexṣ̣aṣ̣ n ttawil akk d tegnit iweεṛen deg tallit-nni.
 
Seg yidis unṣ̣ib (officiel), tṣaḥ-iyi-d tegnit ad ttekkiγ deg tseqquma n ferru (jurys) neγ ad asen-beddeγ i yinelmaden ay d-igan ijedlen (thèses) yeqqnen γer wenrar n tmaziγt : tira n tmaziγt deg uselkim (ordinateur) s tfinaγ tijdidin (d ajdel yettwagan s ddaw tmehla -direction- n Arezki Bouzefrane, d amsenselkim -informaticien- yernu yella iqeddec id-i), yella daγen wejdel niḍen yettwagan γef tseftit (conjugaison) n teqbaylit s uselkim, d wayeḍ γef bennu n yisudar n yisefka (bases de données) n yeḍrisen yuran s tmaziγt.
 
Asmi ay qqleγ γer Fṛansa, deg tezwara n useggas n 1989, d Mass Salem Chaker ay iyi-yullen (iεawen-iyi) akk-n ad mmeṛkiγ iman-iw γer aduktuṛa deg INALCO, dγa ferneγ ad geγ ajdel-inu (thèse) γef wawalen ijdiden deg tmaziγt.
 
Ihi, qrib εecrin n yiseggasen ay-a seg wasmi ay sdukkleγ snat n tmeddurin, tamenzut d tin n uqeddic-iw (leqraya d usselmed n tusnakt -mathématiques), ma d tis snat d tin n tlufa ay iyi-yerzan nekk [tamaziγt]. D acu kan, la ttwaliγ dakk-n maci ala nekk ay yellan deg tegnit-a, wanag, akk medden n ljil-inu yellan rran ddehn-nsen γer tmaziγt u llan qeddcen fell-as llan am nekk. Llan aṭas n yimedyaten (exemples). Yiwen deg-sen d Muḥend u Yeḥya, ula d netta yeγra tusnakt deg Tesdawit n Ldzayer uqbel ma yebda ad d-yettsuqqul (yesṭerjim) iqeddicen n Sartre, Brech, Beckett, Molière d wiyaḍ.
 
Seg tama niḍen, ttwaliγ dakk-n amdan yesεa tamagit (identité) yellan d nettat ay d llsas n wakk iqeddicen ay ixeddem s lbal-is. Ulac akk ugur ma yesdukkel yiwen tussniwin tiseddiyin (sciences exactes) d tussniwin n tsekla (littérature). Ugur awḥid ay d-mlaleγ nekk deg way-a netta d win kan n wamek ara yefreq wemdan lweqt-is.
 
D acu-tt ttejṛiba-inek deg wenrar n unadi γef tmaziγt ?
 
Maci d ttejṛiba meγγren. Kkiγ acḥal n yiseggasen, rriγ-d kan deg-sen ddehn-iw γer temsal n tjeṛṛumt d tira n tmaziγt. Gar 1982 d 1984, ttekkaγ deg lebni n yiwet n tmawalt n tusnakt (lexique de mathématiques) tafṛensist-tamaziγt, u yeffeγ-d deg tesγunt Tafsut, ma d tura, qqleγ-d tikkelt niḍen γer leqdic n tusnakt, d acu kan, tikkelt-a la qeddceγ γef tusnakt s tmaziγt.   
 
Deg 1986, Mass Chaker yessekcem-iyi akk d yemεiwnen niḍen deg leqdic-nni n lebni n umawal amatu (dictionnaire général) n yiles amaziγ deg uselkim (ordinateur).
 
Tamawalt n Tusnakt (Lexique de Mathématiques) gan-tt-id tlata n yemdanen : H. Sadi, M. Laïhem akk d nekk. Ma Chaker akk d Mammeri εawnen-aγ deg temsal n tesnarrayt (méthodologie), afran n yezwiren (préfixes) akk d yiẓuran, atg. Mouloud Mammeri yerḍel-aγ-d kra n yimawalen n tmaziγt.
 
Sdeffir n useggas n leqdic, nessaweḍ ad nfak amur ameqran seg tmawalt-nni (lexique). Sakk-in, Chaker yeqqel waqila γer Fṛansa. Ula d H. Sadi. Nella sya γer da ntteddu s axxam n Mouloud Mammeri akk-n ad neqdec dinna, d acu kan, neqqel ur nebγi ara ad nkemmel ad t-ncewwil, dγa nkemmel nekk d Laïhem la nqeddec deg sin id-neγ kan, u nkemmel akk-n setta n wagguren, alama ay d asmi ay nfuk tamawalt-nni. Deg tallit-nni lliγ la d-sεeddayeγ lεeskeṛ deg El Harrach (Ldzayer Tamaneγt) u deg lweqt-nni, Mass Laïhem, yellan la yettseγray tusnakt deg ENS n Tqubbet, yella daγen la d-yettfaka leqraya-ines deg tujjya (médecine). Yal yiwen deg-neγ yella la iqeddec seg yidis-ines, yernu nella la nettemlili deg tgara n dduṛt akk-n ad nẓer sani nuweḍ. Akk-n ad ak-d-ḥkuγ, nekka acḥal n tikkal taggara n dduṛt deg yiwen n teklinit (clinique) n udawi n leεqel deg Tqubbet, anda Mass Laïhem tella tettṣ̣aḥ-it-id nnuba akk-n ad iqareε imuḍinen. Dγa twalad tagnit ay deg nella ? Aεsekṛiw ara d-yesεeddayen lεeskeṛ-ines d umejjay-amusnak (médecin-mathématicien) la qeddcen γef tusnakt (mathématiques) s tmaziγt deg teklinit n udawi n leεqel !
 
Amek ay tgam akk-n ad tfernem awalen n tusnakt ?
 
S umata, akk-a ay neqdec : awalen ara ilin deg tmawalt-nni (lexique) nefren-iten-id seg yimawalen (dictionnaires) d tnemmalin (index) n tektabin n tusnakt. Deg way-n yerzan tasuqilt (asṭerjem) n wawalen-nni γer tmaziγt, nebda-d, deg tazwara, la d-nettaddam awalen yeqqnen γer tusnakt yellan yagi deg Umawal (n tmaziγt tatrart). Sakk-in, nebda la d-nettnadi  deg yimawalen imaziγen yemxallafen awalen d yiẓuran ay seg nezmer ad d-nezzullem (dériver) awalen i tusnakt. Awalen d yiẓuran-a nezzullem-d seg-sen awalen ijdiden s yiberdan-nni ay nennum nettseqdac-iten deg tmaziγt akk-n ad d-nezzullem s tmaziγt neγ daγen s ussuddes (composition). Awalen d yiẓuran-nni jjan-aγ ad d-nesnulfu kra n tserkmin n yirmen (classes de termes).
 
Awalen ay d-nezzullem (dérivé) d wid ay ḥwajen medden akk-n ad γren neγ ad slemden tusnakt (mathématiques) deg uγerbaz (llakul) amenzu, deg tesnawit (lycée) akk d tesdawit (université) alama d turagt (licence). D acu kan, la nettwali dakk-n leqdic-nneγ d aneεruḍ kan yernu mazal nezmer ad t-nesselhu. Tamawalt-a (lexique) n tusnakt tga ciṭṭ n ṣ̣ṣ̣da deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, ddmen-tt kra n yiselmaden deg tesdawit d tesnawit, u bdan la d-ttarun ixfawen (chapitres) d temsirin (dduṛus) ikemlen n tusnakt s tmaziγt.
 

Melmi kan ay tfukeḍ ajdel (thèse) n uduktuṛa γef wawalen ijdiden deg tmaziγt. Ayγer ay tferneḍ ad tqedceḍ γef temsalt-a ?
 
Mi ara yefren wemdan kra n temsalt, dima ttilin aṭas n ssebbat ay t-yessawḍen s ay-n : tikkwal d zzheṛ, tikkwal d beγγu ay yebγa ad yessen ay-n ur yessin ara, tikkwal d netta ay yerran ddhen-is γer wenrar-a neγ anrar-inna, daγen tikkwal, yefren kra n temsalt imi ay yegget fell-as wawal taswiεt-nni, neγ d tin ay d tamsalt ay γef llant aṭas n teftarin (documents) yettwarun, atg. 
 
Nekk dima rriγ ddhen-iw γer tmawalt (lexique). Deg yiseggasen n 1970, lliγ d amagaz (abonné) deg Fichier de Documentation Berbère. Lliγ dima ttaddameγ tinqiḍin mi ara qqareγ idlisen (tiktabin) n FDB : ttaruγ awalen ur ssineγ ara, tinfalyin (expressions), inzan (proverbes), atg. Dγa akk-n ay ssawḍeγ ad ccaṛeγ acḥal n yittafttaren (cahiers) u lliγ la ttxemmimeγ dakk-n yiwen wass ad nefεen i kra, γas ma yehwa-as d nekk kan ara d-yestenfεen seg-sen. Ass-a mazal ḥemmleγ ad γreγ imawalen n tmaziγt akk-n qqaren medden ungalen (romans).
 
Bdiγ la d-ttarraγ ddehn-iw γer wawalen imaynuten cwiṭ cwiṭ asmi ay bdiγ la qqareγ idlisen am tjeṛṛumt n tmaziγt n Mouloud Mammeri, Amawal n tmaziγt tatrart, atg. Daγen, bdiγ la d-ttarraγ ddehn-iw γer wamek la ttseqdacen awalen imaynuten n Umawal : deg yisefran n Ben-Mohammed, deg ccna n teqbaylit amaynut, deg tsekla tatrart (littérature moderne), deg tesgilin n ṛṛadyu, atg.
 
La ttwaliγ dakk-n awalen imaynuten uraren dduṛ d ameqran ama seg yidis n wuguren ay tesεa tmaziγt deg tmawalt (lexique), ama deg ubeddel n lεeqleyya n wid yellan la qeddcen γef tmaziγt. Awalen imaynuten n tmaziγt sseknen-d dakk-n nezmer ad neqdec γef yiles amaziγ (d iles ay yesṛuḥen aṭas), awalen-a kksen-asen tikerrist (complexe) i yemdanen-a, u jjan-aγ ad nesseddu iles amaziγ γer sdat.
 
Deg yiseggasen n 1970, aṭas n medden deg umussu (mouvement) amaziγ qbilen ara aṭṭuqqet n wawalen aεṛaben deg tmawalt n teqbaylit. Awalen-a ay d-yettwareḍlen seg taεṛabt llan la ten-ttwalin medden d « ammus ». Imedyazen, icennayen d yimura (écrivains) llan la ttnadin amek ara ssizedgen iles amaziγ, γas akk-n yella d awezγi ad t-ssizedgen s lekmal-is. Dγa, awalen imaynuten d nitni ay yeccuṛen ilem-nni, d nitni ay as-ixelfen i tmaziγt ay-n ay deg txuṣ̣ṣ̣. Ilmeẓyen rran-d ttaṛ ula seg yiles-nsen ladγa imi assqdec n wawalen imaynuten yessaweḍ-iten alama ay jjan kra n wawalen d imensayen (traditionnels) am wakk-n ay yesseḥṛes anrar n tenfalit (expression).
 
Awalen imaynuten llan ttusseqdacen deg ṛṛadyu yettsawalen s tmaziγt, ama deg Ldzayer neγ deg Fṛansa, akk d yeγmisen (ijeṛnanen) isertiyen (politiques) n tmaziγt, Asalu d Amaynut, ay yebdan la d-tteffγen seg 1989 d asawen, d acu kan, seg wakk-n llan ttusseqdacen wawalen imaynuten deg ttawilat-a, alama ay yeqqel yiles-nni ay ttseqdacen deg-sen ur yesεi ara akk sser.
 
D ay-a ay iyi-yejjan ad εerḍeγ ad fehmeγ xir ugur-a, u ad d-aruγ tacrawt (bilan) fell-as. Dγa yella yessefk fell-i ad γreγ awalen-a imaynuten, ad d-nadiγ laṣ̣el n wawalen-nni ay d-yettussumren (proposés), d acu-tent tentalyin (dialectes) ay seg d-ttwaddmen, ad srekmeγ (classer) awalen-nni imaynuten, ad ḥesbeγ acḥal n wawalen yellan seg yal ṣ̣ṣ̣enf, ad ẓreγ amek d wanect ttusseqdacen u ad ẓreγ d acu-tent tmeẓla (caractéristiques) akk n way-a.
 
Daγen, u d ay-n ibanen, llant ssebbat yugaren ay-a : tamsalt-a yegget fell-as wawal deg tallit-nni yernu mazal ar tura tecγeb-aγ. Akk-n yebγu yili, tamawalt (lexique) n tmaziγt mazal teḥwaj ad tettusseqεed. Lliγ daγen bγiγ ad d-εeyyneγ γef kra n tγawsiwin ay lliγ la tent-ttwaliγ d yir-itent deg wesnulfu n wawalen imaynuten. Lliγ ẓriγ dakk-n greγ iman-iw deg yiwet n temsalt “yeḥman », ay γef mgerraden leṛyuy, yernu iberdan ay yes nezmer ad nefru tamsalt-a ggten alama ay d ay-n kan.
 
Anwa ay d-igan Amawal n tmaziγt tatrart yernu ayγer ur d-iris ara deg-s yisem n umeskar (auteur) ?
 
Amawal n tmaziγt tatrart tga-t-id yiwet n terbaεt n ṛebεa n yemdanen : Mouloud Mammeri, Amar Zentar, Mustapha Benkhemmou d Amar Yahiaoui. Llan wid yellan ttekkayen deg-s sya γer da. Mouloud Mammeri yellan d aselmad deg tesdawit n Ldzayer yella daγen deg tallit-nni [deg tezwara n yiseggasen n 1970] d anemhal (directeur) n CRAPE. Tlata-nni niḍen llan d inelmaden.
 
Tikkelt tamezwarut anda ay d-yeffeγ (deg 1974, deg Ldzayer tamaneγt), tazzwart (préface) d uεeyyen ay d-yeddan deg Umawal-nni d Mouloud Mammeri ay tent-ikebben (ay ten-yestenyan). D acu kan, asmi ay as-εawden assuffeγ deg Tenmiregt (Coopérative) n Imedyazen deg 1980, ur d-yeddi ara akk deg-s kra n yisem.
 
Uqbel ma εawden-as-d assuffeγ s cwiṭ, mlaleγ-d Mouloud Mammeri d zzheṛ kan deg Paris, deg Quartier Latin, dγa nniγ-as dakk-n atni la d-ssewjaden ad εawden ad d-ssuffγen Amawal-nni. Mouloud Mammeri yegguma ad d-yeddu yisem-is deg tduli (couverture) n wedlis-nni neγ sdaxel-s. Nekk nniγ-as dakk-n lemmer ad d-yeddu yisem-is deg-s, medden ad t-amnen neγ ad yenz xir, maca netta yenna-iyi-d dakk-n lemmer Amawal-nni ad yenfeε medden deg kra, ad yenz γas ur d-itteddu ara deg-s yisem n umeskar (auteur). Yenna-d dakk-n lemmer ad d-yeddu deg-s yisem-is, ad rnun kan ad nzen wazal n xemsin n tsukan (exemplaires) seg-s. Daγen, yegguma ad t-id-nessuffeγ u ad d-teddu deg-s tefyirt am “D adlis ay γef teqdec terbaεt n yimeskaren s ddaw n tmehla (direction) n Mammeri », atg.
 
Llan daγen yedlisen n wawalen imaynuten ay d-ssuffγen Yimeṛṛukiyen d Yimucaγ.
 
D tidet. Awalen imaynuten ur d-nnulfan ara deg teqbaylit kan. Deg tezwara n yiseggasen n 1980, γef lemtel, ffγen-d yedlisen γef wawalen imaynuten deg Mali d Niger deg wenrar n tusnakt (mathématiques) n weswir amenzu (niveau primaire).  Deg Meṛṛuk, tettwaga-d tsuqilt (asṭerjem) n Tseγrut Tameγradit n Yizefan n Wemdan γer tmaziγt deg 1990, d tin ay d-iga Hassan Id Balkasm yellan d abugaṭu u d amedyaz ; imeskaren (auteurs) uwyen-d awalen seg Umawal n tmaziγt tatrart, am wakk-n ay d-bnan awalen imaynuten niḍen ay llan ḥwajen-ten. Deg 1993, Belaïd Boudris iga-d daγen tamawalt n usselmed ; ula d netta yugem-d awalen seg Umawal am wakk-n ay d-yessumer awalen d yezwiren (préfixes) imaynuten. Ula deg Ldzayer, asnulfu n wawalen maci ala d Leqbayel ay d-yelhan id-s. Massa Tassadit Yacine tenna-iyi-d dakk-n tella yiwet n terbaεt n Yemẓabiyen gan-d umuγ (liste) n wawalen imaynuten, werεad d-teffiγ.
 
Ula d asseqdec n wawalen imaynuten maci d ay-n yellan kan deg Tmurt n Leqbayel : kra n yicennayen icawiyen ttseqdacen awalen yellan deg Umawal n Tmaziγt Tatrart. Deg Meṛṛuk, awalen imaynuten la ttusseqdacen deg weγmis (ajeṛnan) adelsan Tasafut, tasγunt (revue) Tifawt, deg ccna amaziγ n Meṛṛuk, deg tesgilin n ṛṛadyu u seg melmi kan daγen deg yisalan n tilibizyu. Ama deg Meṛṛuk neγ deg Ldzayer, asseqdec n wawalen imaynuten yeqqel d taγawsa n menwala, ladγa deg tγawsiwin ay d-yettwagan akk-n yelha.  
 
D acu tettmeyyizeḍ deg wezgen-agi n lqern ay iεeddan deg usseqdec n wawalen imaynuten ?
 
Dima yewεeṛ ad d-tgeḍ tacrawt (bilan) γef yinurar anda ur tezmireḍ ara ad as-tessinfeḍ i tmuγli-inek tudmawant (personnelle).
 
Akk-n d-tenniḍ, azgen n lqern ay-a seg wasmi ara ttusseqdacen wawalen imaynuten deg tmaziγt imi idlisen imezwura ay deg d-ddan ffγen-d deg 1945, d wid n ccnawat iγelnaẓriyen (nationalistes) yettwarun s tmaziγt (amur ameqran deg-sen d Yidir Aït Amrane ay ten-yuran).
 
Seg wass-nni ar ass-a, asseqεed n tmawalt (lexique) iḥuza-d aṭas n yinurar : inurar imuta (généraux) am tussniwin talsiyin (sciences humaines) deg Umawal n tmaziγt tatrart (M. Mammeri), tusnakt (mathématiques, am deg Ldzayer d Niger, 1984), tasnamurt (géographie – adlis yura Slimane Touati yernu werεad d-yeffiγ), ddin (tisuqilin n Yinjil d Leqran s teqbaylit), tasenselkimt (informatique), atg.
 
S umata, ugar n 7000 n wawalen ay d-yettusnulfan, kra n tmiḍa (tmeyyatin) seg-sen la ttusseqdacen tikkwal, u ala kan kra n tmerwin (dizaines) seg-sen ay yeqqlen mechuṛit cwiṭ. Awalen imaynuten ay d-snulfan deg tmaceγt (tatergit, deg Mali d Niger) ur ggten ara, d acu kan, awalen-a nnulfan-d deg leqdicat unṣ̣iben (officiels) imi tamaceγt d iles aγelnaw deg snat-a n tmura. Leqdicat ay yettwagan γef wawalen imaynuten deg Ldzayer d Meṛṛuk nnulen aṭas n yinurar s umata, d acu kan, ttwagant-d deg tegnatin iweεṛen, anda tasnakta (idéologie) tella mgal (contre) n tmaziγt. Ama deg Ldzayer, ama deg Meṛṛuk, asseqεed n tmawalt (lexique) mazal la yettkemmil kan mebla aḥkim. Seg wasmi ay d-yebda wesnulfu n wawalen deg tmaziγt, xemsin n yiseggasen ay-a, deg snat-a n tmura, wid ay d-yesnulfuyen  ttgen leqdic d iwizi (volontaire, bénévole) u akk-n ay asen-yehwa. 
 
Deg way-n yerzan timawalin-nni (lexiques) n wawalen imaynuten s timmad-nsent, nezmer ad nger tamawt dakk-n wid ay tent-igan malen γer ussizdeg n yiles amaziγ seg wawalen ibeṛṛaniyen, zgan ttekksen akk awalen ay d-yettwareḍlen seg yilsawen ibeṛṛaniyen, qrib ulac akk isilγen infaliyen (formations expressives) yernu zgan la d-snulfuyen awalen s uεaned n tefṛensist : aεaned deg taggayin n tseddast (catégories syntaxiques), aεaned deg usemmi i tγawsiwin, aεaned deg temṣ̣ukin tuddisin, aεaned deg tewsatin (genres), atg. Daγen, mi ara ttseqdacen awalen-a imaynuten, am deg tγamsa tasertit (presse politique) s teqbaylit, ttseqdacen-ten swaswa kan akk-n ay ten-ttseqdacen deg tefṛensist, d ilugan n tseddast (règles de syntaxe) n tefṛensist ay ttseqdacen, dγa d ay-a ay ten-yessawḍen ad d-arun kra n tγawsiwin s tmaziγt d awezγi ad ttwafehment.
 
Timawalin (lexiques) ay d-yettwagan, lemmer ad tent-neddem yiwet yiwet, nezmer ad d-naf deg-sent aṭas n tγawsiwin ay deg xuṣ̣ṣ̣ent : nezmer ad naf deg-sen yiwen n wawal yesεan sin neγ ugar n lemεani yemxallafen, yernu liḥalat am tigi ggtent deg Umawal n tmaziγt tatrart, yernu llant ula deg tmawalt-nni n tusnakt tafṛensist-tamaziγt ay d-yeffγen deg Ldzayer deg 1984, u deg tussna am tusnakt (mathématiques), ay-a d ay-n ur nezmir ad yettwaqbel. Nnig leεyub-a ay γef nezmer ad d-nini dakk-n qqnen γer lexṣ̣aṣ̣ n ttawil deg tallit-nni, nezmer ad d-nernu dakk-n awalen imaynuten ttwaεezlen ama seg yidis n tesnalγa-nsen (morphologie), ama seg yidis n lemεani-nsen ma nquren-iten γer wawalen ay nettseqdac yal ass [meḥsub banen dakk-n mxallafen γef wawalen imaziγen n yal ass].
 
Daγen, umuγ (listes) n wawalen ay d-yettwafrnen akk-n ad d-ttussuqqlen γer tmaziγt deg yal tamawalt (lexique) yemxallaf seg tmawalt γer tayeḍ d lxilaf d ameqran : yella lxilaf gar awalen n Umawal n Tmaziγt Tatrart d wawalen d-yeddan deg Tmawalt n Tusnakt, yella lxilaf gar n Umawal d way-n ay d-yeffγen deg Meṛṛuk, yella daγen lxilaf gar n Umawal d wumuγ-nni n wawalen imaynuten ay d-gan Yemẓabiyen, win ay d-bedreγ uqbel, atg. Lxilafat-a rzan timiḍa (timeyyatin) n wawalen. Ay-a yesskanay-d dakk-n lxilaf gar tentalyin (dialectes) yezmer ad yernu ma yella nkemmel la nqeddec γef usseqεed n tmawalt n tmaziγt yal yiwen seg tama-s yernu mebla ma nemlal.
 
D acu kan, llant daγen tγawsiwin yelhan deg wesnulfu n wawalen. Γas ma yella asnulfu n wawalen imaynuten deg tmaziγt ixuṣ̣ṣ̣, maca ay-n yettwagan deg wezgen n lqern-agi iεeddan yuklal tajmilt. Ay-a yeldi-aγ iga-aγ abrid akk-n ad nekcem γer yiwen n wenrar s wazal-is yernu yewεeṛ, nessaweḍ ad d-neg deg-s kra n leqdicat ifazen, u nnig way-a akk, asnulfu n wawalen yejja-aγ ad neεreḍ akk iberdan yellan, iberdan akk ay nezmer ad ten-nesseqdec akk-n ad d-nebnu awalen imaynuten s tmaziγt. D ay-a ay aγ-yejjan ad d-nessekcem kra n yiferdisen (éléments) d imaynuten am yezwiren (préfixe) d yedfiren (suffixe) ay aγ-yejjan ad neslugen (régulariser) tiserkmin (classes) n wawalen. Daγen, yessefk ad d-nger tamawt dakk-n wid ay d-yesnulfan awalen imaynuten s tmaziγt, qedcen i wakk-n awalen-a ad ttusseqdacen deg wakk tintalyin (dialectes). Ma yettwaga leqdic-a akk-n yessefk, ay-a yezmer ad yessenqes imgerraden (lxilafat) yellan gar tentalyin u ad tent-yesdukkel deg wawalen imaynuten.
 
D acu ay d-tettsumureḍ* ad t-neg akk-n ad nefru ugur-a ?  
 
*proposer
 
Akk-n ad ak-d-iniγ tidet, ur ẓriγ ara ma yella isumar udmawanen (propositions personnelles) ara d-fkeγ deg wenrar am usseqεed n yiles (aménagement linguistique) zemren ad sεun kra n wazal, lmizan neγ ljehd ara ibeddlen tiγawsiwin
 
Deg tmura niḍen neγ deg tmura irebḥen akk-n ay as-qqaren deg teqbaylit, asseqεed n yiles (aménagement linguistique) neγ n kra n tsenfelt (variante) n yiles-nni d ccγel ay yes d-ilehhu Uwanak (ddula), tisdawiyin d wudusen izuyaz neγ usligen (organismes publics ou privés), tideblin (administrations), yernu ccγel am wa yeḥwaj ttawilat d imeqranen ama seg yidis n yemdanen neγ seg yidis n temṣ̣ukin (structures) ara yesseddun u ad ḍefren asnerni n yiles deg wenrar, atg.
 
Nekni γer-neγ, d asgijji n yiles ay γef yessefk ad d-nessiwel, maci d asseqεed-ines, ladγa deg way-n yerzan tamaziγt !
 
Maca yessefk ad neεreḍ ula d nekni ad neg ccγel-a akk-n yessefk. Isumar-inu (propositions) qqnen γer sin n yeswiren (niveaux).
 
1. Yella weswir n beṛṛa ay deg yessefk ad neεreḍ ad nesseqreb wagar-asen : imnuda (wid yettnadin), tisuda (insititutions) yettseqdacen awalen imaynuten (am ṛṛadyuwat d tilibizyuwat timeṛṛukiyin d tdzayriyin, wid yettarun deg tesγunin d yeγmisen n tmaziγt, atg.), imura (wid yettarun idlisen), imedyazen, inuẓar (ifennanen), atg. Deg wanect-a, yessefk ad d-neg tacrawt (bilan) n way-n yeḥwaj yal yiwen d way-n yettseqdac, ad neεreḍ ad nesdukkel awalen ay yettseqdac yal yiwen, ad d-neg isenfaren (projets) icerken n leqdic (ay deg ara mεiwnent wagar-asent tmura n Tmazγa, wid yellan deg yal tamurt d wid iqeddcen deg yal anrar n leqdic). Tigi akk d tiγawsiwin timezwura iḥaren, d tid ay yes yessefk ad nebdu. Mi ara nmuqel γer mebεid, attekki n tesdawiyin tiγelnawin (nationales) ama deg Ldzayer neγ deg Meṛṛuk, akk d tbeṛṛaniyin (am INALCO) d ay-n ay izemren ad d-yurar dduṛ d ameqran deg wenjaṛ n webrid amatu (general) ara naγ akk-n ad nesseqεed iles, amek ara neqdec i lmend n way-a u d acu-tent tγawsiwin ay yes yessefk ad nezwir. Deg wenrar, tiddukliwin timaziγin d ttawilat n uxebber zemren ad uraren dduṛ n tqenṭert gar wid akk ay d-yelhan d usseqεed n yiles akk d wegdud-nni ara yesqedcen iles-nni.
 
D ay-n ibanen dakk-n yewεeṛ aṭas ad d-nessebded akk ay-a u ad t-nesseddu akk-n yessefk, maca la ttwaliγ dakk-n nezmer ad d-nebdu s kra, γas d amecṭuḥ : ad d-nebdu leqdic ay deg ara mlilen Yidzayriyen d Yimeṛṛukiyen, u ad nessemγer tarbaεt cwiṭ, cwiṭ akk-n ad d-nernu γer-s daγen Imucaγ n Niger d Mali.
 
D acu kan, yessefk ad d-nger tamawt dakk-n ma nessebded-d timṣ̣ukin-a (structures) n usseqεed n tutlayt, yessefk fell-asent ad ddunt s leḥder yernu ur tteqqlen ara d timestulin (tijadeṛmiyin) n yiles.
 
Yessefk daγen ad ikemmel weḥṛas n Yiwunak (ddulat) akk-n ad steεṛfen s tmaziγt s wudem unṣ̣ib (official) u ad as-fken ttawilat ay teḥwaj maci ala i wakk-n kan ad temneε seg wengar wanag ula i wakk-n ad tennerni.
 
2. Yella weswir n daxel ay deg, γef leḥsab-iw, yessefk ad nesseγti (ad nṣ̣eḥḥeḥ) kra n leεyub yellan deg leqdicat yettwagan yagi : ur yessefk ara ad nkemmel ad nettnadi assizdeg n yiles d tukksa n wawalen ay d-yettwareḍlen seg yilsawen ibeṛṛaniyen, ur yessefk ara ad nerr deg rrif isilγen infaliyin (formations expressives) neγ iberdan n wesnulfu n wawalen imaynuten deg lmeεna, atg. Ay-n ay d-yennulfan yagi nezmer ad t-nesseqεed s umata. Nezmer daγen ad nesnerni iberdan n wesnulfu n wawalen : nezmer ad nessmed (completer) timawalin (lexiques) n tentalyin (dialectes), nezmer daγen ad d-nebnu awalen s yiẓuran imaziγen ara nesdukkel d yewṣ̣ilen (affixes) ibeṛṛaniyen (igrigiyen neγ ilatiniyen). Daγen, yessefk ad d-nawi ugar n wawalen seg tentalyin timaziγin n Ugafa [imi, uqbel, seg asnulfu n wawalen imaynuten yettseqdac aṭas tamaceγt]. Deg way-n yerzan asseqdec n wawalen imaynuten, yessefk ad asen-nessγer  i yineγmasen (imesjeṛnanen) awalen-a imaynuten yernu yessefk ad d-nessuffeγ idlisen d imaglayen (sérieux) ara zemren ad ten-afen u ad ten-γren wid ay nettsaram ad sqedcen awalen-a, atg.  
 
Tzemreḍ ad aγ-d-tiniḍ d acu-ten lecγal yezwaren ay yessefk ad ten-neg deg wenrar n tmaziγt ? Ladγa deg way-n yerzan asnulfu n wawalen imaynuten ?
 
 
Deg wenrar n tmaziγt … tuttra-a tennul aṭas aṭas n temsal. Deg way-n yerzan asseqεed n tmawalt (lexique), nekk ttwaliγ dakk-n, lemmer d lebγi, ad neḥbes ciṭṭaḥ asnulfu n wawalen, u ad neṛju ar d-taweḍ tegnit ay deg ara d-lhun yid-s wid iwatan i wanect-a. Maca ẓriγ dakk-n tikli-inu ur teddi ara d way-n yellan, imi deg tidet, iles ur yettṛaju ara.
 
Deg way-n yerzan asseqdec, ttsarameγ dakk-n wid yettseqdacen awalen imaynuten, ad ten-sqedcen kan s ttawil, ladγa imesqedcen iqbayliyen, d acu kan, ay-a yeqqen γer yal yiwen deg-neγ, ladγa wid yettarun deg tesγunin d yeγmisen akk d yineγmasen (imesjeṛnanen) : assizdeg n yiles d tukksa n wawalen ay d-yettwareḍlen seg yilsawen ibeṛṛaniyen d axeṣ̣ṣ̣ar ay as-fkan i tmaziγt …
 
Am deg wakk inurar niḍen, ay-n iḥaren netta d tamuγli γer mebεid, d ay-n ara inefεen i uzekka d slazekka ay yezwaren, u deg tegnit-a qesdeγ-d dakk-n yessefk ad d-nessebded timṣ̣ukin (structures) n leqdic d wesnerni ara iqeddcen γef tmaziγt s umata, i Yimaziγen akk-n ma llan.
 
D tadiwennit ay d-iga Saïd CHEMAKH

Paris/Montréal, Fuṛaṛ-Meγres 1995
Teffeγ-d deg Imazighen Ass-a uṭṭunen 2-3, Paris, 1995, isebtar 24-28.
Tasuqilt sγur Omar Mouffok
08/04/2007
Aru-d ay-n tettwaliḍ, ttekki deg wenmager-nneγ (forum).
 

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