Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen

Asebter n umager | Imagraden | Isalan | Imenzayen | Taftilt | Imawalen | Idlisen-nnegh | Leqdicat-nnegh | Imazighen | Lmed tamazight | English | Español | Français | Arabe | Anmager | Tabrat n Yimedyazen | Arum-agh-d | Imaslad'en | Tamesgida | Amezruy n Tiddukla

 

Tigemmi* tandalusit deg Spenyul

 

*Patrimoine

Mezquita - Tamesgida n Qurtuba

 

Amezruy (ttarix) yesdukklen Spenyul ed umaḍal (ddunit) ineslem yefka-as i Lislam amkan n leqder gar ddyanat n tmurt-a. Yuγ lḥal, γas ma yella tidyanin n 11 Meγres 2004 jjant-d ”ccwami” deg Spenyul, maca tamurt-a ay deg tteddrent ddyanat yemgerraden deg lehna, ”deg ṛṛuḥ-nni n Qurṭuba”, nezmer ad tt-neḥseb d tigzirt ay deg medden ttemqadaren u myeqbalen γas mgerraden.

 

Sγur umazun-nneγ uslig (envoyé spécial) deg Qurṭuba

 

Σecṛa n tsaεtin ay nwet deg tmacint akk-n ad nṛuḥ seg Barcelona γer Qurṭuba. Tamaneγt (capitale) taqburt n Landalus tebεed s 900 km (neγ, ma nebγa ad t-id-nini s udeqqeq, 895 km, γef wakk-n d-yeqqar wemnir) γef Barcelona, tamaneγt n Katalunya, yerna tebεed 400 km γef Madrid. D acu kan, win ara d-yerzun γef Qurṭuba, ad t-tessewhem ccbaḥa-ines, ladγa ma yella d ”Amuṛi” (Maure). Yuγ lḥal, Qurṭuba, anda ma nedda deg-s, ad nwali u ad nesriḥ deg-s rriḥa-nni n Landalus n zik.

 

Mi ara tennemḍreḍ deg tzenqatin-ines iḥeṛsen, dindin kan ad tegreḍ tamawt belli amur ameqran deg lbenyanat n temdint-a ttwabnan s tsegda (architecture) tamuṛit. Din ad twaliḍ ixxamen yessewhamen s ccbaḥa-nsen, leqṣ̣ur , iγerban-nsen ttucebbḥen u d imellalen, ur yelli deg-sen ucamiḍ n wammus, ad twaliḍ leqwas, imṛaḥen ed walmaten (jardins) icebḥen ay deg ẓẓant tṛiḥanin (myrtes), tiqarestin ed tṛemmanin, d ay-n ara k-yejjen ad tettuḍ iman-ik u ad tγileḍ la tettmerriḥeḍ deg kra n usefru n Ibn Zeydun neγ deg kra n tezlit seg tezlatin n Ziryab.

 

Mi ara tkecmeḍ γer tzenqatin-nni ad ak-yeεreq webrid u ad k-id-smektint s Teqṣ̣ebt-nneγ. Ma d imγan-nni yejjujgen u cebbḥen akk ddunit ed tezdayin-nni yegman mliḥ u ddeṛdṛent ad aγ-jjent ad nxayel iman-nneγ neqqel 5 n leqrun γer deffir, γer wasmi ay llan yinselmen deg temdint-a. Yessefk ad d-nesmekti belli Qurṭuba d amkan ay γef εeddan aṭas yiγerfan (ccuεub) u jjan-d deg-s akk lateṛ-nsen, u gar-asen nezmer ad d-nebder Ifiniqiyen, Iqerṭajiyen, Ṛṛuman, Iwisigutiyin, inselmen, ispenyuliyen ed yefṛensisen.

 

D Ṭ̣ariq U Ziyyad ay yeskecmen Lislam γer Spenyul deg 711, sakk-in, Σebdeṛṛeḥman Amenzu, yiwen seg twacult n Wumawiyen ay d-irewlen seg Dimecq, yessebded-d deg Landalus limaṛa (émirat) n Qurṭuba. Deg tallit n Σebdeṛṛeḥman wis III, deg 929, limaṛa-nni teqqel d taxlift (califat). Imir-n, tamdint n Qurṭuba, tucbiḥt gar temdinin ay d-yezgan γef wasif n Guadalquivir, teqqel d ul n wakk tamurt n Landalus, imi ay teqqel d tamaneγt (capitale) tasertit (politque) u d tamaneγt tadelsant.

 

Imir-nni, teqqel tudert n temdint-a teqqen γer tin tγerma (civilisation) tineslemt s lekmal-is. Qurṭuba, ay deg mlalent snat n tmuγliwin n ddunit (tineslemt ed tmasiḥit), tuγ deg-s tafat, yerna tafukt-ines tessaweḍ nnuṛ-ines γer wakk timura niḍen n Tuṛuft (Europe) ed ddunit. Teqqel temdint-a d axxam i tussniwin, i tẓuryin (arts) ed tfelsuft, deg-s ay d-yekker Seneca, asṭuyi-nni (stoïcien) aṛumani, u d nettat  ay d-yefkan Ibn Rucd ed yemxemmem-nni uday Musa Amaymuni. Daγen, deg Qurṭuba ay yedder Ibn Σarabi, win umi qqaren Ccix Ameqran u d yiwen seg yimeqranen n Lislam aṣ̣ufi. Γas ma yella amussnaw-a ur yelli ara seg wayt Qurṭuba, maca yeqqim deg-s acḥal u din ay yeγra γer lecyax imeqranen am Ibn Rucd.

 

Qurṭuba tuweḍ γer tqacuct-ines asmi ay bnan Tamesgida (Mezquita, neγ ljameε ameqran n temdint-a). Wa, d yiwen n lbenyan zurit yiγerban-ines yerna d netta ay tamesgida tameqrant akk deg Spenyul u d yiwen seg lbenyanat yessewhamen akk deg umaḍal (ddunit) ineslem.

 

Lehna-a n temdint n Qurṭuba ikemmel alama ay d 1236, asmi ay yemmeγ fell-as ugellid Ferdinand wis III n Castilla. Sakk-in, sdeffir ma kecmen yimasiḥiyen γer tmiwa tinselmin n Landalus, Carlos wis 5 yerra Mezquita (neγ Tamesgida) d takatidṛalt, u semman-as Santa Iglesia Catedral de Córdoba. D acu kan, ar ass-a mazal nezmer ad nḥulfu i wexlaḍ ay xelḍen yidelsan yemgerraden (yemxallafen) deg temdint n Qurṭuba, yerna aγan (style) yeggten deg temdint-a d win umi qqaren ”mudejar”.

 

Imudejaren d inselmen-nni yeqqimen deg Spenyul sdeffir n Reconquista. Dγa ay-n umi qqaren aγan amudejar (style mudéjar) d aγan-nni n lebni ay deg ara naf leqwas, timedwin, tifewwaṛin, uεbinen (mosaïques), almaten (jardins), tiwwura ireqmen, tizeγwin (salles) ed yemṛaḥen ay deg nezmer daγen ad naf tazrirt (influence) taspenyulit, tagutit (gothiques) ed tin n Tsidert (Renaissance) taγerbit.

 

 

Tasurift* taspenyulit

 

*exception

 

Win ara yerzun γef Qurṭuba, ladγa ma yella d Ineslem, ad iger daγen tamawt i yiwet n tγawsa niḍen : ismawen n yizenqan, n yegmamen (quartiers) ed waṭas n lbenyanat. ”Madinat Al Zahra”, ”Hostal Ommeyad” ed ”Alcàzar de los Reyes” banen akk d ismawen ay d-yekkan seg taεṛabt. Dγa, deg way-n yerzan Madinat Al Zahra (Tamdint n Tjejjit), nnan-aγ belli d Σebdeṛṛeḥman Amenzu ay tt-yebnan akk-n ad yerr tajmilt i tin iḥemmel, Zahra.

 

Amezruy (ttarix) n temdint-a d ameṛkanti, yerna yesskanay-d assaγ (lien) ay d-mazal yeqqen ass-a Ispenyuliyen γer Lislam ed tγerma-ines (civilisation). Ay-n ay d-tewṛet Spenyul seg Landalus yefka-as ass-a i Lislam amkan u yejja-t ad yefk aẓar deg tmurt-a ay deg mazal ddren 800.000 n yinselmen.

 

Dγa yessefk ad nger tamawt belli adabu aspenyuli yebded-asen mliḥ i Yinselmen yerna yefka-asen tilelli n ddyana d tameqrant, d ay-a ay ten-yejjan ad afen iman-nsen deg tmurt-a xir n wakk-n ufan iman-nsen deg tmura niḍen n Tuṛuft. Yagi, gar 9 ed 10 Tubeṛ n useggas-a, anabaḍ (lḥukuma) n Zapatero iga-d timlilit ay deg ttekkan medden seg lejnas yemgerraden akk-n ad ssiwlen γef tislamufubit (islamophobie), yerna ay-a yesskanay-d lebγi ay yebγa unabaḍ-a ad iεiwen inselmen.

 

Timlilit n Qurṭuba tejja-aγ ad nẓer belli inselmen ed Lislam sεan amkan s wazal-is deg Spenyul. Deg 1992, Ispenyuliyen feṛḥen s wesmekti wis 500 n wasmi ay d-ufan Tamrikt, d acu kan, Inselmen walan asmekti-a d win ay deg teγli texlift (califat) n Γernaṭa, deg 1492, tamdint taneggarut ay deg teffer tγerma tamuṛit (civilisation mauresque) deg Landalus, yerna s uγelluy-a ay ifuk umezruy n Yinselmen deg Spenyul, sdeffir ma kkan deg-s sebεa n leqrun ed wezgen.

 

Mariano Fernandez Bermejo, aneγlaf (lezwir) aspenyuli n teγdemt (justice) iga-d yiwet n lxeḍba s wazal-is deg temlilit-nni n Qurṭuba, u yebder-d deg-s ay-n iga unabaḍ (lḥukuma) aspenyuli akk-n ad yesselhu tagnit n yinselmen deg Spenyul. ”Deg 1992, nga yiwen n leεqed ed tmetti (communauté) tineslemt, am wakk-n ay t-nga ed tmettiyin tudayt ed tepṛutistanit”, ay d-yenna Bermejo. Leεqed-a, γef wakk-n d-yenna, d win iḍemnen tilelli n ddyanat i lebda deg Spenyul. ”Tilelli n ddyanat tella zik ur tesεi ara ḍḍmanat, alama ay d asmi ay d-tettwaga tmenḍawt (constitution) n 1978, sakk-in, yettwaga-d lqanun n 1980 ay yesteεṛfen s tlelli n ddayanat u teḥseb-itt d yiwet seg tγawsiwin n llsas ay deg yettalas wemdan”, ay d-yerna.

 

Ma d leεqed n 1992, γef leḥsab n Bermejo, yerza aṭas n tγawsiwin, gar-asent : timesgidiwin (lejwameε) yessefk ad tettuqader lḥeṛma-nsent, imukan n weεbad n yinselmen ur ttxelliṣ̣en ara tiwsi (impôt), imeḥbas ed yimuḍinen inselmen ad ten-εiwnen akk-n ad xedmen ddin-nsen, asteεṛef s jjwaj ineslem ed westeεṛef belli inselmen ttalasen ad meḍlen imettanen-nsen (lmeyytin) akk-n ay d-yeqqar ddin-nsen. ”Amur ameqran seg leεqed-a nerra-t-id γer lfeεl, yerna nekni nebγa, s leεqed-a, ad yeqqel Lislam ur t-ttwalin ara d ddyana n Wiyaḍ, n yemdanen yellan d ibeṛṛaniyen fell-aγ”. Bermejo yerna-d : ”Nekni nefṛeḥ u nettzuxxu s ccbaḥa n Landalus yerna neqbel-itt ama s way-n yelhan deg-s, ama s way-n n diri”.

 

 

Tizenzelt* n 11 Meγres

 

*zznezla

 

Wid yettekkan deg Wenmager (Forum) n Qurṭuba mgerraden deg leṛyuy-nsen deg way-n yerzan lateṛ ay d-jjant tenṭagin (attentats) n 11 Meγres deg Spenyul ed wamek ay iḍurr way-a tugna (image) n Yinselmen deg Tuṛuft. Mariano Fernandez Bermejo yettwali belli tinṭagin-nni n 2004, ay deg mmuten 191 n yemdanen, ur huddent ara assaγen-nni (liens) yellan gar Spenyul takaṭulit ed Lislam. ”Asmi ay d-ḍrant tenṭagin-nni, timetti (communauté) tineslemt tessummel-itent-id (dénoncer), dγa d ay-a ay yejjan Ispenyuliyen ur keṛṛhen ara Lislam γef ljal n way-n yeḍran ass-nni. Dγa medden ur ten-yeffiγ ara leεqel yerna tilelli n ddyana n Yinselmen ur teḍrura ara”. Bermejo iger-d daγen tamawt belli ”Spenyul γer-s tlatin n yiseggasen ay-a seg wasmi ay tt-tḍurr tremmiγt (rrebrab)”, u yenna-d belli ay-n yeḍran deg 11 Meγres maci d ”assenqes” ay yessenqes ussisen (lmejhud) n udabu akk-n ad iεiwen Lislam ed yinselmen, wanag yejja imḍebbren ad xemmen γef wamek ara rnun ad ten-εiwnen ugar.

 

Dγa yiwet seg tγawsiwin timeqranin akk yettwagan seg wass-nni ar ass-a nettat d ”Tamsisa n Tγermiwin” (Alliance des civilisation). Yessefk ad d-nesmekti belli ta d José Luis Zapatero ay d-yessawlen fell-as d amezwaru deg Ctembeṛ n 2004, deg Tuddsa n Yeγlanen Yeddukklen (ONU), iswi n Temsisa-a netta d tukksa n tmuγliwin-nni n diri ay sεan kra n medden γef yinselmen, yerna Tamsisa-a tebγa ad tḥaṛeb takti-nni (lfekra) n ”wemyewwat n tγermiwin” (choc des civilisations), d tamuγli n diri

ay yeddem udabu amarikani, yessedda-tt deg ddunit yerna teqqel ass-a mechuṛet.

 

”Sdeffir n tenṭagin-nni (attentats), nga ugar n wussisen (efforts), dγa nessejhed ugar asselmed γef ddyana tineslemt deg yiγerbazen (llakulat), yerna nṣ̣eggem-asen tagnit-nsen i limamat u qqlen sεan amkan ay sεan yefrusba (prêtres)” γef wakk-n d-yenna Bermejo.  

 

Nnig way-a, Bermejo iger-d daγen tamawt belli deg tgara-a, rnan yinselmen deg Spenyul imi ay rnan yiminigen ara d-yettasen γer tmurt-a. Yuγ lḥal, tamurt n Spenyul rnan deg-s medden s waṭas deg wezgen wis sin n yiseggasen n 1990. Gar 2000 ed 2005, teqqel Spenyul d tamurt wuγur la d-ttasen waṭas akk n yiminigen deg umaḍal (ddunit). Gar 2001 ed 2006, llan la d-ttawḍen azal n 600.000 n yiminigen i useggas γer tmurt-a. Ma deg 2006, Spenyul teqqel tesεa 5 n yimelyunen n yibeṛṛaniyen, anamek-ines (lmeεna-ines), 11% seg yimezdaγen n Spenyul d ibeṛṛaniyen.

 

Seg tama niḍen, adabu aspenyuli la yettxemmim γef wamek ara iεawen Lislam deg Spenyul ula s wedrim : ”Zik, Awanak (ddula) yettafk idrimen ala i Teklizt takaṭulit yerna ur yettafk ara idrimen i ddyanat niḍen. Ass-a, la nettxemmim ad nṣ̣erref idrimen akk-n ad nεiwen tawaddfa taseγnawt (intégration religieuse) u ad nesmel (promouvoir) tawaggta (pluralisme) n ddyanat”, ay d-yenna Bermejo.

 

Dγa, deg way-n yerzan ay-a, Bermejo yebder-d tarbaεt n Tawaggta ed tudert lwaḥid (Pluralisme et convivialité). Tarbaεt-a yettεawanen inselmen deg Spenyul tjemmeε-d idrimen i lmend n way-a, yerna 40% seg yedrimen-ines d Awanak (ddula) aspenyuli ay as-ten-yettafken. Yiwen seg lecγal ara d-ttheyyin ad ten-xedmen netta d aṣ̣erref n yedrimen i lmend n ussuffeγ n wedlis n uγerbaz (llakul) amaynut, d win umi semman ”Ssen Lislam”, u ad t-id-ssuffγen s tespenyulit ed taεṛabt. ”Iswi (but) n leqdic-a netta d lebni n tqenṭyar ara yejjen medden ad msiwlen, ad mciwṛen, ed lebni n tmetti (société) ara iqebblen wiyaḍ u ad ddrent deg-s trebbaε yemgerraden. Leqdic-nneγ la itteddu cwiṭ, cwiṭ γer sdat. D acu kan, ugur netta d ttawilat n uxebber ara yesseddayen yir awal γef yinselmen ed wawal ara d-qqaren kra n waggagen (intellectuels) iγerbiyen γef Lislam, wi d wid d-yettεawaden ay-n d-teqqar tmuγli-nni n ”wemyewwat n tγermiwin” (choc des civilisations). Idlisen ay yettcemmiten Lislam, lemmer ad d-ffγen u ad cemmten kra n ddyana niḍen, yiwen ur ten-iqebbel. Tuṛuft (Europe) tesεedda Tulukust (Holocauste) acku tamgelsamit (antisémitisme) teqqel d ay-n yettwaqeblen ama γer tmetti, ama γer waggagen. Ihi, ur yessefk ara ad neqbel u ad nefk lḥeqq i waggagen-a la d-yekkaten deg Lislam, maca, awal-nsen teffer deffir-s tislamufubit (islamophobie)”, ay d-yenna Bermejo.

 

Ihi, γef wakk-n nettwali, wa d ahil (programme) igerrzen i lmend n twaddfa (intégration) n yinselmen deg Spenyul, d acu kan, ahil-a mazal-it ixuṣ̣ṣ̣ deg kra n tγawsiwin. Yusuf Fernandez, aneṭṭaq n Junta Islamica, tiddukla tameqrant akk n Yinselmen n Spenyul, acḥal d tikkelt ay d-iger tiγri i yiduba (autorités) ispenyuliyen akk-n ad d-lhun ed wugur n ttesriḥat i lmend n lebni n tmesgidiwin (lejwameε) timaynutin. Γ ef wakk-n d-yenna, azal kan n xemsin n tmesgidiwin ay yellan deg  Spenyul s lekmal-is, yili deg tmurt-a ddren azal n umelyun n Yinselmen. Tiddukla n Junta Islamica tella daγen la tessuttur, deg way-n akk-a iεeddan, akk-n ad jjen Inselmen ad ttẓallan deg Mezquita n Qurṭuba, tin ay rran d takatidṛalt. Yuγ lḥal, tabeskut (épiscopat) taspenyulit tegguma ay-a. Akk-n yebγu yili, mi ifuk usarag (conférence) n Qurṭuba, gan-d ay-n umi semman ”Taseγrut n Qurṭuba” (Déclaration de Cordoue) ay deg d-yedda wawal imeεnen, d win la ineccden i wemqader ed weqbal n wiyaḍ, maci d win n tislamufubit ed wekṛah.

 

Seg El Watan n 28 Tubeṛ 2007

Sγur Mustapha Benfodil

Tasuqilt sγur Omar Mouffok
 
 

Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen
Association culturelle Imedyazen
BP 129 Poste Didouche Mourad
16006- Alger - Algérie
Tel. (+213) (0) 64 77 07 37